Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia occurs against the background of the following mechanisms of abnormal heart rhythm formation:
- repeated (reciprocal) impulse entry into the same section of the heart muscle (re-entry);
- the formation of a trigger rhythm in violation of the processes of repolarization of the heart chambers;
- the presence of ectopic foci that affect the automatism of cardiac activity.
The main causes of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia include:
- congenital malformations of the heart with defects in the conduction system;
- neurocirculatory dystonia in adolescence;
- head injuries with impaired cerebral function;
- severe cardiac pathology (angina pectoris, heart attack, cardiomyopathy);
- heart surgery;
- arterial hypertension;
- diseases of internal organs (liver, kidneys, lungs);
- heavily leaking menopause;
- overdose or drug poisoning.
Of great importance for the occurrence of an episode of atrial tachycardia are provocative factors:
- stressful situation;
- severe respiratory infection;
- improper medication;
- violation of the diet with a sharp decrease in potassium in the blood;
- the use of spirits;
- lack of oxygen (stuffy room).
Accurate identification of the causes of paroxysm of supraventricular tachycardia will help to diagnose and begin effective treatment of the disease.
Paroxysmal activity of the heart occurs due to pathologies of the nervous system or organic damage. In the first case, with paroxysmal tachycardia, nerve stimulation of the heart muscle occurs. Its mechanism is as follows: a pathogenic focus of excitation occurs, which causes abnormal myocardial activity.
Organic causes of the disease:
- damage to the heart muscle, conduction of the heart pathways that occur with heart attack, ischemia, heart disease, myocarditis and cardiopathy;
- Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome and other diseases in which additional routes appear;
- cardiac pathologies, structural features of the heart: additional chords, adhesions, mitral valve prolapse.
Paroxysmal tachycardia and extrasystole can appear in healthy people, under the influence of pathogenic factors, with prolonged intense exertion, severe stress. All these reasons are called extracardiac. These include bad habits – such as smoking, alcohol abuse, love of foods containing excess caffeine.
- disorders in the work of the kidneys;
- chronic and acute lung diseases;
- pathology of the digestive tract.
The causes of the development of pathology are divided into cardiac and extracardiac. To heart include:
- Congenital malformations and abnormalities of the structure of the heart and its conducting system, formed in utero.
- Acquired changes in the structure of the heart;
- Heart failure;
- Cardiomyopathy, myocarditis and other cardiological diseases proper.
Due to the close functional relationship of the cardiovascular system with regulatory systems and respiratory organs, tachycardia often develops against the background of the following extracardiac processes:
- Diseases of the bronchi and lungs;
- Embolism of the lungs;
- Disorders of the autonomic nervous system;
- Endocrine pathologies, in particular hyperthyro >
Etiologically paroxysmal tachycardia is close to extrasystole, and supraventricular pathologies are often caused by abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Ventricular forms of pathology are associated with organic myocardial lesions of a sclerotic, inflammatory, dystrophic, or necrotic nature.
One of the key prerequisites for the development of paroxysmal tachycardia is the presence of additional pathways in the myocardium. This can be congenital anomalies or reactive changes due to myocardial infarction, myocarditis, or against the background of cardiomyopathy. Additional ways of conducting provide the possibility of pathological circulation of the excitation pulse in the myocardium.
In the atrioventricular node, longitudinal dissociation, a particular violation of the coordination of the functioning of the fibers of the conducting system, can develop. Part of the conducting system continues to work without deviations, another conducts an excitation pulse in the retrograde direction, which is the basis of the pathological circulation of excitation between the atria and ventricles.
Neurogenic forms of paroxysmal tachycardia develop against the background of a reactive increase in sympathoadrenal activity caused by strong or prolonged psychoemotional stresses, which provokes pathological activation of ectopic foci of excitation.
In children and adolescents there is the so-called idiopathic or essential paroxysmal tachycardia, the causes of which cannot be ascertained for certain.
The development of paroxysms is observed as a result of pathologies of the nervous system and organic heart lesions. The first problem causes seizures by nerve stimulation of the heart muscle. A pathogenic focus develops, causing abnormal myocardial activity. The heart rhythm is disturbed, and untimely contractions of the organ periodically appear.
Organic causes that can cause arrhythmia include:
- Heart attacks, coronary heart disease, myocarditis and cardiomyopathies that damage the heart muscle and pathways.
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Согласно статистическим данным, прогноз при наджелудочковая тахикардии является более благоприятным, нежели при желудочковой. Не стоит исключать риск осложнений.
Это заболевание является индивидуальным, и требует консультации квалифицированного врача, который подберет лечение.
Самостоятельное употребление лекарственных средств может повлечь осложнения.
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