Blood Pressure Reducing Drugs

The increase in pressure occurs in almost all people after 45 years. In this case, hypertension is diagnosed, which is not completely treated, but you can keep the pressure within normal limits with the help of medications. Drugs for lowering blood pressure can reduce the risks of developing hypertensive crises, which often cause stroke, heart attack, and death.

Drug Groups

In medicine, various schemes for the medical treatment of hypertension are used. One option is monotherapy, when patients take pills from the same group. Such treatment is effective at the beginning of the development of the disease. At the later stages of hypertension, it is more effective to use a combined treatment regimen, which includes the use of tablets immediately from 2-3 groups.

With constantly high blood pressure, medications must be used regularly, but it must be taken into account that the body will get used to medications over time, therefore, for the stabilization and lasting result, a periodic replacement of medications is carried out. The choice of treatment regimen and medication can only be done by a doctor.

Patients should know that medicines can be of different actions:

  1. Quick.
  2. Prolonged.

In addition, different groups of tablets have different effects on internal organs and systems, so the pressure is reduced in different ways. Based on this, treatment is always prescribed individually, because for one patient, pills can give results, and for another, the effectiveness will become minimal and even worsen the condition. In addition to reducing pressure, it is important to influence the very cause of the jumps.

Among the possible groups of drugs for hypertension are:

  1. Beta-blockers – reduce the activity of cardiac receptors, decreases the frequency of contractions of the heart, as well as their strength. It is forb />Sympatholytics – stops the negative influence of the nervous system, destroys norepinephrine.
  2. Diuretics – they are also diuretic drugs that allow you to get rid of excess body fluid, stabilize blood pressure and relieve swelling.
  3. Alpha stimulants – often used for hypertensive crises, quickly reduce blood pressure, but can cause a number of side effects.
  4. ACE inhibitors are one of the main drugs for hypertension, they stop the influence of enzymes and do not allow pressure to increase.
  5. Sartans – allow you to block the appearance of angiotensin receptors in the vascular system. Appointed to reduce the upper and lower pressure. Almost no effect on the work of the heart.

The described groups of medicines are used to treat hypertension in any form, at any stage of development. When choosing groups, doctors take into account several main factors:

  1. The degree of hypertension.
  2. Age.
  3. Diseases of a chronic form.
  4. Personal characteristics of the patient.

The described factors make it possible to determine the treatment regimen, dosage, course and combination of tablets.

The most effective drugs

You can highlight the most effective pills for hypertension. Each drug may have a different name, depending on the manufacturer, but international products are:

  1. Losartan.
  2. Valsartan.
  3. Indapamide.
  4. Enalapril
  5. Captopril.
  6. Nifedipine.
  7. Lisinopril.
  8. Verapamil.
  9. Amlodipine.
  10. Metoprolol.
  11. Diltiazem.

The list is quite large, but each of the means has a different effect on the body. Among the described drugs, there are those that act quickly, and also have a prolonged effect.

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Quick acting drugs

To quickly lower the pressure, doctors recommend using:

If the pressure rises sharply, then the described drugs must be drunk correctly. The tablet is placed under the tongue, you can use ½ of the drug and just dissolves. This use is suitable for captopril. The pressure indicators are normalized within half an hour, but the effect is not very long, so you need to take the medicine 2-3 times a day.

Furosemide is a diuretic that quickly begins to act. Within an hour, frequent urination appears, the duration of which lasts up to 6 hours. Due to the release of fluid, the pressure decreases, the amount of circulated blood decreases.

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Long acting drugs

Long-acting pressure stabilizing drugs are:

  1. Metoprolol.
  2. Diroton.
  3. Losartan.
  4. Bisoprolol.

This list can be continued, but everyone will have a lasting effect and drugs are used for the convenience of treatment. Such funds can be drunk 1-2 times a day, which is very convenient during treatment. The use of tablets is indicated for life. The described drugs are often used for combination and are prescribed by doctors for hypertension of 2-3 degrees. After use, the effect accumulates, for a lasting result, you need to drink pills in a course of 3 weeks. If the pressure immediately decreases, then medicines must be continued to be drunk.

Top pressure pills

All medicines that can normalize systolic blood pressure have a pronounced antihypertensive effect. These are not only pressure-reducing components, but also means to reduce pathologies of the heart and blood vessels. The main group of drugs for high upper pressure are calcium channel blockers:

For the treatment of hypertension, a combination with diuretics is possible. Doctors often use this combination for senile patients. In addition, medications are the prevention of atherosclerosis.

Low pressure tablets

Beta-blockers, as well as ACE inhibitors, are often used to stabilize the diastolic index. The combination of Anaprilin and Captopril is often used. Another possibility is the use of a group of calcium channels and angiotensin blockers, diuretics. If the tablets are chosen correctly, then therapy and lowering of the lower pressure can normalize the work of the vascular system, reduces the risks of complications.

As a rule, with a constant high low rate, patient pressure is sent to the hospital for inpatient treatment, after which a course of drug treatment is selected.

Review of modern drugs for hypertension

Modern tablets on the market are on the sick list. Each drug has a different effect, cost and number of side effects. To take any remedy for hypertension, it is only necessary on the recommendation and prescription of a doctor, otherwise you can aggravate the situation, and the pressure may begin to increase.

This drug belongs to the group of sartans. The essence of its action is to save patients from a strong narrowing of the vessels, which occurs due to angiotensin II. A substance of increased activity, appears as a result of renin excretion by the kidneys. Losartan makes it possible to block receptors, due to which the vessels do not narrow.

After the first use of tablets, a lowering effect of both the upper and lower indicators is observed. The highest point of activity of the drug falls 6 hours after consumption, but the effectiveness persists for a day, after which it is necessary to take the pill again.

To obtain a lasting effect, stable normalization of pressure, you will need to use a medicine from 3 to 6 weeks. You can drink losartan for hypertension with diabetes, as well as damage to blood vessels, kidneys.

The main advantages of the tool:

  1. Explicit and lasting effect.
  2. Excellent human tolerance.
  3. The minimum number of side effects.
  4. Tablets are convenient to use, because they need to be taken once a day, and for the durability of the effect, doctors can increase the dosage of the active substance. Therapy begins with 50 mg and rises to 100 mg.
  1. High cost when compared with other medicines for hypertension.
  2. There may be undesirable consequences in the form of headaches, dizziness, dry mucous membranes, weaknesses in the body. Such manifestations occur in 2% of patients.

You can replace losartan with some analogues, which include:

There are other pills from the group of sartans, for example, Valsartan, but the rest of the drugs are less effective, their effect is not so long, and for the durability of the effect it may take longer. In practice, losartan shows positive results even in advanced forms of hypertension with some complications.

Lisinopril

These tablets are part of the ACE inhibitor group, after using the drug, the effect appears after an hour, and over 6 hours the effectiveness increases to the maximum limit and lasts up to a day. Tablets are used for continuous use, have a cumulative effect. A daily dose intake of 5-40 mg is allowed, depending on the condition of the patient and the degree of hypertension. The medicine is taken once a day in the morning. During treatment, patients notice the result a few days after administration.

The main advantages of Lisinopril:

  1. Stable pressure maintenance within normal limits.
  2. High efficiency from treatment for heart failure, the load on the muscles is reduced.
  3. Ideal for patients who have had a heart attack, and hypertension is severe.
  4. You can use pills for diabetes.

Among the shortcomings, only side effects are distinguished, but they appear quite rarely:

  1. Dry mouth.
  2. Cough.
  3. Pressure reduction below the permissible norm.
  4. Increased sweat.
  5. Dizziness.
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There are many analogues, but their effectiveness is lower, although doctors select drugs individually.

Rengipril GT

Pressure-reducing pills belong to the group of combined medicines, and the composition includes:

  1. Enalapril
  2. Maleate.
  3. Hydrochlorothiazide.

In such a tandem, the means allow you to get a clear hypotensive effect. Combined drugs are much better than using each drug individually. Normalization and pressure reduction are carried out gently, while potassium does not leave the body.

Advantages of Rengipril GT are:

  1. Maximum efficiency.
  2. Excellent tolerance in patients with hypertension.
  3. The effect after consumption appears within 2 hours after administration and persists for a whole day.
  4. The work of the muscles of the heart improves.

The disadvantages of tablets include only contraindications:

  1. Individual intolerance to active substances and allergies to them.
  2. Pregnancy.
  3. Addison’s disease.
  4. Stenosis of the arteries of the kidneys.

Combination drugs began to be used for hypertension not so long ago, but they show excellent results during therapy.

One of the most famous and popular tablets for hypertension, are included in the group of ACE inhibitors. They are often used in emergency cases, they can get rid of symptoms and reduce pressure during crises. For long-term use, tablets are not recommended, especially in old age with diagnosed cerebral arteriosclerosis. In this case, a sharp decrease in pressure is possible up to fainting. For therapy, captopril can be combined with other medicines, but only on the recommendation of a doctor.

The main advantages of the medicine:

  1. Quick pressure stabilization.
  2. Improving the flow of blood and oxygen to the muscles of the heart.
  3. Prevents blood clots.
  4. With prolonged consumption, the possibility of myocardial hypertrophy is reduced.
  5. Low cost.

It is forbidden to use captopril in such cases:

  1. Stenosis of the aorta.
  2. Kidney transplant
  3. Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  4. Myocardiopathy

After consumption, some side effects may occur:

  1. My head is spinning.
  2. The heartbeat intensifies.
  3. Pressure decreases more than normal.

The main disadvantage is the frequent consumption of tablets, which can be up to 4 times a day.

The medicine refers to diuretics that can normalize blood pressure. It is recommended to use for the complex treatment of hypertension with the use of the minimum dose so that there is no bright diuretic effect. When using such a drug, one should not expect a strong diuretic effect, but the pressure will decrease. The action of the tablet is prolonged and lasts up to a day.

The advantages of Indapamide are as follows:

  1. It is convenient to use, because you need to drink a tablet before meals every morning.
  2. It is considered the safest medicine for hypertension.
  3. It does not harm patients with endocrine pathologies.
  4. It has a minimal amount of side effects, due to which it can be used by any patient.
  5. Reasonable cost.

It is forbidden to use indapamide in patients who are diagnosed with severe renal failure, liver failure or intolerance to the active substance.

Veroshpiron

Medication refers to diuretics, but preserves potassium in the body. Use the tablet 1-4 times a day. The diuretic effect is pronounced, but due to the preservation of potassium, the heart does not worsen. You can not use the tablets yourself, so they are prescribed in a combination treatment. Following the dose and treatment regimen, Veroshpiron will not cause side effects. With prolonged use, hormonal disruptions and the appearance of impotence are possible.

In modern medicine, combination drugs are increasingly being used. This makes it possible not to combine tablets of different groups, and patients will need to take only 1 tablet per day. In combination medicines, there are already several active substances from different pharmacological groups.

There are a lot of medications for hypertension, and if a pathology of 2-3 degrees is diagnosed, then you need to use them constantly, which allows you to keep the pressure within normal limits. The selection of drugs is carried out exclusively by the doctor and a separate scheme is selected for each patient. If the effectiveness of therapy is low, then the doctor adjusts the dose or changes the tablets.

Prevention

To prevent the appearance of hypertension, as well as for the effectiveness of treatment, it is important to use preventive measures. The main reasons for the increase in pressure are:

  1. An unbalanced diet and malnutrition in general.
  2. Lack of activity, typical for people with sedentary work.
  3. Obesity.
  4. Bad habits.
  5. Constant physical and emotional stress.
  6. Frequent stress.

Given the reasons described, it is necessary to correct them, change the way of life, move more, play sports. With hypertension, the menu is necessarily adjusted, which includes more plant and sour-milk products, and the consumption of salt and junk food is reduced. To strengthen the immune system, vitamins must be taken, especially in which there is a lot of potassium, magnesium.

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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