A tumor is a pathological structure consisting of cells of irregular shape. There are two types of neoplasms: benign and malignant. The first category, in contrast to the second, in fact, and even in name, by its appearance, introduces a certain imbalance in the work of the body, but does not pose a serious threat to human life.
Any tissues and organs of the human body, including the kidneys, can be affected by cellular deformation.
- What is the difference between cancer and non-cancer?
- Prehistory of the appearance of benign structures in the kidneys
- Types of noncancerous tumor formations affecting the kidneys and their pathogenesis
- Symptoms and clinical picture
- How is pathology diagnosed?
- Treatment and solutions
- What complications can the patient expect?
- Rehabilitation and recovery
What is the difference between cancer and non-cancer?
The benignity of a tumor inclusion, regardless of its location, is determined by several main features:
- Slow growth.
- In its development, education does not penetrate into nearby systems and organs, but expands and squeezes them.
- Does not metastasize.
- The cellular composition of non-cancerous tissue is maximally similar in structure to healthy tissue, the differences are minimal.
Prehistory of the appearance of benign structures in the kidneys
The etiology of the disease has not been fully understood, but doctors have noted the following factors provoking the disease:
- Hereditary risks.
- Weakened immunity.
- Nicotine addiction.
- Exposure to carcinogenic substances and radiation.
Types of noncancerous tumor formations affecting the kidneys and their pathogenesis
Most often, urologists and nephrologists in their work accept patients suffering from the following pathologies in the kidneys:
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A renal cyst is a benign tumor, which is a volumetric capacity of connective tissue with a liquid content. By type, single and multiple foci are distinguished.
This pathology is characterized by a long-term and asymptomatic course. It was revealed that this species is diagnosed 2 times more often in men.
The cystic area is detected either by accidental examination, or at a long period of development, when its size causes malfunctions in the work of the organ.
In the treatment of ailment, opinions of specialists are usually divided. One part of doctors considers it necessary to monitor such patients, the other part is supporters of the operative method. The views of doctors converge only in the case of large inclusions, which are definitely subject to radical extraction.
A kidney fibroid is a non-oncological neoplasm of fibrous tissue localized on an organ or inside it. The feminine gender is most susceptible to this variety.
The clinical picture is usually absent, therefore, the tumor is detected mainly by chance. It is rather difficult to predict the further movement of this situation, therefore, specialist doctors advise using a surgical method.
Adenoma is one of the most common and frequently detected non-cancerous pathologies. It is characterized by a dense structure and slow growth.
Leiomyoma is an inclusion in the kidney formed by the cells of the muscle layer. This variety is distinguished by its light color and initially very small size (5 mm).
Leiomyoma with its long-term development does not carry any special problems, at the same time, many medical specialists consider it a precancer and recommend prompt elimination.
Lipoma of the kidney is a clearly limited structure consisting of deformed fat cells of the organ. This variety is not common and is diagnosed mainly in middle-aged women. In its growth, the lipoma can reach large size and become problematic for health.
In this situation, the principle of combating unhealthy growths is reduced to radical excision. A patient without serious clinical manifestations with a small lipoma may be recommended to be under medical supervision.
A tumor with a round and precise outline, called an oncocytoma, is more common in men. This type differs from others in a more rapid development and possible coexistence, for example, with renal cysts.
The histological cellular structure of an oncocytoma is recognized as close to cancer, therefore, medical specialists consider it necessary to get rid of it.
Angiomyolipoma is a rare complex formation, which includes adipose and muscle tissue, as well as vascular areas.
In most cases, this species belongs to genetically dependent pathologies and often develops in parallel with tuberous sclerosis. The separate existence of angiomyolipoma outside of genetic causes is allowed mainly in middle-aged women.
This inclusion is minimally susceptible to malignancy, therefore, being a small volume, its existence under medical supervision is allowed.
Hemangioma is a rare type of benign neoplasm consisting of a deformed vasculature that does not reach impressive sizes and is initially considered congenital.
Hemangioma is characterized by intensive development during hormonal changes in adolescence, and there are also known facts of its independent reduction to disappearance in the elderly.
The trend towards oncology in this situation is quite high, therefore, doctors recommend strict control, and in case of suspicion of degeneration into cancer, radical disposal.
Symptoms and clinical picture
Clinical manifestations of all non-malignant inclusions in the kidneys at the beginning of their development are practically absent, therefore, patients, as a rule, seek medical help in case of obvious symptoms of malaise caused by an already overgrown focus or in connection with an unplanned examination and subsequent diagnosis.
At the same time, in order to avoid serious health problems, if this has not been done before, you should immediately visit a specialist doctor with such signs:
- Aching pain in the lumbar region.
- Increased body temperature, fever.
- Difficulty urinating.
- Periodic appearance of urine with blood.
- Marked swelling of the lower limbs.
- Deterioration of the general condition of the body, weakness, weight loss.
- Varicose veins of the lower extremities.
- Arterial hypertension.
How is pathology diagnosed?
The basic principles of diagnostics in a medical institution are based on the collection of anamnesis, the use of clinical and laboratory data, ultrasound methods, angiography, X-ray diagnostics, biopsy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment and solutions
Only after a thorough study of the collected information and obtaining reliable information about the benign quality of the process and the parametric characteristics of the tumor that do not cause concern, urologists offer symptomatic treatment and constant monitoring.
In the opposite case, with a burdened clinical picture and the possibility of malignancy of the process, surgical intervention will definitely be shown.
A radical approach can involve removing only the tumor area with part of the kidney, or a complete nephrectomy. The percentage of surgical trauma depends on the stage of detection of the disease, on concomitant complications, suspicions of oncology and the general condition of the patient. The key role here is assigned to early diagnosis and timely visit to a specialist.
At the same time, in medical practice, it is customary to use everything to preserve an organ, and total removal is done last.
Saving surgical practices include 2 types of resections: classical and laparoscopic. The type and course of the manipulation is planned by a specialist doctor after all the necessary examinations of the client. For the operated patient, general anesthesia is used.
The classical method refers to abdominal surgery, in which the surgeon makes an incision in the lumbar region and performs all actions through it.
If the tumor area is less than 10 cm, a more gentle approach using laparoscopic equipment is possible. In this case, from 3 to 4 small incisions are made, into one of which a mini-camera is delivered, and into the others, laparoscopic instruments are supplied, with which the main work is done. For the convenience of doctors, a special gas is pumped into the abdominal cavity. The operating doctor can control all his actions on the monitor.
A large formation in the kidney that seriously obstructs urination, as well as the possible addition of an infection that threatens human health in general, are indications for an open nephrectomy.
What complications can the patient expect?
In the process of radical intervention, some difficulties are possible:
The operated patient for the first days is mainly in intensive care under intensive supervision, then he is transferred to the department.
In the hospital, the patient is prescribed symptomatic treatment and mandatory antibiotic therapy.
The postoperative period is also associated with the following consequences:
- Accession of infection against the background of weakened health, a decrease in the body’s defenses.
- Opening of a fistula associated with the ingress of urine into the wound.
- Hernia at the site of the incision.
- Pain syndrome.
- Partial loss of sensitivity of the abdominal wall.
- Formation of perirenal hematoma.
- Renal tubule necrotization.
- Aggravation of the existing vascular pathology of the legs,
- Accession of pneumonia.
For the late time period, such problems are characteristic as the occurrence of nephrosclerosis, which impairs the functioning of the kidney and, rarely, but not excluded, a relapse of the disease.
Rehabilitation and recovery
Rehabilitation after renal resection takes from several months to a year. To quickly return to normal life, you need to adhere to certain medical recommendations:
It is necessary to remember that the restoration of health of a person who has undergone a resection of the kidney depends not only on the skill and professionalism of medical surgeons, but also on their own self-control and strict adherence to the advice of the treating specialists.