Polyps in the gallbladder are an overgrowth of the superficial epithelium in an organ. They are different in size, quantity. This neoplasm is considered benign. But at the same time there is a risk of transformation of cells into malignant ones, which leads to the development of cancer. This pathology is difficult to diagnose and treat, so it is very important to recognize it at an early stage. According to statistics, it is more often diagnosed in women over the age of 35. Although they can be found in both a pensioner and a teenager.
Description of the disease
A polyp in the gallbladder is, in fact, an overgrowth of its mucous membrane of a benign nature. Usually the shape of the neoplasm is round. They are small by 1-3 mm and large. Regardless of the type, this is a pathology that requires treatment.
Fact! They learned to detect this pathology back in the 30s of the last century with the advent of X-rays. Later, they began to use the ultrasound method, which means that the diagnosis has become safer.
There are several types of them, namely:
- Cholesterol. Deposits of cholesterol on the mucous membrane and walls of the bladder are often taken for it. This process is triggered by a violation of lipid metabolism. There are calcified inclusions in such neoplasms. That is why they are mistaken for polyps, they are fixed on the walls. They are often multiple.
- Inflammatory. It is also a pseudotumor like the previous type. Basically, this is how the inflammatory response manifests itself. She reveals herself in the form of proliferation of the internal tissues of the bladder.
- Adenomatous is a true polyp, benign. In 10-30% of patients with such a benign formation, degeneration into a malignant one occurs. This complication develops against the background of gallstone disease and chronic cholecystitis.
- Papilloma is also a benign neoplasm with a pedicle or a flat base. It is characterized by papillary growth on the walls of the bladder.
Most often, cholesterol is found, their treatment is possible by conservative methods, that is, without surgery. But the problem is that at the initial stages they do not manifest themselves in any way and do not disturb the person. When the overgrowth occurs, the pain sensations are strong enough.
Note! The ICD 10 code for all pathologies of the gallbladder, which include polyps, has the designation from K80 to K87.
Causes of the appearance of polyps in the gallbladder
At the moment, the specific reasons for the appearance of such neoplasms are unknown. But there are a number of factors that can trigger their occurrence. Specifically:
- Failure in the processes of fat exchange. As a result, bad cholesterol accumulates, which successfully deposits on the walls of the organ.
- Impaired coordination of the ways of excretion of bile. Moreover, problems are observed in spatial and motor functions.
- Changes in the composition of bile due to the presence of pathologies.
- Genetic factor, heredity.
Polyps are dangerous because they are “silent” about themselves for a very long time. And when they already appear, treatment without surgery is difficult. That is why it is important to be able to recognize the first signs of this pathology. There are such, far from specific symptoms:
- Pain. They are provoked by excessive stretching of the walls of the organ. Moreover, this is not done by the polyps themselves, but by bile, which, due to their presence, cannot fully depart. The nature of the pain is dull, aching, sometimes sensations are given to the right hypochondrium. There are certain factors that cause such sensations: alcohol intake, fatty foods, severe stress. Often, this obvious symptom is attributed to an error in nutrition, which, in fact, does not need to be treated.
- Yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes. This is how obstructive jaundice manifests itself, it is possible when the bile ducts are clamped by the neoplasm. When bile cannot escape in a physiological way, it seeps into the blood through the walls of the bladder. In addition to yellowness, itching, dry skin, darkening of urine, vomiting of bile masses will appear.
- Hepatic colic. Sometimes the leg of the polyp is very long. When it is twisted, hepatic colic occurs. In this case, a person feels a sharp pain of a cramping nature, heart rate increases, blood pressure rises. Changing your posture doesn’t help calm the uncomfortable feelings.
- Dyspeptic symptoms. It is expressed in: a bitter taste in the mouth, nausea in the morning and vomiting with excessive food consumption. Also, the polyp interferes with the normal process of bile production, which leads to weight loss in patients.
A huge problem is that these symptoms will not bring anyone to the hospital, because all of them are attributed to manifestations of other diseases, and even more often to improper nutrition. Although the polyps identified at this stage can be successfully cured with conservative methods and even some folk remedies.
Pathologies that provoke a polyp in the gallbladder
A small polyp (as in the photo) can cause a lot of harm, including provoking a variety of pathologies in the nearest organs. Most often, the liver and pancreas are affected. Polyps are a potential focus of infection, which gives rise to inflammation. Probable concomitant diseases:
- Dyskinesia or it is also called a spasm of the gallbladder duct. This condition often occurs in women and is tied to the menstrual cycle.
- Cholelithiasis. Those same cholesterol stones in the liver, ducts, bladder. Often the reason for this is an unbalanced menu, for example, frequent mono diets or obesity.
- Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas.
- Cholecystitis is an inflammatory process in the gallbladder.
As already mentioned, the diagnostic process is difficult, since the patient rarely comes with typical complaints at the first stages of the development of pathology. The diagnostic method is determined by the doctor, after the initial examination and questioning of the patient. Techniques used:
- Ultrasound. It makes it possible to find both single and multiple polyps on the back or front wall of the bladder. The image that appears on the monitor screen looks like a rounded neoplasm with a different echogenicity.
- Ultrasonography. The examination is carried out using a flexible endoscope. The procedure is not the most pleasant, since the device needs to be swallowed, which is difficult for many patients. This technique makes it possible to obtain more accurate results, since the image is of better quality, provided that the frequency of the sensor is high.
- MRI. This method is considered optional because not all hospitals have the necessary equipment. A huge advantage is the ability to see even the smallest polyps. Although the cost of such a study is high and many patients cannot afford it.
There are a number of laboratory diagnostic techniques, including:
- Blood chemistry.
- Analysis of urine.
- Analysis of feces.
Details about the condition in question in the video from the popular program of Elena Malysheva:
Pregnancy and polyps
It is possible to become pregnant with such a pathology and it is even possible to endure the baby. But the difficulty is that in the process of gestation there is a risk of the appearance of new polyps and a very rapid increase in old ones. That is why, if a woman is registered with polyps, they must be removed before conception. This is required, since drug treatment during gestation will be impossible.
At numerous “pregnant” forums, this issue is being raised very actively. But advice on what to do should be asked not from girlfriends, but from a doctor.
Treatment of polyps
The first step is to contact a gastroenterologist, it is he who will prescribe the necessary tests and hardware procedures to determine the type of polyps. This will determine what kind of treatment will and can be carried out.
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They are also called pseudotumors, since, in fact, these are not really polyps – but cholesterol neoplasms. In certain cases, they are successfully absorbed by bile. Such ones are often found in the form of a mesh of the smallest neoplasms 1-2 mm in size, sometimes reaching 4 mm. Therapy is carried out with certain medications that help get rid of polyps and stop their growth. More specifically:
- “Urosofalk”. Helps break down cholesterol.
- “Simvastatin”. Reduces the concentration in the blood.
- “Ursosan”. Helps eliminate cholesterol stones, but only if the gallbladder has not lost its functionality.
- Holyver. Helps in establishing the production of bile, participates in the elimination of stagnation.
Important! Conservative treatment is possible only until the polyp has reached a size of 10 mm: 7, 8, 9 you can still try to treat it with medications, including if the neoplasm is avascular. But he needs constant supervision.
An operation cannot be done if the polyp has grown to 10 mm, according to doctors, this is the only effective method to get rid of a dangerous neoplasm. Removal is also necessary if the polyp is growing rather than remaining stable in size.
Important! The examination is necessary if the size of the polyp is less than 10mm. It is held regularly, every six months. If there is an increase, then the therapy is excision. Rapid growth is defined if the increase occurs by more than 2 mm per year.
The actual removal operation is called cholecystectomy. If there is no inflammation, then the procedure is performed through an endoscope. Microcameras and tubes are inserted through small incisions in the abdomen and into the abdominal cavity. The excision is done with very small instruments. Recovery is possible very quickly. There are also other surgical techniques, regardless of the method used, the gallbladder is removed.
Before the operation, certain preparation is needed, which is manifested in:
- Do not consume foods and medicines that thin the blood.
- In the evening before the operation, cleanse the intestines with an enema.
- On the day of the operation, do not even eat or drink water.
- Before the operation itself, carry out hygiene procedures.
Life After Removal: Eating Habits
Removal of the gallbladder is a relief from the problem of polyps and related pathological conditions. Of course, this condition is not absolutely normal, but you can live without this organ. After such treatment, you need a certain diet. Its basic rules:
- There is only boiled or steamed food.
- Food should be consumed in small pieces, chewed thoroughly.
- Reduce portions of food, it is better to eat more often, but in small portions.
Such a strict diet is needed for 6 months, then you can include in the diet: vegetables and fruits, lean meat and fish. After 1-1,5 years, you can add onions, garlic, lemons, sour berries, pineapples.
More or less stable nutrition is possible 2 years after removal. That is, if the operation took place in 2016, then almost everything can be eaten only in 2018. At the same time, refractory fats are excluded from the diet until the end of life.
If the pathology is diagnosed at the initial stage, which does not happen often, it is possible to use traditional medicine, not conspiracies or prayers are meant. Herbs, in particular celandine, help against polyps. The herb is brewed in a thermos overnight. Next, filter and take orally 30 minutes before meals in a volume of 2 tablespoons. You can also give enemas with diluted plant sap.
There are a number of other folk methods, but their implementation is possible only after consulting a doctor. In addition, they are quite lengthy in terms of achieving results. This can lead to the growth of the polyp and it will already have to be removed only through an operation, so you shouldn’t experiment on yourself.
There are a number of preventive measures that can help prevent polyps from developing. Among them:
- Regular ultrasound of the abdominal organs. Frequency – 1-2 times a year.
- Proper nutrition, which will help normalize fat metabolism.
- Exclusion and/or timely treatment of diseases such as gastritis, pancreatitis, ulcers.
- An active lifestyle, walks in the fresh air. It helps to normalize metabolism.
Gallbladder polyps are a problem that anyone can face. The complexity of the disease is that it is difficult to diagnose and treat. If you do not carry out timely therapy, you cannot do without surgery to remove the neoplasm, and with it the gallbladder. This will have certain consequences for later life.