The general symptoms and the first signs of a stroke in men practically do not differ from alarm signals in women, but for the stronger sex, a manifestation of disorders of motor activity is more characteristic, which is typical for brain diseases.
What to look for:
- Feeling of weakness in the upper and lower extremities, often one-sided. For example, when raising hands one of the parties “does not obey.”
- Migraine-like pain syndrome. It is impossible to get rid of pain with painkillers.
- Cerebral vomiting, in which there is no sense of relief.
- Strengthening salivation.
- Difficulty in speech pronunciation against the background of a decrease in the sensitivity of the tongue.
- Discomfort when swallowing, as contractile abilities weaken in the muscular system of the oropharynx and throat.
- Lack of coordination of movements – it is impossible to perform precise movements, especially when walking (gait becomes shaky).
- Disorientation in space and time – the patient does not recognize familiar objects, people, etc.
- Double vision – the inability to focus the gaze. The mobility of one of the eyeballs is hindered, so from the side the gaze seems inanimate.
- Involuntary urination and cramps – in severe cases of the disease.
- Fear of light and loud sounds. A person inadequately reacts to the included lamp and music (knock, thunder, etc.).
- Fatigue, drowsiness, general weakness. The patient quickly gets tired, sleeps restlessly, feels constantly tired.
Symptoms of a stroke in a man are divided into 2 groups:
- Cerebral: intense pain of a localized nature that occurs suddenly. Drowsiness and cramps, nausea and vomiting reflexes, pallor of the face and fainting, skin cyanosis.
- Focal: occur after cerebral in 15-20 hours. They are manifested by numbness of the limbs, a decrease in the sensitivity of the skin on parts of the body that are under the control of the affected part of the brain (GM). Further visual acuity and hearing are impaired, pupils dilate, eyelids drop, memory is partially lost, sweating increases. Feature: if hypotension is present, blood pressure drops, if hypertension rises.
The first symptoms of a stroke in men can be mild, so the patient is not always aware of the danger of the condition. The appearance of disturbing calls is short, but the period of remission between exacerbations is also short. In order to recognize the approach of an attack, it is necessary to pay attention to the precursors of the disease, which have characteristic differences:
- frequent dizziness and pain at the site of the focus;
- squeezing sensation in the chest;
- nausea, vomiting reflexes;
- sudden mood swings, causeless psychoemotional disturbances;
- redness of the face against the background of hot flashes;
- noises in the ears;
- rap >
Depending on the location of the damage to the cerebral arteries, the characteristic symptoms of a stroke in a man appear:
- In the brain stem – a sharp loss of consciousness, paralysis on both sides, after which the person falls into a coma.
- In the subarachnoid space – there are pronounced cerebral signals.
- In the cerebellum – pain of an intense nature in the back of the head, severe nausea and vomiting. Feature: the patient cannot take an upright position.
- In the ventricles – the disease is accompanied by fainting.
- In the parietal lobe – acquired skills are lost, tactile sensations are violated, spatial disorientation occurs.
- In the temporal lobe – the patient does not recognize the usual sounds, does not understand the native language. Pathology is accompanied by hallucinations.
- In the frontal lobe – causeless aggression appears, or, conversely, depression, convulsions.
Blood circulation in GM is disturbed against the background of negative factors. The causes of stroke in men do not differ from the etiology of the origin of the disease in women, but bad habits are the most common factors. Because of what, brain damage can occur in the stronger sex:
- frequent use of alcoholic beverages;
- prolonged smoking;
- drug use;
- obesity with diabetes and unhealthy diet;
- lack of exercise – a sedentary lifestyle;
- heavy sports;
- excessive physical labor;
- taking certain groups of drugs;
- constant overheating of the body (in the sun, in a hot shop, etc.);
- pathological changes against the background of age;
- genetic predisposition;
- frequent stress, nervous strain;
- blockage of blood vessels due to diseases of the cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, arrhythmia, ischemia, heart failure, vasculitis, etc.);
- hormonal imbalance against the background of thyroid diseases, diabetes;
- intoxication of the body;
- infectious diseases.
Representatives of the strong half of humanity suffer a pathological condition more easily than women. It takes less time to restore the body. This is due to physical fitness and the lack of a tendency to frequent psycho-emotional disorders. The consequences of a stroke in men can also be severe, depending on the course of the disease and the timeliness of going to the clinic.
Manifestations of pathology in men at a young age and in the elderly are due to predisposing factors, which more often concern people at risk:
- Suffering from hypertension (high blood pressure). It is considered the main cause of stroke among men. The vascular branches of the brain are able to withstand a fairly high pressure, but due to a constant increase, they lose their elasticity, which provokes a rupture of the walls.
- Suffering from heart disease. This is one of the main problems contributing to the development of hemorrhagic stroke. Various cardiac arrhythmias provoke thrombosis, and a blood clot can tear itself away from its localization site and reach the brain vessel with a blood stream, thereby causing acute circulatory disturbance.
- Who have high blood cholesterol. Due to the formation of cholesterol plaque, the lumen of the vessel is clogged, and this is a direct path to the occurrence of stroke.
- Suffering from diabetes. A complication of the pathology is a change in the structure of the vascular walls, an increase in brittleness and fragility, which provokes their rupture.
- In which there is an aneurysm in the brain vessel. Such neoplasms have thinner walls than in vessels. When the aneurysm ruptures, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs.
- Suffering from a bleeding process. If, for any reason, blood density has increased, this increases the risk of blood clots forming clogging vessels.
Predisposing factors include overweight and obesity, lack of proper nutrition. In this regard, the content of “bad” cholesterol in the body increases, which leads to acute circulatory failure.
Health aggravates smoking, frequent use of alcoholic beverages, as well as drugs. Bad habits violate the integrity of blood vessels, increase blood pressure. As for alcoholism, this is one of the main reasons for the development of an attack, especially during intoxication.
Due to the systematic use of alcoholic beverages, the risk of hemorrhage in the brain increases, as well as the development of a heart attack. A large role in the occurrence of pathologies of the heart and blood vessels is assigned to the individual sensitivity of the body to the components of alcoholic beverages. Some even with prolonged use of alcohol do not feel the negative consequences, while for others, less drinking causes severe damage to the central nervous system, respiratory function and other complications.
Alcoholic beverages alone do not cause a stroke, however, they increase the risk of changes in small vessels, impaired permeability. This, in turn, contributes to the development of a malfunction in the blood circulation of the brain and the occurrence of stagnant processes in its membranes and vessels, blood clots.
The reasons for the development of a stroke in each form will differ. For example, ischemic stroke develops due to damage to the inner lining of the vessel, the endothelium, which causes the formation of an atherosclerotic neoplasm.
Sealing in a vessel accumulates lipids, cholesterol and its esters in its environment. Over the years, such a neoplasm increases, but at a certain time its rupture occurs, and the contents of the plaque clog the vascular lumen. The main cause of the rupture is a critical increase in blood pressure.
Experts call another mechanism of circulatory disorders in the brain – embolic. In this case, there is no rupture of the plaque in the vessel, but a blockage of the vessel by a thrombus, which has spread through the bloodstream from the heart.
Atrial fibrillation, accompanied by a chaotic contraction of the atria, proceeds with the formation of blood clots, which can break away from their primary location. Thrombosis then spreads to the left ventricle, then to the aorta, and then to the internal carotid artery, from where it enters the artery of the brain. This causes a blockage of the vessel.
Hemorrhagic stroke develops with high blood pressure and congenital or acquired damage to the vessel wall. A rupture of the vessel causes the filling of a large part of the brain with blood, spreading through the meninges, and compression of the organ from the outside.
The consequences of a stroke in a man depend on the form in which it arose. For example, with cerebral hemorrhagic type stroke in the brain, more pronounced complications arise than with the ischemic form of pathology: changes in behavior are observed, expressed in impaired speech, memory, and consciousness.
With a hemorrhagic form of a stroke, partial paralysis of the right or left side of the head and face is often diagnosed (taking into account the area of brain damage), the body. Movement activity is lost, muscle tone and sensitivity of the skin changes.
- Characteristic of the disease
- How to quickly recognize a stroke (USP test)
- Ischemic stroke
- The first precursors and symptoms
- What are the causes and risk factors for stroke?
- What is a stroke?
- The first precursors and symptoms
- Forms of the disease
- First aid
- Ischemic cerebral stroke: a prognosis for life
Characteristic of the disease
Stroke is an acute condition characterized by impaired blood supply to brain cells. It occurs as a result of a hemorrhage in the brain or due to blockage and spasm of the arteries of the brain.
Blood stops flowing into the vessels, which leads to oxygen starvation of one of the brain areas. The cells die without oxygen.
If help is provided too late, massive tissue death will lead to extensive necrosis and loss of some functions of the body.
It is believed that a stroke is a disease that affects exclusively the elderly, so men over 60 need to be wary of it. It’s a delusion.
An acute violation of cerebral circulation can overtake a person at 20 and at 40. That is why even young men need to know what the first symptoms of this disease are.
Due to the many factors that contribute to the development of pathology, the types of its course and localization, there are four classifications of ischemic stroke:
- by localization
- by the duration of the development of neurological deficit.
Blood to the brain is delivered by four arteries:
- two carotid arteries, providing up to 85 percent of cerebral blood supply;
- two vertebral arteries, which account for 15 percent of cerebral blood supply.
In the arterial pools that are affected by ischemic stroke, three types of the disease are distinguished:
- with localization in the internal carotid artery;
- in the vertebral, main and its branches arteries;
- in the middle, posterior and anterior cerebral arteries.
According to the mechanism of nucleation and development of ischemic stroke, a disease occurs:
The cause of an atherothrombotic stroke is atherosclerosis of the arteries involved in the blood supply to the brain. This type of disease accounts for about a third of all cases of ischemic stroke.
The development of the disease is stepwise, the symptoms increase throughout the day. Cardioembolic stroke causes a blockage of the arterial vessel by an embolus – a foreign formation that circulates through the bloodstream and clogs the artery. The cardioembolic type accounts for 22 percent of cases of ischemic stroke.
Hemodynamic stroke is a subtype of the disease, provoked by an imbalance in the brain’s need for blood supply and the ability of the vital systems to provide it. The main causes of imbalance:
- low blood pressure;
- decrease in the volume of blood that the heart throws out per minute (minute volume of the heart).
According to the development, hemodynamic stroke can be sudden and gradual, with the size of heart attacks there is no dependence. This subtype is fixed in fifteen percent of cases.
In every fifth case of ischemic stroke, a lacunar form of the disease develops. The most common reason for its development is damage to small (perforating) arteries with prolonged hypertension. The name comes from the word “lacuna”, which refers to the cavity formed in the tissues of the brain, as a result of a stroke.
Areas of brain damage are small, symptoms are often absent, which leads to the lack of necessary therapy and the further development of serious complications. A rheological stroke is a disease caused by changes in the blood of a rheological or coagulation nature. An increase in such indicators can cause the disease:
- blood viscosity
- platelet or erythrocyte aggregation.
Any of these reasons can lead to a deterioration in the blood supply to the brain and the development of a rheological stroke.
Depending on the condition of the patient, the severity of symptoms and the complexity of the treatment, ischemic stroke is divided into three types according to the severity of the course:
- the mild form is often almost asymptomatic, the manifestations of the disease subside over several weeks;
- the middle form of the disease is accompanied by neurological symptoms. Consciousness disorders and cerebral symptoms are absent;
- the severe form is characterized by pronounced cerebral symptoms, impaired consciousness, often there is a symptomatology of the displacement of some brain structures relative to others.
|Type of ischemic stroke||Neurological Deficit Regression Rate||Description|
|Transient ischemic attack||Up to one day||A type of disease characterized by focal neurological dysfunction, often blindness in one eye.|
|Малый||2-21 days||A complicated form of transient ischemic attack and longer.|
|Progressive||No complete regression||Both focal and cerebral symptoms develop. Partial neurological dysfunction remains.|
|Total||No regression||Brain infarction with stable neurological deficit.|
How to quickly recognize a stroke (USP test)
If you encounter similar symptoms of a stroke, but are not sure what it is, you can conduct other tests for recognition. This will tell you how to proceed. This should be done with constant stumbling, speech errors, dizziness, or severe headache.
Often use a simple test of SPD (smile, speak, raise):
- smile or ask a person who has noticed symptoms of a stroke to do so. Then muscle paralysis occurs, therefore the smile will be crooked, and in the direction of the foci, the corner of the mouth will remain lowered
- speak – if you can’t even say a simple phrase or it goes incoherent, then the first symptoms
- raise your hands, but it’s important to have two at the same time. If one of them falls or moves to the side, then the stroke has almost come
If necessary, ask to open your mouth and show the tongue – the patient almost always sits on one side. So you need to call an ambulance, listing all the symptoms. Even if they passed after 15 minutes, you need to go to the doctor, as this indicates a violation of the brain, the consequences of which cannot be predicted right away.
The table shows the algorithm of actions that should be asked to perform a patient with suspected stroke.
Depending on what turned out to be the cause, stroke is divided into two types: ischemic and hemorrhagic.
It is considered the most dangerous form of the disease and has the highest percentage of deaths and disabilities. It occurs as a result of rupture of a vessel and the entry of blood into the brain.
Processes in the body:
- circulatory failure leads to ischemia – insufficient blood supply to brain cells;
- a hematoma (hemorrhage) puts pressure on the brain tissue, causing swelling;
- ischemia and hematoma have a joint effect on the brain, which leads to rapid cell death.
Medical care should be provided within 3 hours after the onset of symptoms, otherwise irreversible pathological changes will begin in the brain.
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Much more common than hemorrhagic. It occurs due to blockage of the cerebral artery by a thrombus or embolus (fatty formation), as well as a result of narrowing of the vessel. A portion of the brain lacks oxygen, due to which cells are damaged, die, forming areas of necrosis.
This disease develops within a few days. The sooner help is provided, the less harm the brain and the entire body will suffer from oxygen starvation.
Important! If a blood clot clogs an artery, an area of high blood pressure appears. The wall of the vessel may rupture, which will lead to the transition of ischemic stroke into hemorrhagic.
The first precursors and symptoms
Symptoms of a stroke in men are subjective and objective sensations that disrupt general well-being and are the reason for an urgent visit to a doctor. Early harbingers of cerebral stroke are symptoms associated with impaired muscle innervation. To confirm the diagnosis, you must ask the person to perform 3 simple steps: smile, say a word or sentence, raise your hands up.
Recognize a stroke in a man by the following test results:
- the unnaturalness of a smile, with the corners of the lips being at different levels;
- a person raises limbs asymmetrically, the arm of the affected side is almost powerless;
- the patient pronounces the words slurred, which is due to paresis or paralysis of the facial muscles.
The first symptoms-prerequisites for acute circulatory disorders are included in the questionnaire of L. S. Manvelov. If you managed to detect at least 2 of the precursors listed below, you can indirectly talk about an impending stroke:
- acute pain in the head, often on the one hand, of an unclear etiology, that is, caused by neither hypertension, nor migraine, nor changes in weather conditions, nor overwork or other conditions;
- dizziness, which intensifies during a change in body position;
- noise in the head of a permanent or transient nature;
- memory impairment (a person does not remember his name, how old he is, where he lives).
Other symptoms of precursors include general malaise, facial flushing, swelling of the temporal veins, increased or decreased blood pressure, increased sweating, weakness in the lower extremities.
In men of a young age (at about 20 years old and up to 30-35 years old), a microstroke is more common, while people of mature age (after 30 years, especially after 40 years) already experience a real stroke with all the ensuing consequences.
Stroke and microstroke in young men in most cases occurs against the background of hypersensitivity to atmospheric pressure drops and during geomagnetic storms, as well as due to emotional overstrain and leading an improper lifestyle with abuse of bad habits.
The first signs of a stroke in young men are less pronounced, but still the attack causes negative consequences. Among the harbingers of impending stroke in men aged 30 and earlier are sudden headache, noise in the head and ears, incoherent speech, impaired memory.
By the age of forty years and later, symptoms of approaching an attack are less severe or do not occur at all. In older people (by about 60-70 years), a stroke develops suddenly, is characterized by a severe course and causes irreparable complications.
In elderly people, the following symptoms of stroke are predominant:
- numbness or complete loss of mobility of the facial muscles, legs and arms, half of the body;
- memory impairment (partially or completely);
- impaired speech function (in whole or in part);
- visual impairment (in whole or in part).
If stroke occurs in the left hemisphere of an organ, a loss of thinking ability is observed. A person suffers from the impossibility of orientation in the room, makes unconscious movements, does not remember relatives and people he knew before. In old age, such changes, unfortunately, are irreversible.
|Symptom||Ischemic type of ONMK||Hemorrhagic type of ONMK|
|Tingling in limbs, one half of the face||With ONMK in the carotid pool||Present|
|Pain in the eyes, visual impairment||When ONMK in the vertebrobasilar pool or in the carotid pool||Present|
|Loss of balance||When ONMK in the vertebrobasilar basin||Present|
|Speech impairment||With ONMK in the carotid pool||Present|
|Acute pain in the head, usually on the one hand, or fuzzy localization||When ONMK in the vertebrobasilar pool or carotid pool||Present|
|Paresis, paralysis of limbs||When ONMK in the vertebrobasilar pool or in the carotid pool||Present|
|Dizziness||When ONMK in the vertebrobasilar basin||Rarely|
|Impaired respiratory function||When ONMK in the vertebrobasilar basin||Rarely|
If a characteristic clinical picture of a stroke begins, or precursor symptoms occur, it is necessary for a person nearby to remember or write down those ones so that upon arrival of an ambulance, the doctor should tell about them.
The first thing to do at the first sign of a stroke is to call an ambulance. You need to do this without waiting for confirmation of your suspicions, since it is extremely important to have time to provide medical care before the development of irreversible brain damage.
In anticipation of an ambulance, it is necessary to seat or lay the patient, provide air access (open the window, free from tight clothing), complete rest – the patient should not get up and move sharply.
If possible, you need to measure pressure and heart rate and record the results, notifying them to the arriving doctor.
You can not give the patient to drink or eat, this can worsen his condition, cause vomiting.
If the patient has lost consciousness, it should be laid in such a way that the upper body is raised by about 30 degrees, the head is turned to the side.
Before the doctor arrives, the patient should not be left alone.
A stroke on the legs (including a microstroke) significantly increases the risk of developing a second, more severe attack.
After calling an ambulance, you should not sit still, but you should try to help a person who is in a pre-stroke state. For this:
- help him lie on his back even if you are on the street
- do not bend your neck, but raise your head and shoulders a little higher, about 20 degrees
- allow air to flow freely to the patient; if necessary, open a window or balcony
- unfasten buttons on a shirt, tie
- turn your head to the side, as vomiting may occur soon
- give a person a glass of water
But the main thing is to get rid of panic and anxiety, to pull yourself together and try to talk with a person: do not let him lose consciousness and control the pressure.
What are the causes and risk factors for stroke?
The causes of stroke are different, first of all, depend on the type of disease. With a hemorrhagic stroke, the walls of one of the vessels break and a hemorrhage occurs in the brain or subarachnoid space.
If an ischemic stroke develops, the causes of the disease lie in a sharp narrowing of the vessel, blockage with a sclerotic plaque or a detached blood clot. In this case, the integrity of the vessel is not violated. The disease is not independent, does not appear from scratch, but occurs against the background of other pathologies of organs and systems.
Risk factors are:
- arterial hypertension;
- cardiac arrhythmias;
- adverse heredity;
- high cholesterol;
- congenital vascular pathology;
- smoking, alcohol.
Stroke, from which there is still a serious illness? Low physical activity, malnutrition, consumption of large amounts of salt, stress, supplement a solid list of causes of stroke.
Less commonly, a stroke develops, the causes of which are collagen diseases, cerebral aneurysms. The likelihood of illness increases if the patient’s history has several risk factors at the same time.
A common cause of stroke in young people is a reluctance to monitor their own health. Young people tend to consider a dangerous disease as the lot of the elderly. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Stroke often affects strong young people aged 35 – 39 years.
Hypertension is considered the risk leader among diseases. Hypertension is the main cause of stroke in women. High blood pressure changes the state of the vasculature, leading to an increase in signs of cerebrovascular insufficiency.
The second cause of complications is vascular atherosclerosis. Sclerotic plaque, gradually increasing in size, disrupts blood flow, contributes to the onset of the disease.
The third position is atrial fibrillation. Irregular contractions of the heart muscle create the conditions for the formation of a thrombus in the atrium. A blood clot can suddenly come off and clog a brain vessel.
The risk of disease increases with age. Often, especially in recent decades, cerebral hemorrhage occurs in people of young and mature age up to 60 years.
Signs of a stroke in men are manifold in a variety of symptoms. First of all, they depend on the localization of the pathological focus.
Acute cerebrovascular accident develops suddenly or very quickly. Harbingers are not always. As a rule, there is a sharp unbearable headache, repeated vomiting, tachycardia. The patient loses consciousness.
In this case, we are talking about the most severe form of the disease – hemorrhagic stroke. Extensive hemorrhage causes cerebral edema. With the progression of the disease, respiratory, cardiac activity is disturbed. One of the signs of a severe course of the disease is a high temperature after a stroke, which was caused by cerebral edema, infection, pneumonia. The patient may die 3 to 7 days after the onset of the disease.
A small limited hemorrhage in the brain, the so-called lateral hematoma, has a more favorable course. The first signs of a stroke in men in this case are numbness, weakness in one half of the body. Speech becomes illegible, incoherent. It is difficult for the patient to pronounce separate phrases and even words.
As soon as the first signs of a stroke appear, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance and hospitalize the patient. Treatment started in the first 3 to 5 hours improves prognosis and reduces the likelihood of disability.
People who are close to the victim cannot immediately understand what happened. How to recognize a stroke? If a person is conscious, he can be asked to raise his hand, stick his tongue out, say a few simple words. In a stroke, the patient is not able to fulfill requests or does it with great difficulty.
Signs of a stroke in women are practically no different from those in men. The options for developing a formidable disease are very different and depend on many reasons. Consider the symptoms of the disease as an example of cerebral infarction.
Unlike hemorrhagic, signs of ischemic stroke develops gradually without loss of consciousness, often in the following sequence:
- headache occurs;
- the limbs go numb on one side of the body;
- weakness is felt first in the arm, then in the leg;
- when symptoms increase, after a while the hand ceases to act;
- the gait is broken, when walking the patient staggers.
The first signs of a brain stroke can occur in the form of autonomic disorders – heart palpitations, facial flushing, sweating, fever. Joins a state of stunning, drowsiness. Inhibition is replaced by excitement, anxiety, a sense of fear and vice versa. Numerous “tingling sensations” are felt on the body.
The pathological focus is usually localized in one hemisphere of the brain. So, gross speech impairment is characteristic of damage to the left hemisphere of the brain. With damage to the vertebrobasilar region, repeated vomiting occurs, nausea, dizziness. Sometimes the face goes numb, swallowing is difficult, and vision is gradually reduced.
Signs of a stroke and microstroke with short-term, transient symptoms should alert. They serve as a warning to severe consequences. Symptoms of the disease quickly appear and also quickly disappear. In just a few minutes, sometimes in a day, brain disorders are fully or partially restored.
If you do not pay attention to transient disorders of the blood circulation of the brain, against the background of hypoxia, memory, mental capacity of a person decreases. Poorly focused attention. Words are spoken with difficulty, gait becomes shaky. This is how discirculatory encephalopathy develops. A disease is a huge risk of a sudden stroke.
Ischemic stroke develops at the age of 50 – 75 years. The last decades there has been a persistent trend of “rejuvenation” of the disease.
Knowing, understanding the symptoms, the first signs of a stroke, you can seek medical help in a timely manner and avoid serious complications. How to prevent a stroke? You need to start with a healthy lifestyle – give up smoking, alcohol, organize food. Have to lose weight, to lower cholesterol.
An important condition is the regular intake of medications prescribed by your doctor – antihypertensive drugs, anticoagulants, diuretics. It is necessary to constantly monitor blood pressure, undergo periodic medical examinations.
Stroke is a serious disease of the vascular system of the brain, which ranks third in the world in mortality and first in disability. A stroke affects everyone: men, women, children and the elderly. That is why the causes of stroke in women are the same as the causes of stroke in men. The consequences and treatment are also not significantly different.
Signs of a stroke in women, as mentioned earlier, are general in nature. They depend, first of all, on which part of the brain has been affected, how extensive the stroke is. As a rule, a stroke occurs at night or in the morning. Common symptoms of a stroke in men and women include:
- sharp severe headache;
- dizziness and nausea;
- loss of consciousness;
- heartbeat too strong;
- paralysis of the limbs;
- violation of coordination of movement;
- trouble breathing, swallowing, or speaking;
- loss of vision, hearing, sensitivity;
- mental disorders.
If these signs are found, try to ask the patient to smile, say a few simple phrases, raise both hands at the same time. A stroke patient will not be able to perform these simple actions. If this happens – it is necessary to deliver the patient to the doctor as soon as possible or call an ambulance. Only a qualified specialist can help in this case, any self-medication can lead to irreversible consequences and even death.
The causes of a stroke in women and men depend primarily on whether the stroke occurred: ischemic or hemorrhagic. If the first – then the causes of stroke in women and men are blockage or narrowing of the vessels of the brain. If the second – then the cause of a stroke in men and women is the so-called cerebral hemorrhage, which occurred due to rupture of the weak walls of the vessels of the brain.
The causes of stroke in men and women also depend on various factors, which are usually attributed to:
- hypertensive disease;
- atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
- heart disease;
- coronary heart disease;
- atrial fibrillation;
- heart failure;
- carotid stenosis;
- kidney disease (e.g., chronic polyenyphritis);
- high blood cholesterol;
- lung diseases (e.g., chronic bronchitis);
- alcohol and drugs;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- in women – pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, migraines.
To avoid a stroke and its serious consequences, its prevention is necessary, which is directly related to the above factors. Its purpose is to prevent their occurrence, therefore, if you suffer from any of the listed diseases, it is necessary to strictly control your health and undergo treatment on time. It is also necessary to abandon bad habits and junk food, exercise and control your weight.
It is worth noting that in recent years, stroke patients, men and women have become very young, and the age of 30 does not bother anyone. The reason is both external factors and heredity, lifestyle and bad habits. But there are certain risk factors that increase the likelihood of a stroke:
- high blood cholesterol
- alcohol, smoking and drugs
- stress and depression
- obesity, lack of exercise
- improper diet, the presence of fatty and fried foods in the diet
- the presence of chronic diseases of the heart, k >
The most interesting thing is that until 55 years old men are most susceptible to the disease, but after 60 the situation changes and mostly women suffer from it. As for the death, most often this happens with the stronger sex. Although this happens if you do not diagnose the disease in time or quickly do not provide medical assistance.
What is a stroke?
A stroke is an acute violation of cerebral circulation due to thrombosis, embolism, prolonged spasm or sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels. In this case, patients have neurological disorders caused by acute hypoxia of a particular part of the brain, and in the case of hemorrhagic stroke, additional damage due to spilled blood.
This is one of the most common vascular diseases, it refers to the main causes of disability, as well as mortality. The incidence is related to age – the age group over 60 is the most vulnerable to stroke, although doctors around the world report an increase in incidence in patients aged 30-35. The frequency of strokes in men after 40 and up to 50 years is 4 times higher than in women, but after 50 years the incidence becomes the same in people of both sexes.
The first precursors and symptoms
- frequent non-localized headaches, dizziness with a change in body position, noise in the head;
- constant weakness, periodic disturbances in movement and speech, memory impairment;
- causeless nausea;
- numbness of the limbs, fingers.
These signs suggest that the brain regularly suffers from a lack of oxygen.
It is advisable to contact the therapist so that he prescribes additional studies and recommends preventive treatment.
- sensation of “blow”, severe and sharp headache;
- sudden weakness, involuntary urination;
- eye pain, crimson complexion;
- nausea, vomiting;
- difficulty breathing;
- loud breathing with wheezing;
- loss of consciousness, limb paralysis, cramps.
- unbearable headache, weakness;
- numbness of the face, asymmetry of the facial muscles, “floating” eye movements;
- violation of coordination of movements;
- unstable pressure, rare or, conversely, rapid heart rate, fever;
- speech disorder (incomprehensible speech, misuse of words, inability to speak);
- shallow breathing, excessive sweating;
- sharp deterioration in hearing and vision;
- numbness of the arms and legs on the one hand, paralysis, cramps;
- blurred consciousness, slow reaction and perception of reality;
- uncontrolled salivation, difficulty swallowing food.
If after a couple of hours these symptoms disappear, the person stops worrying. But in vain. He faced a microstroke, which in the near future will develop into a real stroke. That’s why you need to go to the clinic after the first calls.
In recent decades, stroke has significantly rejuvenated.
In this case, clearly, one should not think that the described disease is capable of threatening only elderly patients, unfortunately, even young people can become victims of this disorder. Everyone knows that the consequences of this emergency are often deplorable. Often, the disease can lead to the death of the patient, and if a fatal outcome can be avoided, the recovery process can be delayed for many months.
Despite this, even knowing the danger of the disease, without special training, few are able to name the seemingly simple and clear signs of a stroke in men. But it is precisely the ability to promptly suspect and recognize those disturbing symptoms that can undoubtedly precede the development of a stroke, often saves the lives of sick people.
Practitioners argue that in cases where emergency medical care is provided to a patient in a timely manner (meaning, within the first few hours after the first signs of an ailment are detected), the consequences of an emergency can be minimal.
And this means that it is precisely enlightening activity that allows you to teach people to recognize the signs of a stroke and provide adequate first aid for manifestations of brain disorders should be given special attention.
It should be understood that during a blockage (thrombus), during a spasm, or during the rupture of one, and often, several vessels of the brain, the tissues of the latter may cease to be fully supplied with blood. As a result, a certain area of brain tissue ceases to be enriched with oxygen. All this leads to the fact that gradually the brain cells die.
As you know, the longer adequate medical care is not available in such a situation, the more globally the patient’s brain can be damaged. That is why it is so important to remember the signs of a beginning emergency, understand the reasons for its development and learn to recognize the problem in a timely manner, providing the patient with the right help.
Indeed, thereby the consequences of acute cerebrovascular accident can be minimized.
In order to successfully fight the disease, and possibly even prevent the development of an emergency, you need to remember a few harbingers of the problem. So, for average men reaching the age of 35 or 40 years, there should be cause for concern if:
- Men are heavy smokers.
- These or those diseases of the cardiovascular sphere are available.
- Men are worried about frequent drops in blood pressure.
- Concerned about quite frequent dizziness and headaches.
- Weakness and unreasonable nausea are observed.
It is important to remember that such problems may not be harbingers of a stroke in men, but this can only be checked with a timely visit to a doctor, providing yourself with the necessary treatment for those diseases that can ultimately lead to the development of a stroke.
And to such diseases, we recall, include: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and obesity. And these are only the main reasons that can lead to the described emergency state, and how many other diseases that lead us to such a serious illness every day.
Since the consequences of a stroke are incredibly dangerous, since most men (due to the presence of bad habits and a tendency to hypertension) are most susceptible to this emergency condition, everyone should know the primary signs of the problem. And this, first of all:
- A sharp, rather severe headache.
- Suddenly developing weakness and dizziness.
- The development of unstable gait and other impaired coordination.
- Acute speech disorder.
- Nebula of consciousness.
- Sometimes the signs of a stroke include visual impairment, hearing loss to one degree or another.
- Partial or complete numbness of one part of the body.
- Nausea, vomiting, salivation, and in some cases difficulty swallowing.
The described symptoms or signs of acute brain disorders can be both short-term and long-lasting, both mild and quite strong.
It should be remembered that weakly expressed mini-attacks can soon lead to the most severe stroke, and this treatment is still necessary for such a patient.
The state of acute cerebrovascular accident can have different types with similar symptoms, but different quality of tissue damage. And that means that different types of this ailment may require radically different treatment. Today, doctors distinguish between two types of acute stroke conditions – hemorrhagic type and ischemic.
Symptoms of a stroke in men are no different from those that occur with women. But they help to recognize the disease in the early stages and prevent an acute, severe form. To do this, you need to visit a doctor, take tests, undergo an examination and receive a course of prevention. If this does not happen on time, then the symptoms of a stroke in men will be expressed in:
- loss of consciousness
- loss of opportunity to speak and move
- partial loss of vision
- high pressure
- paralysis, numbness of hands and tongue
- severe headache
Remember, if first aid is not provided in the first minutes after the attack, then the stroke will go into the acute phase, the patient may fall into a coma or die
Sometimes the symptoms appear in a few days in the form of distraction, trembling hands, loss of orientation in space, malaise. If only an ischemic attack, a microstroke happened, then you should immediately call an ambulance. Because the attack will certainly happen again, but it will proceed in a more complex form.
Manifestations of ischemic stroke depend on the problems with blood flow in which vessel develop and, accordingly, which part of the brain is experiencing problems with blood supply.
|Internal carotid artery||Paralysis of one limb or one half of the body, absence or impaired speech.|
|Anterior villous artery||Decreased strength in one half of the body, impaired sensitivity on one side of the body, problems with speech, bilateral blindness in one half of the vision.|
|Anterior cerebral artery||Paralysis of the leg on the side opposite the lesion, loss of walking ability, lack of will, urinary incontinence.|
|Middle cerebral artery||Problems with speech, violation of purposeful actions and movements, impaired perception.|
|Posterior cerebral artery||Loss of memory, problems with speech, decreased strength in one half of the body, lack of coordination in the work of muscles.|
|Basilar and vertebral arteries||Lack of coordination in the work of muscles, paralysis of one limb, loss of sensitivity in one half of the body, paralysis of the muscles of the eyes, damage to the facial nerve.|
All symptoms in the table refer to focal neurological. In addition to them, with ischemic stroke, cerebral symptoms appear:
- problems with consciousness, which, depending on the severity of the disease, can develop to a coma;
- nausea and vomiting;
- sensations of interruptions in the work of the heart;
- visual defects (“flies” before the eyes).
And if cerebral symptoms are nonspecific for a stroke, then neurological symptoms are a clear and clear sign of its development.
Forms of the disease
The main forms of stroke are ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke usually has a more severe course, but has a better prognosis due to the brighter clinical picture, which prompts you to quickly and timely seek medical help and avoid the development of serious consequences.
Depending on the location of the focus of ischemia, stroke is divided into right- and left-sided. With the left-sided form of the disease, the right side of the body suffers, and with a right-sided stroke, the left side.
In terms of severity, a stroke is mild, moderate, severe (extensive), or a microstroke. Extensive stroke is caused by damage to a large cerebral artery, microstroke – when a small-caliber artery is blocked.
Deep diagnosis of ischemic stroke is carried out after the doctor examined the patient and recorded cerebral symptoms and neurological disorders characteristic of the disease: paralysis of one half of the body, loss of vision, loss of sensitivity.
|Type of diagnosis||Description|
|Blood test||Search for signs of blood clotting.|
|Magnetic resonance imaging||Detection of damage in the brain, as well as determining the size and location of the affected area.|
|Ultrasound diagnosis of extracranial arteries||Examination of arteries outside the cranium, which provide blood supply to the brain, for patency.|
|Transcranial dopplerography||Examination of the cranial arteries, which provide blood supply to the brain, for patency.|
|Magnetic resonance angiography||Another method for studying the patency of arteries in the cranium.|
|Electrocardiogram||Search for heart rhythm disturbances.|
|Ultrasound diagnosis of the heart||Search for blood clots in the cavities of the heart.|
If you suspect an ischemic stroke, not all diagnostic methods are used, but some of them. The doctor selects the necessary ones, who, upon a preliminary examination of the patient, determines the diagnosis, which will reveal all the nuances of the disease.
You can diagnose a stroke by external signs.
Everyone should know the elementary tests by which the disease is detected.
- Ask the person to smile. With a stroke, the smile will turn out to be unnatural, asymmetric; the corners of the lips will be located at different levels.
- Ask the person to raise their hands. He can only raise one hand; the second will be so weakened that it will immediately fall.
- Ask the person to pronounce any phrase. With a stroke, the speech will be incomprehensible, and the movements of the lips – slow and difficult.
- Ask the person to stick out their tongue. The tongue will be curved, will fall to the side.
Doctors will confirm the diagnosis with the help of brain studies: CT, EEG, MRI.
- call an ambulance with a neurologist;
- put the victim so that his head is just above the body;
- remove from him all items of clothing that make breathing difficult;
- measure pressure and record indicators;
- with elevated pressure, give appropriate medications;
- provide fresh air to the patient;
- if vomiting occurs, tilt the victim’s head so that he does not choke on the vomit.
After the arrival of the doctors, you need to quickly and clearly inform them of all available information.
Timely noticed ischemic stroke can be treated with thrombolytics. They will eliminate a blood clot and quickly restore blood circulation.
If the stroke occurred as a result of narrowing of the vessels, a stenting operation is performed to expand the lumen of the artery.
Hemorrhagic stroke is not amenable to medical treatment. Usually, doctors leave the patient in a hospital and monitor his condition.
Surgical intervention is sometimes required.
After a successful cure of the disease, all the activities of doctors and the patient should be aimed at preventing a second stroke.
- to reduce the risk of thrombosis (“Thrombo-ACC”, “Vazobral”);
- to restore muscle tone (Sirdalud, Midokalm);
- antidepressant drugs (Coaxil, Stimuloton).
- classes with a speech therapist;
- manual therapy;
- consultation with a nutritionist;
- physiotherapy (magnetotherapy, electrical stimulation, ozokerite therapy, electrophoresis);
With proper initial treatment and competent rehabilitation, the patient is completely cured after 2-3 months.
Patients are shown bed rest, the duration of which, depending on the condition, can range from several days to 4-6 weeks. With prolonged bed rest, anticoagulant therapy is prescribed.
With cerebral edema, hyperventilation of the lungs, surgical intervention for decompression of the brain.
Diuretic drugs, analgesic drugs, antiplatelet agents, anticonvulsants, drugs that improve cerebral circulation, barbiturates are prescribed. With high blood pressure – antihypertensive drugs.
Surgical treatment is indicated for signs of compression of the brain, at high risk of a second attack, the absence of the effect of ongoing decongestant therapy, and some other conditions.
Therapy of stroke is carried out in three directions:
- drug recovery of blood supply to the brain;
- elimination of neurological symptoms of the disease;
- surgical removal of a blood clot clogging a vessel supplying the brain.
The main goal of drug therapy for stroke is to restore normal blood supply to the brain and reduce the consequences of a lack of blood flow. To achieve these goals, five groups of drugs are used:
- to lower blood pressure,
- to reduce the activity of atherosclerotic processes.
The action of thrombolytic drugs is to dissolve an already formed thrombus. They are used for violation of the blood supply to the brain caused by blockage of its arteries.
The use of drugs of this group is most effective in the first hours after the onset of ischemic stroke. But the use of thrombolytic drugs has many contraindications, so doctors are very balanced in their appointment.
Neuroprotectors are used to stimulate higher mental functions. It is believed that they are able to reduce the area of damage to the brain as a result of a stroke, as well as support the regression of the pathological changes that occur in it.
At the moment, the effectiveness of neuroprotectors remains a debatable issue, but they are widely used for brain damage. A day later, after a stroke, drugs to lower blood pressure are connected to drug therapy. They are necessary to stabilize the cardiovascular system. For the same purpose, antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed.
Their effectiveness has been proven, but in the acute phase of the disease they cannot be used so as not to reduce the already insufficient blood supply to the brain. The last group of drugs is to reduce the intensity of the atherosclerotic process. These drugs are combined into a group of statins. Their action is aimed at improving the metabolism of cholesterol, which prevents the development of atherosclerosis.
To relieve or reduce neurological symptoms, hospitalization of the patient in the neurological department and the integrated work of a team of specialists are required:
They, mainly with non-drug methods, restore mobility, speech, and also eliminate mental disorders that develop as a result of ischemic stroke.
The results of their work directly depend on the complexity of each particular case.
Surgical intervention is necessary when the blockage of the arteries could not be eliminated with drug therapy. Usually, a blood clot that could not be dissolved during the first hours after a stroke cannot be removed with medication.
In this case, an operation is prescribed during which a device is inserted into the clogged vessel, which captures the thrombus and removes it. This is the most effective way to combat clogged arteries, but they are used only in the absence of the effect of drug therapy. It is very important to make a decision about the operation in time, since the duration of the disturbed blood supply to the brain affects the complexity of the consequences.
Stroke treatment can only be prescribed by a doctor and only after a full examination. Often it includes taking medications, such as papaverine, acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin. Although more severe and effective drugs may be prescribed, using droppers or injections. Do not forget about traditional medicine, since now there are a lot of decoctions and tinctures from pine cones, juniper, linden, which solve the problem of stroke in men.
During treatment, you will have to abandon bad habits, cure chronic diseases, go on a rigid diet, avoid stress and always monitor pressure surges.
Doctors also recommend playing sports, going swimming and taking more walks in the fresh air. But it all starts with blood tests, an external examination of the patient, passing a cardiogram and tomography, ultrasound and several tests. Only a full range of examinations will make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis and determine the type of stroke.
Before the ambulance arrives, it is necessary to provide the person with the correct first aid, on which the further forecast depends to some extent:
- in the presence of vomiting, the patient is laid on his side so that the vomit does not enter the respiratory tract;
- blood pressure measurement is required (if there is a special device at hand), the indicators of which are reported to the doctor;
- eliminate the squeezing elements of clothing: unfasten the collar, belt;
- the case is lifted by placing a pillow or a roller from clothes under the back and head;
- It is forbidden to give any drugs to the victim before the doctor arrives.
It is strictly forbidden to move the victim. In this case, a deterioration in health can be caused. A person is left in a place where a stroke attack was detected before the ambulance arrived. It is not recommended that the patient move to bed.
Mistakenly, some nearby people give the victim a smell of ammonia. In this case, the negative consequences will not keep you waiting, but this is respiratory arrest and death.
If convulsive syndrome is present, it is especially forbidden to give a person medicine, in principle, as without it. With a sharp decrease in blood pressure, taking a hypotensive drug causes an increase in the necrotic focus or area with a hematoma.
After arriving at the inpatient department, diagnostic measures are started that allow you to determine the type of stroke (hemorrhagic, ischemic): laboratory tests (urine and blood: general analysis, biochemical, glucose level), instrumental.
Among the latter are MRI and CT. To consider the condition of the vessels, an x-ray study is carried out with the introduction of a contrast medium. If there is a suspicion of the development of hemorrhagic stroke, perform spinal puncture. With the ischemic form of stroke, there is no blood in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Ultrasound analysis is performed to determine the degree of vascular damage with atherosclerotic plaques. Electroencephalography and echoencephalography are used, however, rarely due to low information content.
The treatment for a stroke depends on the form of the attack. The principles of therapy common to both forms are:
- taking medication in a hospital setting;
- conducting psychotherapy, physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapeutic procedures during the rehabilitation period;
- compliance with proper nutrition and lifestyle.
Stroke prophylaxis is recommended for men who suffer from hypertension. According to statistics, about 80% of cases of acute cerebrovascular accident are diagnosed in people suffering from high blood pressure.
Preventive measures include:
- compliance with the correct lifestyle with the exception of alcohol, smoking, drugs (especially for men who develop diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis);
- restriction of the use of salt and food, which contains such in large quantities, as well as products with animal fat;
- correction of physical activity: brisk walking and jogging are useful.
In particular, it is recommended to follow preventive recommendations for people with a hereditary predisposition to impaired acute cerebral circulation.
- complete paralysis or partial loss of mobility;
- irreversible speech disorder;
- loss of vision and hearing;
- development of epilepsy;
- decreased intellectual ability;
- the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Very often a stroke leads to death.
After an ischemic stroke, the negative consequences are less severe and are considered less severe. With a mild stroke and quick medical attention after a certain time, a person is fully restored.
However, ischemic stroke stroke in rare cases passes unnoticed: swallowing, speech, motor function are impaired, and psychoemotional behavior changes. A stroke of the ischemic type causes various pain syndromes caused by neurological factors.
Regression of neurological disorders is observed in the first 3 months after circulatory disorders. In most cases, the mobility of the upper limbs is restored more slowly than the lower. The level of recovery of lost functions depends on the form in which the stroke arose and its severity.
Rehabilitation after a stroke is needed in almost every case, but it can be different. It all depends on how badly the areas of the brain were affected and how quickly medical assistance was provided. If a stroke affects the right hemisphere, then it will take longer to recover, because physical processes that are expressed in the inability to walk, speak and move could suffer.
How to avoid adverse effects? For this, the restoration of lost or impaired abilities must begin immediately after the stabilization of the patient’s condition. Rehabilitation activities begin with passive gymnastics, then gradually the complexity of the exercises performed increases.
It may require work with a speech therapist, psychologist, physiotherapy, massage, therapeutic exercises, and spa treatment are indicated.
As for the prevention of stroke, it has a lot of similarities with treatment, but the main thing here is a constant visit to the doctor and passing tests.
If the possibility of a disease has been established, you will immediately have to give up smoking and alcohol, go on a diet, lose weight, walk more, exercise, avoid stress, take medicine, cure chronic heart or kidney disease, and constantly monitor the pressure.
Leading a healthy lifestyle, you can get rid of the root causes or completely eliminate the possibility of a stroke in men. Without neglecting health, protecting it, striving to become healthy and happy, you can never find out how a stroke occurs. The result and the further outcome depend on the person, therefore, when the first symptoms are identified, go to the doctor, and during a stroke do not lose your temper and try to save the person’s life.
Prevention of the development of ischemic stroke is to reduce the number of controlled causes of its occurrence.
The primary task of disease prevention is the fight against bad habits. Smoking, alcohol abuse, overweight problems, physical inactivity – all this increases the risk of developing problems with the blood supply to the brain. Having got rid of them, the probability of their development will significantly decrease. And it will be useful not only for the prevention of ischemic stroke.
Important and timely treatment of diseases that contribute to the development of the disease. Diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, osteochondrosis are quite successfully stopped, which reduces the likelihood of developing concomitant pathologies.
And if a person cannot influence the uncontrolled causes of the occurrence of ischemic stroke, then he is able to exclude the controlled ones and reduce the risk.
- high motor activity;
- proper nutrition and normalization of body weight;
- control of blood pressure;
- rejection of bad habits;
- treatment of concomitant cardiovascular diseases.
A proper lifestyle and regular visits to the doctor will help to avoid a stroke.
The risk of a stroke is in a man at any age. Heavy physical exertion, regular stress and an improper lifestyle led to the fact that the disease is very “younger”.
Now, strokes are observed in very young men, a little older than 20 years. Therefore, be attentive to your health!
The information presented in the article is for reference only and is not a recommendation for use. Consult your healthcare provider at the first sign of illness!
To prevent the development of a second attack, all the recommendations of the attending physician should be strictly observed, undergo maintenance therapy, control blood pressure. All people after 30 years are recommended to check the concentration of cholesterol in the blood at least once every five years, after 50 years, this study is recommended to be carried out annually.
It is necessary to abandon bad habits, lead an active lifestyle, spend more time in the fresh air, adhere to the principles of proper nutrition. It is extremely important to have a good rest, in particular, adequate night sleep (at least 7 hours of continuous sleep).
Ischemic cerebral stroke: a prognosis for life
The prognosis for life after a stroke depends on:
- timeliness of hospitalization,
- areas of brain damage
- treatment effectiveness.
To assess the condition of the patient, several international methods are used. The most common among them are the NIHSS scale and the Rankin scale. To assess the prognosis for life on the NIHSS scale, the patient is asked simple questions and require simple operations. The correctness of the reactions is estimated by points: 0 points – absolutely true, 2 points – not true. Only 15 questions.
|Zero||There are no violations.|
|First||The loss of legal capacity is minimal, the patient practically does not feel the consequences of a stroke.|
|The second||Violations of the lungs. The patient can take care of himself for a week.|
|The third||Disability of moderate severity. The patient retained the ability to independently move and service himself, but often he needs advice on complex matters: financial transactions, calculation of utilities.|
|The fourth||The patient is mobile, but requires constant care and assistance.|
|Fifth||The patient has completely lost the ability to move and cannot service himself.|
The lower the rating on this scale, the better the prognosis of quality of life and the higher life expectancy.
The prognosis depends on the location of the lesion, the presence of complications, the timeliness of medical care. A mild stroke with timely adequate treatment has a favorable prognosis. With a severe course of the disease, untimely provision of medical care, and the presence of complications, it is possible to develop severe consequences associated with irreversible damage to the brain and the development of neurological disorders, up to disability and death.