Today, diseases of the genitourinary system are one of the most common pathologies. Hematuria in men is no exception, the reasons for which can be very diverse.
What it is?
Hematuria is a condition in which red blood cells – erythrocytes – are found in the urine. With serious problems, the urine takes on a pronounced pink or reddish-brown color, but in the initial stages of the disease, urine may look quite normal. The disease manifests itself not only in the male half of the population, hematuria in children and hematuria during pregnancy are also known in medical practice.
The mechanism of development of hematuria is well understood. The development of the disease is based on three processes:
- an increase in the permeability of the membrane of the glomerular capillaries,
- destruction of small capillaries of the glomeruli of the kidneys,
- violation of the integrity of the vessel wall, in which the formation of secondary urine occurs.
In order to accurately establish the cause of the disease, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis and collect a complete history.
Disease development factors
First of all, it is important to note that there are two types of hematuria:
- Microhematuria. This disease can only be detected by microscopic and laboratory studies, since urine does not have a characteristic staining.
- Macrohematuria. It can be established visually, since urine has a specific pink-red color.
In this regard, hematuria in men has the following reasons:
- Urolithiasis disease. In this case, a metabolic disorder occurs, which leads to the deposition of salts in the urinary tract that cannot be dissolved. The resulting stones damage mucous membranes, blood vessels and organ walls. As a result, hematuria may develop.
- Trauma to the organs of the urinary system. Hematuria, both in a child and in an adult, can be the result of mechanical damage to tissues and organs.
- Glomerulonephritis. This pathological process is characterized by damage to the renal glomeruli and is a consequence of the penetration of streptococcal infection into them. Ultimately, the blood vessels of the glomeruli become permeable and red blood cells are released into the urine. Most often, glomerulonephritis is the cause of gross hematuria, which any specialist can visually determine.
- Pyelonephritis. This is another disease of the urinary tract of an infectious nature, which leads to the appearance of blood cells in the urine. It is characterized by inflammatory processes in the renal pelvis and impaired urine outflow. The causative agent is usually Escherichia coli.
- Disorders in the blood coagulation system. Any impact on the blood vessel wall that damages them can cause bleeding and red blood cells in the urine.
- Cystitis. More often women suffer from this disease than men. The advanced stages of cystitis, in which the spread of inflammation occurs, can also be accompanied by hematuria.
- Neoplasms of any etiology. Tumors located in the organs of the urinary system often lead to damage to their tissues and blood vessels. As a result, hematuria is often manifested.
- Urethritis. This is a disease characterized by damage and disruption of the integrity of the mucous membrane of the urethra. At the same time, during urination there is a burning sensation, pain, and blood is released.
- Disorders of the vessels of the kidneys. Any pathological process associated with varicose veins, thrombus formation or narrowing of the lumen of the vessels of the kidneys can provoke hemorrhage and the development of hematuria.
- Prostatitis. Inflammation of the prostate in an advanced stage can cause bleeding along with urine in men.
- Medications. Antibiotics and medications to thin the blood and remove blood clots can also cause hematuria in men and women.
- Hereditary diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract.
It is important to understand that hematuria is not an isolated disease, it is one of the symptoms of complex pathological processes. In order to prevent the further development of hematuria in time, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis.
To accurately establish the cause of the development of hematuria and the appointment of further treatment, a diagnosis is carried out, which includes the following measures:
- general urine analysis: the density of urine, its color and transparency are determined,
- a general blood test: will eliminate anemia and identify inflammatory processes,
- assessment of daily urine volume,
- biochemistry blood test: determination of the level of urea, creatine, potassium and sodium,
- urine analysis according to the Nechiporenko method,
- X-ray examination for urolithiasis to establish the localization of stones,
- Ultrasound of the urinary system,
- Ultrasound with the Doppler effect: allows you to assess the state of the vessels of the kidneys, the speed of blood flow in them and exclude the corresponding pathologies,
- bacteriological analysis: prescribed to exclude the infectious origin of hematuria.
It is such an integrated approach that will make it possible to timely establish the cause of blood excretion in the urine, prescribe the necessary treatment and prevent further development of pathological processes.
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