Decreased hematocrit causes and possible consequences

To begin with, what is hematocrit? This is a conditional indicator, which is derived by determining the ratio of the number of shaped particles – platelets, leukocytes and red blood cells to the entire amount of blood in the venous and arterial vessels.

The overwhelming majority of particles are red blood cells, which is why it is commonly believed that hematocrit (HST) is an indicator of the number of red blood cells in the blood volume (it is counted in liters).

Now about red blood cells: the responsibility of these blood particles is to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from it. A certain (normal) number of them copes with this task. Accordingly, if the red blood cells become smaller, then the hematocrit will be reduced, which means that various pathologies can develop.

For this reason, this topic requires special attention and careful study, since there can be many reasons for the decline. To determine its level, special laboratory tests are prescribed, diagnostics are carried out, with the help of which the diagnosis is made.

To lead the topic of reduced rates, you must first understand the indicators of the norm.

The average level of HST is 0,45 L / liter (450 ml) – this makes up 40-45 percent of the total amount of blood.

But the average percentage differs from the norm for men, women and children, and also depends on their age.

  • Children:
  • Newborns – 44-62%,
  • Grudnichkov – 36-44%,
  • From 2 to 5 years – 32-41%,
  • From 6 to 11 years old – 33-44%.
  • In an adult man:
  • From 18 to 45 years old – 39-49%,
  • After 45 years – 40-50%.
  • Among women:
  • From 18 to 45 years old – 35-45%,
  • After 45 years – 35-47%,
  • Separately, for a woman during pregnancy, the hematocrit is usually below normal due to an increase in the total amount of blood.

Since low Hst warns of the development of anemia, it means that factors affecting the appearance of anemia will also affect the reduction of hematocrit.

  • Red blood cells are to some extent responsible for the state of the whole organism, as they provide oxygen to each of its cells, and these ellipsoidal bodies are also required to take carbon dioxide from the cells.
  • But with a violation of the supply of cells (with a decrease in the number of red blood cells and their inability to cope with the task), hypoxia develops, which in turn will lead to a violation of the acid-base balance and dysfunction of each individual organ.
  • Low blood level causes:
  • Fatigue and general malaise,
  • Palpitations and tachypnea,
  • Headaches and hair loss,
  • Marbling of the skin.

These indicators are lowered very often if the woman is pregnant, but to confirm the diagnosis of anemia, you need to go for an additional examination and pass an appropriate analysis.

Anemia can develop as a result of a lack of blood bodies according to the ml / liter scheme in such cases:

  • During pregnancy (especially in the second half of the term),
  • During blood loss, including during menstruation, after injuries, gynecological diseases, fractures and internal bleeding,
  • If, on the contrary, the blood volume is increased relative to the number of red blood cells (fluid accumulation or hyperhydration may be associated with intravenous infusions or infectious infections),
  • If blood is very thin
  • Those who are engaged in fasting, are on a tough, grueling diet, or are malnourished,
  • As a result of the slow formation of red blood cells and low hemoglobin in the blood,
  • With hyperproteinemia (with myeloma),
  • With liver dysfunction,
  • If we take biological material for analysis in a person who is in a horizontal position, or if a person is seriously ill and is forced to lie down for a long time.

A huge number of factors affect the hematocrit level – even people living at different heights relative to sea level will have different HCT values. A large percentage of red blood cells – a person has polycythemia (elevated Hst), and if it is very low – then anemia.

What disease can develop with a decrease in indicators:

  • Vascular and hepatic pathologies,
  • Nephropathy (with polycystic kidney disease, renal artery stenosis, renal failure),
  • Anemia (decreased blood cell count)
  • Chronic inflammatory pathological processes,
  • Oncological diseases in the bone marrow area, dangerous tumors (cancer).

All these ailments are very dangerous for human life and health, but they can be avoided if you conduct an examination in time: pass an analysis and determine what exactly affected your body and lowered the level of blood cells.

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False results

This can happen when blood was taken in a place where the hand was pinched for a long time (for example, with a tourniquet), or a person previously took a drug that thinned the blood. Also, an underestimated level during the analysis will show if an infusion was made into a vein or a person was lying when he was taking fluid for analysis.

How is the analysis performed in the laboratory and the blood enters the tube? Immediately on the day of collection, such a test tube is usually already prepared, processed with a substance that does not allow blood to clot, because otherwise, it will not be possible to take an analysis from it.

The sample is sent to the laboratory, where there is a special apparatus in which the tubes are placed and rotated with centrifugal force (centrifugation takes place).

After this, the blood is separated: less dense (plasma, the main part of which is 90% is water, 8% is protein and 2% are hormones) rises, and more dense (white cells or platelets, less than 1%, and red blood cells – 45%) – goes down (settles to the bottom).

And then, during the diagnosis of blood cells, the amount (or percentage) of hematocrit (it is equal to the volume of red cells divided by the total volume of blood) is already determined.

As already mentioned, in pregnant women this indicator is lowered. Such a decrease is due to a sharp increase in the amount of plasma (up to 33 percent), and this is considered normal for this situation and does not require additional treatment. Because already at the end of pregnancy, the HCT indicator will recover and will return to normal.

A particularly low HCT level during pregnancy can occur in cases of:

  • Severe toxicosis,
  • Pregnant women at a very young age,
  • Pregnancy multiple fetuses,
  • Re-pregnancy after a very short period of time,
  • Lack of iron in food,
  • If a woman has been diagnosed with anemia before pregnancy.

Anemia adversely affects a woman, causing bleeding, premature birth and postpartum depression, but even harms the fetus, since its development can occur with pathologies:

  • Underweight birth
  • Inferior (slow) physical development,
  • Congenital Anemia
  • Pathologies of the nervous system and brain.

It is worth noting that if a vitamin B12 indicator is also low in the mother’s body, then the baby can be born with pathologies of the central nervous system.

A decrease in the hematocrit is possible:

  • Due to a decrease in the rate of formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow,
  • Due to the overestimated amount of circulating blood through the arteries and veins,
  • With internal and external bleeding,
  • Due to an increase in total protein,
  • As a result of accelerated hemolysis of red blood cells.

Hypoxia – low oxygen content in the body or individual organs and tissues

HCT in children most often indicates precisely the development of anemia, therefore it is necessary to diversify the nutrition of the child, to make it full, as the child will be sluggish, quickly tire, and he will lose interest in everything.

The following categories of people are most at risk:

  • Pregnant women in the second and third trimester, as well as women in labor,
  • People with heart, blood vessels, liver, and kidney problems
  • Children who are starving or lacking iron in their food
  • Children who are sharply stretched in growth and lack nutrition,
  • People bedridden for a long time in a horizontal position,
  • People are tobacco addicted.

To independently return the indicator to normal, you need to review your diet and start using those products that “know” how to increase hematocrit:

  • Products fortified with iron (eggs, beans, dried fruits, beef liver, greens, red and chicken meat and seafood),
  • Foods rich in vitamin C (currants, sea buckthorn, rose hips, cauliflower and red cabbage, broccoli, viburnum, strawberries, tomatoes) – improves the body’s absorption of iron,
  • Nutritional supplements with iron – if a person also has an allergy to the above products or to vitamin C.

If anemia is the cause of low hematocrit, iron-rich foods must be consumed.

Regarding pregnant women, in order to avoid the development of fetal pathologies, they attribute the course with iron injections and vitamin complexes.

Human blood contains plasma (60% of the total volume) and other components. If changes occur in the indicated composition, this affects the work of the patient’s organs and his general condition. To identify the cause of violations, the doctor prescribes a general blood test, the most important parameter of which is the hematocrit.

Hematocrit, or HCT, is a value that displays the volume of red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, and determines the ability of blood to provide oxygen to the body’s cells. The normative values ​​of HCT depend on the gender, age and individual characteristics of the person.

A number of symptoms indicate that the hematocrit is lowered, however, only a medical specialist can confirm or exclude the presence of abnormalities on the basis of research results that are designed to determine whether the blood is dehydrated or hyperhydrated.

The hematocrit value is determined by a general blood test, for the implementation of which the fluid is taken from the patient’s vein using a graduated glass tube. Blood donation is performed on an empty stomach, the recommended time for visiting a medical institution is early in the morning.

An HCT test may be prescribed by a specialist if:

  • there are suspicions of the development of pathologies in the human body (anemia, diseases of the kidneys, liver, lungs);
  • the doctor needs to make sure the feasibility of a blood transfusion;
  • medical staff need to assess the condition of the patient during dehydration;
  • it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the selected treatment.

What to do if the hematocrit is above or below normal

The percentage of shaped bodies depends on the gender of the person and his age.

In an adult male, reduced hematocrit is observed at a value of less than 54%, in women with a figure below 47%, in children it is worthwhile to conduct an additional study with an indicator of less than 32–33%.

Hematocrit is an indicator that characterizes how much hemoglobin is contained in the blood. When a woman is pregnant, she may increase the number of red blood cells that are contained in blood plasma, due to the fact that the volume of plasma also begins to increase. When a woman visits a gynecologist, she must be tested for hematocrit.

Of course, when a woman is pregnant, very serious changes begin to occur in her circulatory system. Childbirth can result in the loss of a huge amount of blood. If a woman has low hematocrit and during childbirth, most likely, transfusion will be necessary so that the woman’s life is not in jeopardy.

So, it is very important to constantly monitor the hematocrit level, this can very much affect the state of your body. Remember, if lowered hematocrit is already a deviation from the norm, which indicates the development of serious diseases – anemia, blood loss, cancer. Therefore, it is so important to contact a specialist who will help find out the true cause of your lowered hematocrit.

In the KLA protocol, hematocrit can be indicated by Latin letters (Ht, HCT). The value depends on the volume of the bloodstream, the intensity of the production of formed elements by the bone marrow. The hemoglobin level does not change it.

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In men, blood saturation with uniform elements is always higher than in women. This is due to a stable hormonal background, greater muscle mass. In women, the indicator is lower due to regular blood loss during menstruation. During pregnancy, the value decreases, which is explained by an increase in the total blood volume in the body due to the plasma (liquid component), fluid delays due to the activity of hormones.

Table – Physiological values ​​of hematocrit

Population categoryMen,%Women,%
Teenagers under 1535‒4534‒44
Before 18 years37‒4834‒44
Adults up to 45 years old42‒5038‒47
From 45 65 up39‒5035‒47
Older than 6537‒5135‒47

The hematocrit in a child is often lower than in an adult. This is a variant of the norm. The indicator is approximately 20% higher than generally accepted norms in newborns, which is associated with adaptive reactions to life in a new environment. Upon reaching the first year of life, the value gradually decreases and can be 10% lower than in adults. This is due to the active growth of the body. In adolescents, values ​​are close to adults.

AgeHematocrit%
Up to 2 weeks41‒65
Up to a month33‒55
Up to 2 months28‒42
Up to 4 months32‒44
Up to six months31‒41
Up to 9 months32‒40
Up to a year32‒42
Before 3 years33‒41
Before 6 years32‒40
Before 9 years33‒41
Before 12 years34‒43

The indicator rapidly decreases already in the first months of pregnancy, although the amount of plasma in the body increases by 10-16% only by the 12th week. In the future, as the child grows and develops, the volume of blood in the mother’s body also becomes larger. By the end of pregnancy, it can be 30-50% higher than that before conception. Hematopoiesis does not always keep up with this process and the number of blood cells remains the same, which makes the hematocrit lower.

At the 2nd trimester, the jump is most noticeable. The percentage of Taurus falls in the later stages. The doctor must monitor the hematocrit, because anemia is common among pregnant women. The danger of the condition lies in the fact that the baby’s body can receive less oxygen in the right amount. The tissues of the mother’s body can also suffer from hypoxia, which is fraught with exacerbation of chronic diseases and the development of cardiovascular problems.

A dangerous phenomenon is the reduction in hematocrit to 31% or less. In this case, a woman needs not only regular monitoring, but also taking vitamin preparations, iron-based medications.

Table – Hematocrit rates for pregnant women

133‒36233‒36332‒44

The main method to normalize hematocrit is to cure the underlying disease. In each case, an individual course of therapy is prescribed.

There are also general recommendations that will help to increase this indicator. These include the following:

  • the use of foods that are rich in iron (liver, seafood, beans, eggs, dried fruits);
  • taking complexes with vitamin C. The latter accelerates the process of assimilation of iron;
  • revision of the diet of a nursing mother. This recommendation is relevant if the infant has a lowered NTS level and is breastfed.

Eating iron-rich foods can help increase hematocrit.

Persons with a diagnosed reduction in hematocrit are also recommended to protect themselves from stressful situations, strengthen their immunity, play sports, and take walks in the fresh air as often as possible.

In general, the norm is 40-45%, or 450 ml per liter (0,45 l / liter) of blood. But it is not the same for people of different sex and age.

For men, the hematocrit value is normally equal to:

  • from 18 to 45 years old – 39-49%;
  • from 45 years old – 40-50%.
  • from 18 to 45 years old – 35-45%;
  • from 45 years old – 35-47%.
  • for newborns – 33-65%;
  • up to a year – 33-44%;
  • from 1 to 5 years old – 32-41%;
  • from 6 to 11 years old – 33-44%.

For pregnant women, a slight decrease in hematocrit is allowed.

It is the red blood cells that determine the hematocrit

If a child has a hematocrit value less than normal, what does this mean? For clarification, a survey is required. There may be several reasons for the decrease in hematocrit in a child, among them:

  • reduced rate of red blood cell formation in the bone marrow;
  • rapid decay of red blood cells;
  • high levels of protein in the blood;
  • large volume of circulating blood;
  • bleeding.

Anemia is the most common cause of low hematocrit in a child.

If the results of a blood test showed that the hematocrit is low or high, do not panic. Doctors will definitely conduct additional examinations to find out the cause of the deviation from the norm. If necessary, treatment is prescribed, but often, especially with low hematocrit, the patient needs to organize proper nutrition, including all the necessary vitamins, as well as reconsider his attitude to smoking and alcohol.

Reduced hematocrit indicates various pathologies and can cause a permanent decrease in immunity.

The hematocrit is lowered, which means that the volume of red blood cells has decreased. Such a deviation indicates various pathologies. Low hematocrit can cause a permanent decrease in immunity, as well as cause serious disturbances in the process of blood coagulation.

What does it mean – hematocrit lowered? Hematocrit is the value in which the volume of red blood cells is measured. They are platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. To a greater extent, this indicator demonstrates the amount of red blood cells of the total blood volume. Thus, a decrease in hematocrit means that the number of red blood cells in the blood has decreased.

A decrease in hematocrit indicates a decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood

Red blood cells are responsible for the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the cells. In addition, they remove carbon dioxide. Under conditions that contribute to a decrease in the number of red blood cells per liter of blood, their volume is reduced. Because of this, cells are deficient in oxygen and essential nutrients.

In medicine, this indicator is often replaced by the abbreviation HCT. It is important to note that its norm for women and men, as well as for children at different ages, is different.

Normal hematocrit values ​​are:

  • in an adult male, from 0,44 to 0,48;
  • in women – 0,36 – 0,43. In a pregnant woman, the norm of NTS decreases slightly, which is physiological;
  • in children, the hematocrit level depends on age. In newborns, this indicator ranges from 0,44-0,62, in children up to the third month of life – 0,32-0,44. In babies up to a year, the norm of NTS in the blood will be 0,36-0,44. From the first year of life to ten years, the norm will be 0,37-0,44.

Note! We are talking about low hematocrit if its level is reduced by 20-25%. This phenomenon usually indicates anemia.

Reduced hematocrit in the blood is the result of a decrease in the concentration of red blood cells, the accumulation of fluid in the body, or an increase in the number of proteins that trap water. This can happen for a number of reasons. These include the following:

  • iron deficiency in the body and the violation of hemoglobin synthesis associated with these. Often women who suffer from severe dietary restrictions suffer from this;
  • accelerated growth. This factor explains why the hematocrit is lowered in the child;
  • massive blood loss. This is not only related to injuries: a person loses a lot of blood in diseases that cause prolonged internal bleeding. In women, the cause of low STI can be heavy periods, as well as uterine bleeding associated with endometrial hyperplasia;
  • period of pregnancy. Hematocrit during pregnancy is reduced, because due to plasma there is an increase in blood volume. If deviations from normal values ​​exceed acceptable values, conduct the necessary examinations to identify the cause. Usually the hematocrit is lowered during pregnancy in the second half of this period;
  • treatment with cytostatics and antitumor drugs;
  • poisoning with toxic substances – hemolytic poisons. The latter include salts of heavy metals, substances contained in pale toadstools;
  • anemia of any nature;
  • tumors of the lymphatic tissue and the hematopoietic system (hemoblastosis);
  • malignant processes spreading to plasma cells (myeloma);
  • atherosclerosis, accompanied by the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels;
  • thromboses;
  • kidney diseases that cause fluid retention in the body (pyelonephritis, polycystosis, glomerulonephritis);
  • severe infectious diseases (typhoid fever, malaria);
  • liver pathology (fatty degeneration of the organ, hepatitis, opisthorchiasis, hepatitis).
  • Due to a decrease in the rate of formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow;
  • Due to the excessive amount of circulating blood in the arteries and veins;
  • With internal and external bleeding;
  • Due to an increase in total protein;
  • As a result of accelerated hemolysis of red blood cells.

Hematocrit below normal – causes, pathologies and treatment

The risk group includes:

  • patients who are on dialysis;
  • persons with a resection of the stomach;
  • persons who consume too much salt, spicy foods;
  • people who must be stationary for a long time (for example, patients with severe injuries).

If during pregnancy, a future mother has a significant decrease in blood NTS, then the causes of this phenomenon may be:

  • multiple pregnancies;
  • too short a period between a previous and a real pregnancy;
  • severe toxicosis;
  • anemia, which was detected before conception;
  • early age of a pregnant woman.

– bone marrow cancer;

– Anemia acquired or hereditary;

– bleeding, large blood loss;

– pathological hemolysis (erythrocyte rupture);

– transplantation of an artificial heart valve;

– disorders in the hemoglobin reproduction system;

– hyperhydration (when a person receives a lot of liquid drugs intravenously);

– chemical poisoning (mushrooms, bites of poisonous insects and snakes, and others);

– lack of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid in the body;

– The last months of pregnancy.

1. With very severe blood loss.

2. During pregnancy.

3. If red blood cells form slowly.

5. If the blood volume is increased.

6. In cases of rapid destruction of red blood cells.

7. If blood is diluted.

The hematocrit shows how much blood is part of the red blood cells. Red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells have, are the building material of the total volume of the formed components of the blood.

After carrying out the result on the hematocrit, you can see that it is indicated precisely in the ratio of the percentage of uniform components and the total volume of blood cells. Very rarely, hematocrit can be indicated in liters per liter.

Patients should be treated with reduced hematocrit with extreme caution, because such a result indicates health problems. Now such an analysis can be carried out in various special diagnostic institutions and clinics.

1. Very often, such an analysis shows a patient with anemia, that is, in the human body there are not enough blood red bodies. If they begin to contract, anemia appears.

2. Hematocrit decreases due to chronic inflammatory processes.

3. Reduced hematocrit may also indicate the appearance of a malignant swelling.

4. The hematocrit is often lowered if a person is starving or has an inadequate diet.

5. For a long time lies, he must not move.

6. Reduced hematocrit due to kidney and heart disease. Due to these diseases, the volume of plasma circulation begins to increase, the level of hematocrit begins to fall.

All data that show reduced hematocrit are a serious reason to conduct a full examination. But no need to worry ahead of time. With the help of examinations, you can identify the cause of the disease, and what exactly can cause a decrease in hematocrit. When the hematocrit level is normal, and tests will show this, only then you can be sure that everything is fine with you.

1. When a patient is taken while lying down.

2. If the veins are compressed for a very long time with a tourniquet.

3. If the blood is diluted, this happens if the analysis is taken in the same place where the infusion was recently done.

Most often, lowered hematocrit signals anemia. In addition, it can be reduced in some diseases, including dangerous ones. The main reasons for lowering hematocrit are as follows:

  • severe bleeding due to injuries, fractures of large bones, internal bleeding, gynecological diseases, menstruation;
  • rigid diet, fasting;
  • • sweating mode for a long time;
  • slow formation of red blood cells, impaired hemoglobin synthesis in sickle cell anemia, thalassemia;
  • premature death of red blood cells with genetically determined cell defects, autoimmune and toxic effects on them;
  • blood thinning;
  • hyperproteinemia, or a high level of proteins in the blood, in connection with pathological processes such as myeloma, hemoblastosis and others;
  • the accumulation of a large amount of fluid in the body (hyperhydration) due to intravenous infusion, renal failure, infectious diseases;
  • pregnancy (second half).
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A decrease in hematocrit is observed with the following diseases:

  • anemia, in which the number of red blood cells is reduced;
  • oncological diseases of the bone marrow, malignant tumors, leading to reduced production of red cells;
  • chronic inflammatory processes;
  • Vascular disease;
  • k />During pregnancy (especially in the second half of the term);
  • During blood loss, including during menstruation, after injuries, gynecological diseases, fractures and internal bleeding;
  • If, on the contrary, the blood volume is increased relative to the number of red blood cells (fluid accumulation or hyperhydration may be associated with intravenous infusions or infectious infections);
  • If blood is greatly diluted;
  • For those who are engaged in fasting, they are on a strict, grueling diet or are not eating well;
  • As a result of the slow formation of red blood cells and low hemoglobin in the blood;
  • With hyperproteinemia (with myeloma);
  • With liver dysfunction;
  • If we take biological material for analysis in a person who is in a horizontal position, or if a person is seriously ill and is forced to lie down for a long time.
  • Vascular and hepatic pathologies;
  • Nephropathy (with polycystic kidney disease, renal artery stenosis, renal failure);
  • Anemia (decreased blood cell count);
  • Chronic inflammatory pathological processes;
  • Oncological diseases in the bone marrow area, dangerous tumors (cancer).

The main function of red blood cells is the transfer of gases. From the lungs to the cells, they transport oxygen, and on the way back they remove carbon dioxide. In addition, red blood cells can carry some enzymes and amino acids. Reduced hematocrit always means a decrease in the concentration of blood cells.

  • poor bone marrow production;
  • their rapid destruction in the utilization system (spleen, liver, hemolytic processes);
  • increase in plasma volume (when blood becomes more “diluted”).

An example of a physiological increase in blood volume can be considered the period of pregnancy. Pathological prerequisites for reducing hematocrit include hyperhydration and hyperproteinemia (an increase in the amount of protein in the blood). The first state means the accumulation of fluid, which is possible as a result of:

  • water intoxication;
  • impaired renal excretory function;
  • poor circulation;
  • infectious diseases;
  • intoxication.

Hyperproteinemia means an increase in plasma protein concentration. They attract fluid and cause an increase in the volume of circulating blood. The cause of the changes can be lymphomas, hemoblastoses, myelodysplastic syndrome, severe diarrhea, vomiting.

A decrease in hematocrit due to a decrease in the number of red blood cells is observed with kidney damage and a lack of the hormone erythropoietin (which is responsible for the synthesis of red blood cells). Examples include tumors, kidney cysts. The reason for the slowdown of erythropoiesis can be malignant lesions of the bone marrow.

Low hematocrit most often indicates anemia (anemia). However, by its indicator, one can only assume the presence of the disease. The presence and degree of anemia is determined by the ratio of the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin:

  • 110‒89 / 3,9‒3 – the initial form;
  • 89‒50 / 3‒2,5 – moderate condition;
  • less than 40 / less than 1,5 – severe anemia.

The reasons for the decrease in hematocrit can be intravenous administration of blood substitutes, intoxication, hemolysis (for example, with hemolytic anemia), significant blood loss.

Causes in children

The reasons for the decrease in body saturation are almost the same for adults and small patients. Low hematocrit can be observed in children of the first year of life with hyperprolactinemia – an increase in one of the pituitary hormones (prolactin) in the blood. It develops when breastfeeding is not possible, and the baby is given goat or cow milk as food.

Common causes also include an unbalanced diet, when the baby consumes monotonous foods and there is a deficiency of vitamins and elements important for hematopoiesis (B12, B9, iron, etc.). Helminthic infestations are common among preschool children and adolescents, which also lead to anemia.

What does hematocrit in the blood of an adult mean lower or lower than normal and what does the indicator say

Causes in children

Red blood cells are to some extent responsible for the state of the whole organism, as they provide oxygen to each of its cells, and these ellipsoidal bodies are also required to take carbon dioxide from the cells.

But with a violation of the supply of cells (with a decrease in the number of red blood cells and their inability to cope with the task), hypoxia develops, which in turn will lead to a violation of the acid-base balance and dysfunction of each individual organ.

Low blood level causes:

  • Fatigue and general malaise;
  • Heart palpitations and tachypnea;
  • Headaches and hair loss;
  • Marbling of the skin.

False results

If you donate blood after blood loss, including during menstruation, the result may be distorted, that is, underestimated. Also, a false result can be obtained if blood sampling is done at the place where the intravenous infusions were recently performed and the blood is diluted with the drug. Distortion is not ruled out if the veins were compressed for a long time with a tourniquet or blood was taken when a person was in a supine position. In this case, the analysis must be submitted again.

After centrifugation, the shaped elements settle to the bottom of the capillary, and the plasma remains at the top – this determines the level of hematocrit

The normal level of hematocrit can be reduced as a result of improper selection of the site for taking the material for the study: the area of ​​recent intravenous infusion (then the blood is artificially diluted with a drug solution). Prolonged compression of the veins with a tourniquet can lead to a change in the result of the study to the side when the hematocrit is lowered.

If such reasons are identified for a false decrease in the proportion of red blood cells, then it is necessary to conduct an additional sampling of the material (blood) according to all the rules.

How is the analysis performed in the laboratory and the blood enters the tube?

The sample is sent to the laboratory, where there is a special apparatus in which the tubes are placed and rotated with centrifugal force (centrifugation takes place). After that, the blood is separated: less dense (plasma, the main part of which is 90% is water, 8% is protein and 2% are hormones) rises, and more dense (white cells or platelets, less than 1%, and red blood cells – 45%) – goes down (settles to the bottom).

Hematocrit during pregnancy

In women, the hematocrit may be below normal during gestation. This is because the blood volume increases due to plasma. During this period, this figure may be 33%, and this is considered normal. Special treatment, as a rule, is not required, and in the third trimester, the indicator returns to normal naturally due to the intensive removal of excess fluid.

Low hematocrit can lead to malaise. In this case, you need to see a doctor who will prescribe the necessary treatment.

Is treatment necessary if the hematocrit is lowered?

If, when considering the results of the KLA, it turned out that the hematocrit was reduced, you should consult a doctor. The specialist already only on this test will approximately indicate the reasons. For example, platelet abnormalities may indicate recent bleeding.

Blood biochemistry will help the doctor find out the causes of anemia, correctly prescribe treatment. You can not take vitamin preparations on your own. Sometimes, with reduced hematocrit, iron levels can be increased, and cyanocobalamin is deficient. In this case, there is no point in using iron in the form of additives or drugs.

A blood test to determine the proportion of red blood cells is carried out using hematocrit – a special hollow tube made of glass with a printed scale. After filling, centrifugation of the tube is carried out, after which the number of blood cells is estimated. In the presence of special equipment in the laboratory, the value is determined using automatic installations – analyzers.

In the case of an unbalanced diet, it is easy to normalize:

  • Include more fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet;
  • To diversify dishes with ingredients with a high iron content: red meats, apples, liver, eggs, nuts and other products;
  • Quite often to use hematogen (sold in a pharmacy).

The doctor may prescribe medications containing iron and a complex of vitamins and minerals.

As already mentioned, in pregnant women this indicator is lowered. Such a decrease is due to a sharp increase in the amount of plasma (up to 33 percent), and this is considered normal for this situation and does not require additional treatment.

But it is necessary to monitor its indicator in pregnant women very carefully, since it can manifest itself in the form of iron deficiency anemia, which is associated with hyperhydration.

  • Severe toxicosis;
  • Pregnant women at a very young age;
  • Pregnancy with several fetuses;
  • Repeated pregnancy after a very short period of time;
  • Lack of iron in food;
  • If a woman has been diagnosed with anemia before pregnancy.
  • Underweight birth;
  • Inferior (slow) physical development;
  • Congenital Anemia
  • Pathologies of the nervous system and brain.
  • Products fortified with iron (eggs, beans, dried fruits, beef liver, greens, red and chicken meat and seafood);
  • Foods rich in vitamin C (currants, sea buckthorn, wild rose, cauliflower and red cabbage, broccoli, viburnum, strawberries, tomatoes) – improves the body’s absorption of iron;
  • Nutritional supplements with iron – if a person also has an allergy to the above products or to vitamin C.

If you have low hematocrit due to anemia, you need to pay attention to your diet – eat as much nuts, apples, eggs, liver, meat as possible. Remember that food should contain as much iron as possible. The hematogen also helps very well. Cope with anemia completely, specially prescribed drugs and all means, vitamins that contain iron, help. Often, such drugs are injected into the veins in tablets, and in solution.

In general, the treatment is to eliminate the problem that caused the hematocrit to decrease. Depending on the disease, the right drugs are prescribed to restore blood.

1. If neoplasms appear in the kidneys (erythropoietin increases).

2. The occurrence of polycystic kidney disease or hydronephrosis.

3. The development of hypoxia of a different nature (most often this problem occurs when a person begins to adapt to the highlands).

4. Due to blood leukemia.

5. After very severe burns.

6. With the development of erythremia.

7. After taking glucocorticosteroids.

8. При перитоните.

Пониженный гематокрит встречается реже, чем повышенный гематокрит. Очень часто в группе риска повышенного гематокрита находятся люди, которые курят, из-за того, что у них в организме не хватает кислорода. Из-за этого эритроциты вырабатываются в большом количестве. Сюда же относятся и альпинисты, которым также очень часто не хватает кислорода.

Кто подвержен риску появления гематокрита?

К этой категории относятся:

  • беременные со сроком, превышающем 4 месяца;
  • женщины сразу после родов;
  • страдающие хроническими сердечно-сосудистыми, печеночными и почечными заболеваниями;
  • дети, в рационе питания которых недостаточно продуктов, богатых железом;
  • быстро растущие дети, которые не получают достаточного питания;
  • курящие;
  • люди, длительное время находящиеся в неподвижном состоянии.
  • Беременные во втором и третьем триместре, а также роженицы;
  • Люди, у кого проблемы с сердцем, сосудами, печенью и почками;
  • Дети, которые голодают или в их пище отсутствует железо;
  • Дети, которые резко потянулись в росте и им не хватает питания;
  • Люди, прикованные к постели и находящиеся длительное время в горизонтальном положении;
  • Люди табакозависимые.

В заключение

Отклонение от нормы числа Ht не является основанием для постановки диагноза. Если у человека гематокрит ниже нормы, это значит, что в крови снижен уровень эритроцитов. Чаще всего это свидетельствует об анемии, которая, в свою очередь, может сопровождать некоторые заболевания. Кроме того, человек испытывает недомогание, одышку, головные боли, учащенное сердцебиение в связи с кислородным голоданием, которое может привести к нарушению работы любого органа. Важно пройти обследование и уточнить диагноз, чтобы вовремя начать лечение, если это необходимо.

Выводы

Гематокрит отражает концентрацию форменных элементов в крови. Снижение показателя в первую очередь говорит о малом количестве эритроцитов. Анемии могут развиваться на фоне многих патологий, однако всегда создают риск кислородного голодания тканей, что чревато неблагоприятными последствиями. Низкий гематокрит нужно приводить в норму с помощью питания, здорового образа жизни или лекарственных препаратов.

Высокий гематокрит — показатель сгущения крови, что резко увеличивает риск тромбоза. Часто подобное диагностируется при сердечной недостаточности, сахарном диабете, обезвоживании организма. Подробнее о том, как заметить отклонения и нормализовать показатель, читайте в статье: «Гематокрит повышен — причины и лечение. Какие дополнительные анализы нужно сдать».

Понижение показателя гематокрита само по себе не указывает на определенную болезнь. Это только подтверждение факта низкого уровня эритроцитов, что может быть причиной развития анемии, которая в свою очередь сопровождает различные человеческие недуги.

Так что сдавайте анализы, вовремя проходите обследование и не давайте недугу разрушить вашу жизнь.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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