Lipidogram what kind of analysis is this, the norm of indicators in adults and children, the

The lipid profile is sensitive to many external factors. For example, if on the eve of the analysis a person walked well at a friend’s birthday, the level of lipids will be predicted to be increased. To get adequate results before submitting a lipid profile, you must:

  • 1-2 weeks do not break the usual diet;
  • donate blood in the morning on an empty stomach from 8 to 10 hours;
  • observe a hungry diet for 12-14 hours. You can only drink water;
  • a day before the lipid profile, do not abuse fatty foods, refrain from alcohol;
  • an hour before blood sampling, do not smoke, avoid physical, emotional stress;
  • take a sitting position immediately before blood sampling.

There are certain indications for carrying out a lipid profile, but of course, anyone who wants to verify their health can receive a referral to such an analysis to check their cholesterol and lipids.

Among the indications for lipidograms can be called:

  • The presence of hypothyro />Angina pectoris.
  • The presence of diabetes mellitus, both the first and second type.
  • Nephrotic syndrome.
  • The presence of pancreatitis, especially if the disease is chronic.
  • Sepsis.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Glomerulonephritis.
  • Diseases of the pancreas, in particular its cancer.
  • Chronic form of renal failure.
  • Anorexia.
  • Gout.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Numerous burns.
  • Obesity.
  • Taking oral hormonal contraception for a long time.
  • Myeloma disease.
  • Megaloblastic type anemia.
  • Intoxication of an alcoholic nature, including having a chronic course.

To obtain reliable lipid profile results, you should donate blood after some preparation and, observing the rules of the procedure.

It is very important to come for blood sampling on lipids early in the morning and strictly on an empty stomach, observing the interval between the last meal and the procedure for at least 8, and preferably 10 hours.

The day before the procedure, it is necessary to limit physical activity, avoid stress and anxiety. You should give up alcohol and smoking.

No diet is required, it is important to eat in the coming days before the procedure the same as usual, since the diagnosis of ailments requires real indications of cholesterol and lipids, so you should not try to specifically lower or overestimate them with the help of products.

Lipidoramm is usually prescribed in the following cases:

  • overweight, age;
  • hereditary factors (diseases of the cardiovascular system in close relatives);
  • diseases requiring cholesterol control;
  • smoking, inactive lifestyle;
  • during preventive examinations;
  • to control therapy;

Preparation before passing the analysis to the lipid spectrum is no different from the standard for any biochemical analysis fence:

  • in the morning, on an empty stomach;
  • exclude excessive physical activity the day before the analysis;
  • do not consume alcohol and heavy food per day;
  • the last meal on the eve – no later than eight hours;
  • exclude smoking and emotional stress in an hour;

Causes of lipid spectrum changes

The term “lipid profile”, in view of the huge number of sources, is interpreted differently. Nevertheless, medical professional circles most accurately determine the lipid profile by a biochemical blood test, in which the state of fat metabolism is determined by the concentration determination method:

  • Total cholesterol (cholesterol).
  • Lipoprotein fractions.
  • Triglycerides.
  • Molecular complexes containing fats, fat-like substances.
  • CA – coefficient of atherogenicity.

The lipid spectrum and its condition is one of the indicators of health, since fats and fatty compounds are an integral component of human cells and tissues.

In order not to lose energy during meals, with the activity of the muscular system, as well as to ensure the fullness of the vital processes of the whole organism during rest, sleep and other states of rest, lipids and their participation in all stages of the vital activity of the body are necessary.

Fat metabolism consists of several interconnected processes:

  • Absorption of fats received with food in the gastrointestinal tract after preliminary cleavage and digestion.
  • The transfer of lipids into the intestine with the assistance of chylomicrons.
  • The triggering of the metabolism of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol.
  • The interaction of fatty acids and ketone bodies.
  • Lipogenesis
  • The breakdown of fats.
  • The breakdown of fatty acids.

Due to the safety of such processes, all lipid functions are performed.

Like all structural units of cells and tissues, fats have clearly defined functions:

  • Structural – a mandatory part of cell membranes, especially neurons, since brain cells are not able to fully perform their functions without fats.
  • Regulatory – includes the composition of vitamins, hormones, take an active part in the passage of neural transmission.
  • Transport – thanks to lipoproteins, active substances are transported throughout the body.
  • Protective – every human organ is surrounded by adipose tissue, which protects them from external negative influences.
  • Supporting – since adipose tissue surrounds the base of plexuses of vessels and nerves, the spaces between nerves and vessels are filled with adipose tissue.
  • Energy – accumulated energy of adipose tissue during oxidative reactions is at least twice that which is released by carbohydrates and proteins.
  • Thermoregulatory – preserves the body when exposed to low temperatures from hypothermia.
  • Trophic – a large number of active substances, for example, vitamins, are not able to be absorbed without the presence of lipids.
  • Reproductive – the stable activity of the human reproductive system cannot be carried out without lipids, since without their participation the absorption of minerals and other substances from the intestine into the blood is disturbed.

Violation of fat metabolism is fraught with many pathologies. To do this, you need to know what exactly each indicator of lipid analysis means.

Each indicator of such an analysis carries important information about the state of human health, the prognosis and allows you to determine further tactics of patient management.

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Cholesterol

It is an organic compound. By its nature, it refers to lipophilic alcohols. It is a component of all cell membranes.

In the human body is the starting material for the synthesis of sex hormones, corticosteroids, vitamin D, bile acids.

The formation of total cholesterol mainly occurs in the liver. Absorbed in the intestine, then enters the bloodstream. For its transfer, the participation of protein-lipid compounds – lipoproteins, which consist of:

The number of such complexes and the level of cholesterol in them is reflected in its density. The more it is in such compounds, the lower its density becomes.

It is by this characteristic that all lipoproteins are divided into the following types:

  • LDL – low density lipoproteins.
  • VLDL – very low density lipoproteins.
  • HDL – high density lipoproteins.

The most atherogenic type is lipoprotein. It contains approximately 70% cholesterol. It is synthesized in the liver from VLDL.

The main function is the transfer of cholesterol to various tissues and organs. The concentration of total cholesterol is affected exactly by that contained in LDL. With its increase, such complexes accumulate on the walls of blood vessels.

One of the “bad” abilities of LDL is that, having small sizes, they freely pass through the endothelial barrier of blood vessels, penetrate into the walls of blood vessels of any caliber.

In addition, only cholesterol contained in LDL is deposited in the blood vessels and is practically not excreted due to the presence of a large number of receptors, with which it is firmly attached to the vascular wall.

Also refers to atherogenic types of lipids and is synthesized in the liver. VLDL contains 10% cholesterol.

Almost the entire composition of very low density lipoproteins is occupied by triglycerides, to a lesser extent cholesterol, which is distinguished by its aggressiveness with respect to the walls of blood vessels.

It is VLDL that are the precursors of the most dangerous low-density lipoprotein.

The most “useful” type of lipoproteins, which is also formed in the liver and contains up to 20% cholesterol.

The main function of such compounds is antiatherogenic.

Due to the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, it is further utilized from the body with bile.

Normal levels of high density lipoproteins prevent vascular damage, and also destroy the accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids on the walls of blood vessels and effectively reduce the risk of clogging of blood vessels.

Triglycerides

One of the most important sources of energy for the body. It is formed in the liver and intestines.

Triglycerides that enter the bloodstream are in complex with lipoproteins and are thus carried to organs and tissues. Lipoproteins of very low density are most involved in the transport of triglycerides.

An excessive amount of TG is subject to accumulation in adipose tissue, which subsequently leads to the development of primarily vascular diseases.

This indicator is calculated based on the levels of the obtained cholesterol and lip >

The indicated coefficient reflects the risk of developing atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels and the heart.

In order to understand the dynamics of changes in such indicators, it is necessary to know the normal indicators of all elements of the lipid profile.

Deciphering a lipid profile requires not only knowledge of the norm, but also age-related changes.

Normal lipid profile for adults and children are different for each indicator:

  1. Cholesterol:
    • Children under 14 years old – 1,3 – 5,2 mmol / l
    • Adults – 3,4 – 5,4 mmol / L
  2. HDL:
    • Children under 14 years old – 0,9 – 1,9 mmol / l
    • Adults – 1,03 – 1,55 mmol / L
  3. LDL:
    • Children under 14 years old – 1,6 – 3,6 mmol / l
    • Adults – 1,71 – 3,6 mmol / L
  4. VLDLP:
    • Children under 14 years old – 0,13 – 1,63 mmol / l
    • Adults – 0,13 – 1,63 mmol / L
  5. Triglycerides:
    • Children under 14 years old – 0,3 – 1,4 mmol / l
    • Adults – 0 – 2,25 mmol / L
  6. Atherogenic coefficient. Normally, it should not exceed 3. The higher the indicator, the more pronounced is the progression of vascular disease and the risk of complications.

Just because lipid analysis is not carried out. For this, there are certain markers for which a blood lipid profile is necessary.

Violation of fat metabolism in the body is manifested by a change in its markers in the blood. Indicators reflecting the state of lipid metabolism can vary in different directions for various reasons. One of the main signs that attention is paid to is cholesterol, changes in the levels of which entail changes in the indicators of lipoprotein fractions.

Lowering total cholesterol in the blood happens in such cases:

  • Diseases of the lung tissue.
  • Burn disease.
  • Malignant neoplasms.
  • Thyrotoxicosis.
  • Starvation, debilitating diets.
  • Severe infectious diseases.
  • Generalized sepsis.

A separate line is the decrease in HDL, which indicates the rapid development of atherosclerotic lesions of the body and the risk of acute coronary syndrome.

Increased cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions indicate:

  • Coronary heart disease.
  • The risk of heart attack.
  • Hereditary (familial) hyperlipidemia.
  • Vascular diseases.
  • Risk of stroke.
  • Hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Urinary system diseases.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Pathology of the pancreas.
  • Obesity.
  • Pregnancy – in this case, the process is physiological.

Attention. The most important lipid data are for the cardiovascular system.

Traditionally, five indicators are included in the study of lipidograms:

Total cholesterol (cholesterol) is the most important number in the lipid profile. Cholesterol is divided into endogenous (synthesized by the body, mainly in the liver cells) and exogenous (coming from the outside, mainly with food).

Participates in the formation of all tissues and cell membranes of the body, promotes the absorption of nutrients, a precursor to growth hormones responsible for puberty and overall development of the body.

High density lipoproteins (HDL, alpha-cholesterol, “good” cholesterol) are anti-atherogenic factors. Its main task is the transportation of free cholesterol from cells.

HDL remove it into the liver cells, from which, if everything is in order with the fat metabolism, it is eliminated from the body through fatty acids.

Low density lipoproteins (LDL, beta-cholesterol, “bad” cholesterol) – this indicator is considered to be more atherogenic.

Even with a normal level of total cholesterol, elevated LDL indicates a violation of fat metabolism and the risk of atherosclerosis.

This is due to the fact that lipoproteins of this species are able to linger on the walls of blood vessels, which leads to the formation of plaques.

The percentage of plasma LDL in total cholesterol is approximately 65%.

Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) – Some medical laboratories use this indicator to decode lipid profiles. But to date, there are no reliable studies confirming the need to diagnose VLDL levels to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease and prescribe therapy.

This indicator is relevant in the case of a rare form of dyslipidemia or, as an option, instead of the LDL indicator, if the analysis takes place without refusing to eat.

Triglycerides (TG) – in plasma are represented in small quantities, mainly accumulate in adipose tissues. They are a compound of glycerol and a fatty acid ester.

The main function is energy. In the blood, they are presented as part of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins), which, in turn, are converted to LDL, so it is important to control this indicator.

Atherogenicity coefficient (KA) – this indicator is not obtained by direct examination of a blood test, but is calculated from all other indicators. This is done in order to calculate the ratio of atherogenic to antiatherogenic factors.

Usually, a formula is used for this, where the difference in total cholesterol and HDL is divided by HDL. The higher the ratio, the higher the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Triglycerides

How to take a blood test for cholesterol?

To determine the lipid profile, blood from a vein taken in the morning on an empty stomach is used. Preparation for the analysis is usual – abstinence from food for 6-8 hours, avoidance of physical activity and heavy fatty foods. Determination of total cholesterol is carried out by the unified international method of Abel or Ilk. The determination of fractions is carried out by the methods of deposition and photometry, which are quite laborious, but accurate, specific and quite sensitive.

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The author warns that the norm indicators are averaged, and may vary in each laboratory. The article material should be used as a reference and should not be attempted to independently diagnose and begin treatment. Lipidogram – what is it? Today, the concentration of the following blood lipoproteins is determined:

  1. Total cholesterol
  2. High density lipoproteins (HDL or α-cholesterol),
  3. Low density lipoproteins (LDL beta cholesterol).
  4. Triglycerides (TG)

The totality of these indicators (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG) is called

. A more important diagnostic criterion for the risk of developing atherosclerosis is an increase in the LDL fraction, which is called

, that is, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis.

HDL – on the contrary, are an anti-atherogenic fraction, as they reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

Triglycerides are a transport form of fats, therefore, their high content in the blood also leads to the risk of developing atherosclerosis. All these indicators, in combination or separately, are used to diagnose atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and also to determine the risk group for the development of these diseases. Also used as a treatment control.

Read more about coronary heart disease in the article: Angina pectoris

Lipid profile indicators in children and adults

AgeNorm in mmol / L
Babies under 1 month oldFrom 1,3 4,4 up
2 to 12 monthsFrom 1,6 4,9 up
From 1 year to 14 yearsFrom 2,8 5,2 up
From 14 to 65From 2,8 5,9 up
Older 65 yearsFrom 3,6 7,1 up
Normal performanceFrom 1,5 2,5 up
Low risk of atherosclerosisFrom 2,5 3 up
Moderate riskFrom 3 4 up
High risk of diseaseMore 4
AgeMenWomen
Under 14 years oldFrom 0,9 1,9 upFrom 0,9 1,9 up
From 14 to 20 years oldFrom 0,78 1,63 upFrom 0,91 1,91 up
From 20 to 25 years oldFrom 0,78 1,36 upFrom 0,85 2,04 up
From 25 to 30 years oldFrom 0,80 1,63 upFrom 0,96 2,15 up
From 30 to 35 years oldFrom 0,72 1,63 upFrom 0,93 1,99 up
From 35 to 40 years oldFrom 0,75 1,60 upFrom 0,88 2,12 up
From 40 to 45 years oldFrom 0,70 1,73 upFrom 0,88 2,28 up
From 45 to 50 years oldFrom 0,78 1,66 upFrom 0,88 2,25 up
From 50 to 55 years oldFrom 0,72 1,63 upFrom 0,96 2,38 up
From 55 to 60 years oldFrom 0,72 1,84 upFrom 0,96 2,35 up
From 60 to 65 years oldFrom 0,78 1,91 upFrom 0,98 2,38 up
From 65 to 70 years oldFrom 0,78 1,94 upFrom 0,91 2,48 up
70 years and olderFrom 0,8 1,94 upFrom 0,85 2,38 up
AgeMenWomen
Under 14 years oldFrom 1,60 3,60 upFrom 1,60 3,60 up
From 14 to 20 years oldFrom 1,61 3,37 upFrom 1,53 3,55 up
From 20 to 25 years oldFrom 1,71 3,81 upFrom 1,48 4,12 up
From 25 to 30 years oldFrom 1,81 4,27 upFrom 1,84 4,25 up
From 30 to 35 years oldFrom 2,02 4,79 upFrom 1,81 4,04 up
From 35 to 40 years oldFrom 2,10 4,90 upFrom 1,94 4,45 up
From 40 to 45 years oldFrom 2,25 4,82 upFrom 1,92 4,51 up
From 45 to 50 years oldFrom 2,51 5,23 upFrom 2,05 4,82 up
From 50 to 55 years oldFrom 2,31 5,10 upFrom 2,28 5,21 up
From 55 to 60 years oldFrom 2,28 5,26 upFrom 2,31 5,44 up
From 60 to 65 years oldFrom 2,15 5,44 upFrom 2,59 5,80 up
From 65 to 70 years oldFrom 2,54 5,44 upFrom 2,38 5,72 up
70 years and olderFrom 2,49 5,34 upFrom 2,49 5,34 up
AgeMenWomen
Under 14 years oldFrom 0,30 1,40 upFrom 0,30 1,40 up
From 14 to 20 years oldFrom 0,45 1,81 upFrom 0,42 1,48 up
From 20 to 25 years oldFrom 0,50 2,27 upFrom 0,40 1,53 up
From 25 to 30 years oldFrom 0,52 2,81 upFrom 0,40 1,48 up
From 30 to 35 years oldFrom 0,56 3,01 upFrom 0,42 1,63 up
From 35 to 40 years oldFrom 0,61 3,62 upFrom 0,44 1,70 up
From 40 to 45 years oldFrom 0,62 3,61 upFrom 0,45 1,91 up
From 45 to 50 years oldFrom 0,65 3,80 upFrom 0,51 2,16 up
From 50 to 55 years oldFrom 0,65 3,61 upFrom 0,52 2,42 up
From 55 to 60 years oldFrom 0,65 3,23 upFrom 0,59 2,63 up
From 60 to 65 years oldFrom 0,65 3,29 upFrom 0,62 2,96 up
From 65 to 70 years oldFrom 0,62 2,94 upFrom 0,63 2,70 up
70 years and olderFrom 0,60 2,90 upFrom 0,60 2,70 up

Indications for analysis

Under ideal conditions, after a healthy person reaches 20 years of age, in the absence of any indications and reasons for examination, it is recommended that a blood test for the lipid spectrum be performed once every 1-3 years.

Direct indications for manipulation are:

  • Hypertension, coronary heart disease and other pathologies of the cardiovascular system.
  • Risk assessment of the development of vascular accidents.
  • Disorders of the endocrine system, especially diabetes mellitus.
  • Obesity.
  • Smoking.
  • Excessive alcohol intake.
  • Age.
  • Hypodynamia.
  • Burdened heredity for heart attack, stroke, cardiovascular disease, diabetes.
  • Autoimmune processes.
  • Monitoring the results of diet and treatment for atherosclerosis.

For reference. The components included in the lipid profile can both increase and decrease. Most often there is an increase in such indicators, the causes of which can be varied.

The main reason for carrying out a lipid profile is a predisposition to diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic manifestations in the myocardium, and diabetes mellitus.

In addition, it is recommended to examine blood for lipids if the following factors are present:

  • age after 50 years;
  • excess of permissible weight;
  • genetic predisposition to impaired cardiovascular system.

A lipid profile is an essential component of a preventive examination and control that determines the effectiveness of a therapeutic course.

The purpose of the lipid profile is shown in three cases:

  • preventive examination;
  • primary diagnosis of diseases;
  • monitoring the patient’s health status.

Preventive research begins in childhood. The first time a lipid profile is given at 9-11 years old, then – 17-21. If the child is at risk of developing early coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, begin to control the lipid spectrum from 2-8 years.

All adults over 20 years of age are advised to take a cholesterol or lipid profile test every 4-6 years. There is a list of risk factors, the presence of which require more frequent monitoring:

  • smoking;
  • excess weight;
  • unhealthy food;
  • lack of mobility;
  • men over 45, women over 50-55 years old;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • early heart disease in first-line relatives (previously 55 for men, 65 for women);
  • diabetes mellitus or prediabetic condition.

If the patient has symptoms of cardiovascular disorders, the lipid profile allows the doctor to confirm the diagnosis, determine the severity of the disease, choose the tactics for further examination, treatment.

Health monitoring allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Regular analysis is necessary in the treatment of statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid. It allows you to evaluate the response of the body, on the basis of which the dose of the drug is adjusted.

About possible pathologies

When deciphering the results of the study to establish the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to take into account all the obtained values ​​of the lipid profile.

If total cholesterol is low, this may indicate the presence of:

  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Anemia
  • Lung diseases.
  • Physical exhaustion.
  • Diet or complete fasting.
  • Fever.

If cholesterol is elevated, this indicates:

  • Possible pregnancy.
  • Pancreatitis in a chronic form.
  • Alcohol addiction.
  • The presence of a pancreatic tumor of a malignant category.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • The presence of excess weight.
  • Diabetes.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Chronic renal failure.
  • Hepatitis.
  • CHD.

A decrease in low density lipoprotein indicates:

  • Ailments of the lungs.
  • Reye’s syndrome.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Tangier Syndrome.
  • Chronic anemia.
  • The presence of malabsorption syndrome.

Beta lipoproteins are elevated if the patient has:

  • Excessive amounts of cholesterol in the patient’s diet.
  • Overweight.
  • Anorexia.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Diabetes.
  • An increase in hereditary indicators.
  • Kidney or liver disease.

The appearance of very low density lipoproteins in the blood most often indicates the presence of a patient with kidney disease or severe obesity.

Other causes of very low density lipoprotein increase:

  • Nyman-Peak Syndrome.
  • Pituitary insufficiency.
  • Possible pregnancy.
  • Lupus erythematosus.
  • Glycogenosis.

Decrease in HDL may indicate:

  • A heart attack of any organ.
  • Acute stages of infectious diseases.
  • An ulcer.
  • The presence of atherosclerosis.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • CHD.

An increase in high-density lipoproteins usually indicates the presence of:

  • Alcoholism.
  • Excessive exercise, depleting the body.
  • Cirrhosis.
  • Malignant intestinal tumors.

A decrease in triglyceride levels indicates:

  • The presence of the same type of nutrition, not giving the body all the necessary elements.
  • Poverty and malnutrition.
  • Diseases of the lungs in a chronic form.
  • Hyperthyroidism.

Elevated triglycerides may indicate:

  • The presence of viral hepatitis.
  • Hypertension.
  • CHD.
  • The presence of atherosclerosis.
  • Overweight.
  • Myocardial infarction.

Almost always, increased lipoproteins (except for HDL) indicate the presence of various diseases in the body. Among them, not only vascular atherosclerosis and cardiac ischemia, but also:

  • pathological changes in the liver;
  • urinary tract dysfunction;
  • low levels of thyroid hormones;
  • pancreatitis, diabetes;
  • obesity.

Decrease in indicators is no less serious problem indicating probability:

  • malignant neoplasms;
  • lung pathology;
  • infectious diseases;
  • exhaustion.

A decrease in HDL is also observed with stomach ulcers, myocardial infarction.

Below normExcess
total cholesterol
  • anemia
  • hyperthyroidism
  • starvation
  • physical exhaustion
  • fevers
  • lung diseases
  • alcoholism
  • pregnancy
  • excess weight
  • chronic pancreatitis
  • pancreatic cancer
  • diabetes
  • hypothyroidism
  • chronic renal failure
  • cirrhosis
  • hepatitis
  • coronary artery disease
  • kidney disease
LDL
  • hyperthyroidism
  • lung diseases
  • Tanger syndrome
  • Reye’s syndrome
  • malabsorption syndrome
  • chronic anemia
  • excess cholesterol-containing food in the diet
  • anorexia
  • diabetes
  • cushing’s cider
  • excess weight
  • hereditary high cholesterol
  • hypothyroidism
  • various diseases of the liver and kidneys
VLDL
  • obesity
  • kidney disease
  • pituitary insufficiency;
  • lupus erythematosus
  • Nyman-Peak syndrome
  • pregnancy
  • glycogenosis
HDL
  • atherosclerosis
  • heart attacks
  • CHD
  • ulcer
  • tuberculosis
  • acute infections
  • kidney disease
  • regular exhausting exercise
  • cirrhosis and alcoholism
  • malignant tumors of the intestine
Triglycerides
  • hyperthyroidism
  • chronic lung disease
  • poor food of the same type
  • CHD
  • myocardial infarction
  • atherosclerosis;
  • hypertension
  • excess weight
  • viral hepatitis

If you have low blood cholesterol, what does this mean? Read about it in a separate article.

Triglycerides

(coronary artery disease). When the concentration of TG in the blood is more than 2,29 mmol / l, it is a question of the fact that a person is already sick with atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. When the concentration of blood TG in the range of 1,9-2,2 mmol / l (borderline values) suggests that there is a process of development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but these diseases themselves have not yet fully developed. An increase in the concentration of TG is also observed in diabetes mellitus.

A concentration of LDL above 4,9 mmol / l suggests that a person is sick with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. If the concentration of LDL is in the range of boundary values ​​of 4,0-4,9 mmol / l, then there is the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

HDL in men is less than 1,16 mmol / l, and in women less than 0,9 mmol / l is a sign of atherosclerosis or ischemic heart disease. With a decrease in HDL to the region of boundary values ​​(in women 0,9-1,40 mmol / L, in men 1,16-1,68 mmol / L), we can talk about the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. An increase in HDL indicates that the risk of developing coronary heart disease is minimal.

About the complication of atherosclerosis – stroke, read the article: Stroke

Go to the general section LABORATORY RESEARCH

Indications for analysis

A cardiologist is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A physician can also prescribe a lipid profile.

During the diagnosis, the specialist determines which risk group the patient belongs to. To do this, you need to analyze many factors. Age, sex, the presence of hereditary diseases, weight, bad habits, cholesterol level and other lipid profile indicators – all this should be taken into account by a cardiologist, and on this basis, to draw conclusions whether it is necessary to prescribe treatment with statins (drugs that lower blood cholesterol) .

The importance of a blood lipid spectrum analysis is that it is impossible to accurately determine the need for treatment by the total cholesterol level, since numerous studies prove that a particular indicator, LDL, plays the main role in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

At that time, normal and closer to high HDL indicators, on the contrary, serve as a deterrent when prescribing drugs, as they prevent the formation of clogging of blood vessels.

An increased level of triglycerides will serve as a reason to prescribe a more intensive treatment, drugs that lower the level of LDL also affect the level of triglycerides. Thus, a detailed transcript of the analysis of fat metabolism is an obligatory step in the course of diagnostic examinations.

At the stage of therapy for already diagnosed cardiovascular diseases, the lipid profile should serve as a marker of the effectiveness and safety of the prescribed treatment.

Before prescribing statins, along with a lipid profile, the doctor will most likely prescribe an analysis for transaminases (ALT and AST) – biochemical indicators of the liver.

According to these data, the specialist will evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. After some time has elapsed since the start of the drug, the lipid profile and the so-called “kidney tests” are again prescribed.

If LDL levels have decreased, and liver function indicators have not increased more than three times, then in the absence of other negative effects, such treatment is considered effective and safe and can continue.

Analysis of the lipid profile of the blood is one of the leading places in the diagnosis of the general state of human health. With the timely detection of deviations from normal indicators, forecasts for a favorable outcome of therapy are significantly increased.

But it must be remembered that the results of the lipid profile are considered in a complex of many other factors. Only a specialist can diagnose diseases, assess risks and prescribe treatment.

A blood test for the lipid spectrum shows the values ​​of such indicators as: total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and atherogenicity coefficient.

Total cholesterol

The indicator of total cholesterol in the lipid profile is one of the key in the study of blood to determine the lipid profile. Many people today, thanks to a variety of sources of information, are confident in the absolute dangers of this component. Calls for the need to exclude from the diet all products that can increase this indicator are found almost everywhere. But not all cholesterol is harmful, but only its specific type.

It is important to remember that not only foods are the source of cholesterol. In addition to an exogenous source (consumed products), cholesterol enters the body in an endogenous way, that is, its formation occurs inside the body in certain organs. If disturbances occur in metabolic processes, then the formation of cholesterol is accelerated, which often leads to an increase in this indicator.

Scientists have proven that in most cases, the cause of atherosclerosis is precisely endogenous cholesterol.

Various ailments, for example, diabetes mellitus, in which there is an increased formation of not only cholesterol, but also ketone bodies, can lead to an increase in the indicator.

Increases the value of cholesterol and renal failure and diseases in this area, in which the body begins to quickly lose protein, because of which the blood structure is disturbed. The body at the same time seeks to restore the parameters of viscosity and pressure, as well as blood flow due to the additional production of lipoproteins.

Triglycerides

The level of triglycerides usually corresponds to cholesterol, since these values ​​are in equilibrium in most cases. For this reason, their increase almost always occurs simultaneously. This is explained by the fact that both substances are fat-like compounds, while performing the same function, transferring lipoproteins of almost the same type.

If the results of the study indicate an increase in one value against the background of a norm or a decrease in another, then such an analysis is considered unreliable and has no diagnostic value.

The inconsistency of the results may indicate that the patient ate a lot of fried and fatty foods during the day before taking the blood.

This name was given to low density lipoproteins (LDL) because the concentration of fats in them significantly exceeds the protein content, which causes a decrease in their density and specific gravity. Such complexes in the body, or rather an increase in their numbers, become the cause of the appearance of atherosclerosis plaques inside the vessels, on their walls. It is this fraction of lipoproteins that has the greatest effect on the amount of total cholesterol.

Doctors and scientists do not have a clear opinion about VLDL in the bloodstream. Almost all experts argue that these elements, along with LDL, are the main culprits for the occurrence of atherosclerosis. However, if LDL, under the condition of the normal value of this element, is a very important component in the blood that is constantly in it, then the role of VLDL is not yet known reliably.

Some scientists claim that the complex described above is a pathological form of lipoprotein elements in itself, and receptors for it in the human body have not yet been discovered.

As a rule, the appearance of very low density lipoproteins in the bloodstream indicates the presence of a serious metabolic disturbance, but since the status of these elements has not yet been determined, no safety standards and criteria for such complexes have been established.

HDL in the analysis of human blood are of particular importance and are a very important and absolutely physiological component. This type of fraction has a high density, because it consists mainly of proteins with a small proportion of fat.

Namely, high density lipoproteins are designed to combat the deposition of LDL on the walls of blood vessels, they not only do not allow the fractions of “bad” cholesterol to settle on the vascular walls, but they also actively fight against existing deposits that arise when lipid balance is disturbed. Deciphering HDL values ​​from a biochemical blood test is very important, since these liproproteins play a very important role in the body and participate in many natural vital processes, so a normal level of these substances should be maintained.

Carrying out a lipid profile allows doctors to detect atherosclerosis in the patient’s body, as well as various heart diseases and vascular systems.

An increase in cholesterol in the results of a lipid profile almost always indicates a person has metabolic abnormalities, as well as abnormalities in the liver. Such a study is prescribed to people who have suspicions of the presence of such ailments and disorders, to those who lead a lifestyle characterized by low mobility.

Lipid studies are also carried out for those who have a hereditary predisposition to high cholesterol, people with obesity and diabetes, those who suffer from alcohol dependence, as well as those who have a variety of disorders in the functioning of the endocrine system.

Atherosclerosis is a formidable, “silent” disease in the initial stages, which inevitably leads to death without proper treatment and observation. It is with the aim of eliminating, determining, controlling such a condition that a lipid profile is used.

Despite the breadth of use of such a blood test, there are many cases where they are limited only to the study of cholesterol. This is far from right.

A competent doctor knows that normal indicators of total cholesterol do not yet mean that everything is in order in the body.

LDL, for example, change their values ​​in the direction of increase even at normal cholesterol. It was at this time that the formation of atherosclerotic plaques began to gradually start.

The determination of the spectrum of lipids in atherosclerosis allows not only to identify the risk of heart attack and stroke, but also allows you to assess the patient’s condition and determine further tactics of patient management.

Attention. An increase in cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and atherogenicity coefficient indicate the presence of atherosclerosis, and the degree of increase in these indicators indicates the severity of the pathological process.

Conversely, high density lipoproteins decrease with the development of atherosclerosis.

A terrible diagnostic sign is a rapid decrease in HDL, since this indicates that accumulated cholesterol and lipid fractions are not excreted from the body, but increase the rate of sedimentation on the walls of blood vessels, heart valves, which inevitably leads to the death of the patient.

Important.With atherosclerosis, a diet is first prescribed, after which an intermediate decoding of the lipid profile is carried out.

If lipid parameters do not change, the question of the appointment of statins is decided. In this case, an intermediate monitoring of blood counts is also mandatory.

For the most accurate analysis, it is required to be carried out in accordance with all standards.

The main components of the lipid spectrum

Lipids are fats and fat-like components that make up the organic compounds necessary for the life of the human body.

This is the notorious cholesterol (cholesterol), around which there has been so much talk lately, coming down mainly to the opinion of the terrible harm caused by this substance to the body.

However, it should be recognized that the fats present in the body in an acceptable amount are the energy reserve necessary for the functioning of organs and systems.

At the same time, an excess of this substance in the blood becomes the main cause of the development of atherosclerosis, which poses a serious threat to health and life.

Assessing the effect of fatty components on the formation of diseases associated with atherosclerosis is based on determining the ratio of all components that make up the lipid spectrum.

The diagnostic value of a lipid profile is to determine the values ​​of all cholesterol fractions.

In plasma, cholesterol is presented in the form of molecules called lipoproteins. This is a combination of lipids (fats) and protein. Variations of molecules representing a detailed lipid profile of cholesterol composition are studied. It:

  1. LDL – low density lipoproteins. They are carriers of bad cholesterol. It is such a substance that facilitates the penetration of cholesterol from the liver, where it is produced, directly into the cells of the body. The presence in the blood of a high concentration of low density cholesterol causes them significant damage due to the sedimentation of lipoproteins of this type on them, which causes the development of pathological changes in the vessels and negatively affects the functioning of the heart. An increased concentration of LDL is a prerequisite for the formation of cholesterol plaques, which pose a threat to vascular health. The permissible norm of LDL is 65-70% of the total cholesterol.
  2. HDL – high density lipoproteins are carriers of good cholesterol. The activity of nutrients is to participate in a completely opposite process. They transport excess cholesterol from cells to the liver. Under the influence of liver enzymes, it undergoes cleavage, and then excretion from the body. If the level of high density lipoproteins is insufficient, a large amount of cholesterol accumulates in the tissues, as a result of which plaques form on the vascular walls.
  3. Triglycerides – VLDL. This is a kind of substance having the same composition as regular fat coming from food. In plasma, it is present as a result of abuse of fatty foods and carbohydrates. Excesses of these products are converted to triglycerides and stored in fat cells. The positive function of triglycerides is to provide the energy reserve used by the body, if necessary, with a lack of food. However, their excess is converted to low density cholesterol, which already indicates a violation of lipid metabolism.
  4. Total cholesterol (calculated taking into account all three components).

The lipid profile includes all types of lipoprotein molecules. Their normal percentage (atherogenic coefficient) ensures the proper functioning of the whole organism.

The atherogenic coefficient (KA) is not detected directly from a blood test. It is determined by calculating the formula: (LDL VLDL): HDL. The norm indicator is a value no higher than 3.5 units.

Negative Factors

A number of reasons can lead to distortion of the results. Among them:

  • the presence in the body of inflammatory and infectious processes;
  • the patient has renal and liver failure;
  • exhaustion, passion for fashionable diets;
  • pregnancy;
  • medications.

Before the test, you should discuss with your doctor the problems. Such factors will be taken into account when evaluating the result.

Other important facts

When decoding a blood lipid profile, the following information is also taken into account:

  • belonging to a certain gender;
  • norms for age;
  • genetic predisposition to diseases of blood vessels and heart;
  • state of metabolic processes;
  • blood pressure indicators;
  • overweight.

Such an approach to assessing lipid profile parameters allows to determine with maximum certainty the risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular pathology in a patient.

Preparation for research

Only the right preparation for the study will provide the most accurate data. For this purpose, before passing the analysis, the following requirements must be observed:

  • Blood is given only on an empty stomach.
  • In the evening, before the morning blood sampling, all fatty foods are excluded from the diet. Dinner should be early and light.
  • Exclude physical activity.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Do not take alcohol.
  • If you take any medications, notify the doctor.

Only with the exclusion of the above factors, laboratory analysis data will be most accurate.

Important. A blood lipid profile not only reflects the degree of damage to the cardiovascular system, but also other pathologies in the human body.

But, nevertheless, its importance in assessing the severity of atherosclerosis is undeniable. Only a lipid profile is the main marker of the state of the heart and blood vessels in atherosclerotic lesions.

For reference. So what is a lipid profile? This is not just another blood test. This is a complete assessment of fat metabolism in the body, an assessment of the general condition of a person, and most importantly – an indicator that, before the doctor and the patient himself, will be able to identify the initial stages of atherosclerosis and the risks of developing formidable complications. In such cases, only with the help of a lipid profile can you begin timely treatment and prevention of complications.

Survey purpose

A lipid profile is the result of an important diagnostic study that determines the lipid composition of the blood. Biochemical analysis of the latter is significant in identifying pathological processes associated with diseases of the heart and blood vessels caused by a deviation from normal cholesterol in the blood. Its results are taken into account when prescribing a treatment regimen.

Indicators of total cholesterol do not provide comprehensive information about the presence / absence of a pathological process in the body. A blood test is performed to detect impaired fat metabolism, which has a negative effect on the state of blood vessels.

The criterion for assessing violations is the identification of deviations in the concentration of the so-called good and bad cholesterol up or down, as well as their percentage in the blood.

How to prepare for the procedure

It is possible to obtain reliable indicators of the lipid spectrum if the recommendations for preliminary preparation for the analysis are observed. Primary requirements:

  • exclude physical stress on the eve of blood sampling;
  • to withstand after the last meal at least 9 hours;
  • refuse to eat fatty, fried and spicy dishes, as well as smoked meats, marinades, sausages 2-3 days before visiting the laboratory;
  • avoid stress;
  • banned alcohol, smoking.

Decryption of the analysis and possible deviations

A laboratory study that allows you to identify the level of all components of the lipid spectrum, has a high diagnostic information content.

It allows you to detect a pathological process in the early stages of its development, even when the values ​​of total cholesterol do not exceed the permissible norm.

The most important diagnostic indicator is to determine the percentage of all components of fatty acids. For instance:

  1. If the CA does not exceed 3 mol / l, this indicates a minimal likelihood of developing atherosclerosis and vascular lesions with cholesterol plaques.
  2. An atherogenic coefficient in the range of 3-5 units indicates a rather high threat of atherosclerotic vascular damage.
  3. Exceeding the boundary values ​​(5.2 mmol / l) indicates the manifestation of atherosclerosis and its complications such as ischemia, impaired blood circulation, liver and k >

Such changes are a consequence of the negative effects of cholesterol components on the vascular and cardiac system.

An increased concentration of triglycerides (above 2.28) indicates the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Their concentration in the range from 1.82 to 2.1 is a signal that the negative processes of this disease are at the initial stage of development. At this stage, the pathology is still easily treatable.

In addition, VLDL values ​​are elevated if patients have diabetes.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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