Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels
Atherosclerosis is the most common chronic disease that affects the blood vessels, in particular, the elastic and elastic-muscular arteries of the heart, brain and other organs with the formation of fatty, usually cholesterol deposits in the form of atheromatous on their inner surface (from lat. “Atero” – porridge ) plaques, followed by the growth of dense connective tissue in them (sclerotherapy) and impregnation with calcium salts (liming).
As a result, the lumen of the arteries is gradually reduced or obliterated, i.e. completely disappears, which leads to increasing insufficiency of blood supply to the tissues of the organ, feeding on the artery. Possible complete blockage (occlusion) of the lumen of blood vessels by the contents of plaques in combination with blood clots, which leads to necrosis (heart attack) of tissues or gangrene of an organ or part of the body.
In the conducted studies, the possibility of complete reverse resorption of cholesterol vascular infiltration is found, which indicates the likelihood of cure of atherosclerosis in the early stages of its development. The appearance of atherosclerotic plaques is already found in young people at the age of 20, but the disease is most popular among people in adulthood – 50-60 years old, more often in men; in women, pathology is more often noted after 60 years.
The high prevalence of the disease in the population is associated with a manifestation of the aging of the body. Slowly increasing blockage of the manifestation of this disease determines the degree of insufficient blood supply to the brain. With a quick clogging of the lumen of the arteries with a thrombus or the contents of a decaying fat (cholesterol) plaque, foci of brain necrosis are formed.
Timely treatment of narrowing of the vessels of the brain is the key to victory over this disease. Atherosclerosis is a very common disease. It is a focal growth on the walls of the arteries of the connective tissue, accompanied by fatty infiltration.
Atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain, ends with various circulatory disorders. The consequences of atherosclerosis are a fairly common cause of death. The first signs of atherosclerosis of the brain often go almost unnoticed.
Symptoms of cerebral arteriosclerosis have varying degrees of manifestation, depending on how badly damaged blood vessels are. They are also manifested by a violation of the nervous system. The risk of mental disorders and stroke is increasing. The result of cerebral arteriosclerosis can be intracranial bleeding.
There are three stages of cerebral arteriosclerosis:
- The first stage of the disease is manifested by impaired memory, attention, general weakness, temporary phenomena – after rest and a change of scenery they pass, they do not affect professional qualities.
- By the second stage, headaches are protracted, often accompanied by dizziness, weakness, irritability appear, memory suffers more and more, the old is remembered with greater clarity, and recent events are forgotten. It becomes more difficult to carry out work-related duties, when reading the patient does not catch the point, makes mistakes, often returns to what he has already read.
- In the third stage, memory worsens even more, patients for a long time can not remember the main dates of their life or history, professionally completely unsuitable. Manifestations of vascular sclerosis reach their peak in the form of strokes, heart attacks, dementia.
How arteriosclerosis arises and what threatens
Beginning changes in the disease relate to the inner lining of the arteries. On it in places, individual deposits of cholesterol and lipids begin to appear. Initially, only fat spots appear on the inner wall of the vessel. Later, at these places, connective tissue grows and atherosclerotic plaques form.
Platelets and fibrin adhere to the plaques, calcium salts are deposited. The lumen of the blood vessel narrows until it is completely closed (obliteration). So begins atherosclerosis. The accumulation of lipids and calcium leads to disruption of blood circulation in the plaques. Dead plaques disintegrate.
The artery wall in the area of the plaque becomes fragile and can crumble. Masses of hardened crumbs fall into the lumen of the vessel. Spreading with a blood stream, they most often fall into the underlying arteries.
Pieces of a decayed atherosclerotic plaque can be large enough to cause clogging of the artery and lead to the development of acute ischemia, followed by necrosis of tissue lacking blood supply. In any case, a large plaque restricts blood flow, thereby interfering with the delivery of oxygen to cells.
Physical activity on muscles that do not receive sufficient nutrition and oxygen supply leads to the onset of pain. Muscles refuse to work, sharply limiting human mobility. The consequences of cerebral arteriosclerosis are even sadder.
The defeat of the disease of various arteries leads to a violation of the blood supply to organs. Progressive cerebral atherosclerosis (or cerebral arteriosclerosis) is extremely dangerous. However, the consequences of atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis or obliterating atherosclerosis (often atherosclerosis of the lower extremities) can be sad.
It is widely believed that malnutrition is one of the most significant factors in the development of this disease, and malnutrition is understood to mean excessive consumption of animal fats. From the point of view of the most modern concepts of healthy eating, this is not entirely true. Based on this theory, many people begin to avoid eating animal fats, but the key word in the above phrase is “excess”.
Practice shows that the high content of low and very low density lipoproteins in the blood (namely those substances whose presence in the blood leads to the formation of plaques) is almost never observed in people who consume less calories than they spend, even if their diet includes significant amount of animal fats. It has long been proven that a low-calorie diet is a sure way to longevity!
But with vegetable fats you need to be careful. An example is the United States. Despite the fact that vegetable fats make up the lion’s share of American fats, this country is a leader in the number of people suffering from obesity and atherosclerosis, the symptoms of which are observed in people trying to avoid animal fats.
Modern ideas of medicine about the role of carbohydrates in the human diet have also changed – studies by European and American experts say that cereal proteins, especially gluten, the largest amount of which is found in wheat, influence lipid metabolism disorders.
The psycho-emotional mode of a person’s life, of course, has a very strong influence on the risk of disease formation. Stress, which is the cause of frequent and sharp narrowing of blood vessels, creates conditions for the deposition of plaques on their inner surface.
Cases of death from myocardial infarction of prisoners in fascist concentration camps are described, and the autopsy of their bodies showed the presence of severe atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries, and this is in conditions of almost complete starvation!
Smoking, alcohol abuse – factors that greatly increase the risk of disease progression, because both tobacco smoke and a hangover reaction lead to a sharp and prolonged narrowing of blood vessels, and there is a risk of damage to the coronary arteries and aorta.
According to some reports, the systematic use of small amounts of natural alcohol (dry red wine, for example), on the contrary, significantly reduces the risk of developing the disease. Among the causes of the disease, along with a hereditary predisposition, it is worth noting the often repeated psycho-emotional stresses that affect the tone of the arteries, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, physical inactivity and smoking.
The clinical manifestation of cerebral arteriosclerosis is determined by the degree of insufficiency (ischemia) of blood circulation and brain tissue nutrition caused by it. The first signs of ischemia include a recurring headache, transient tinnitus, especially during periods of intense mental activity.
Sleep is disturbed, alarming awakenings and insomnia become frequent. Patients experience changes in the psychoemotional sphere – they become suspicious, prone to tearfulness, causeless depression and “mental chewing” – a prolonged experience of minor setbacks or insults.
Later, more objective manifestations of cerebral arteriosclerosis are found in patients – impaired coordination of movements, periodic, especially with excitement, trembling of the limbs and head. When examining large arteries of the brain, signs of calcification can be determined, and pulsation of the brachial arteries also becomes visible.
During this period, patients due to temporary cerebral ischemia can develop transient (transient) strokes with temporary impairment of skin sensitivity – paresthesias, tonus of skeletal and facial muscles with weakening of active movements in individual limbs, one-sided distortion of the face due to loss of muscle tone.
The most formidable complication of the disease is ischemic stroke of a part of the brain due to complete occlusion of one of the major cerebral arteries, which usually leads to persistent disability of the patient.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis
Often, the initial signs of narrowing of the vessels of the brain are taken by people for ordinary fatigue and weakness. Only when the lumen of some arteries narrows by 2/3, the patient develops tinnitus and dizziness. Symptoms of cerebral atherosclerosis at various stages are somewhat different from each other.
So headaches are characteristic of atherosclerosis of the brain, which is expressed in the defeat of small arteries, called arterioles. This condition is called arteriosclerosis. With it, sclerotic plaques, most often called cholesterol, are delayed and deposited in arterioles.
As a result, there is a narrowing of these vessels. Because of this, brain functions are impaired. Symptoms of narrowing of the vessels of the brain at the initial stage of the disease often go unnoticed. In the process of developing atherosclerosis, they become more clear.
There are 2 periods of development of this disease:
- Preclinical when clinical symptoms of vasoconstriction are not observed. Diagnosis of the disease at this stage is possible only during laboratory tests.
- The period of clinical manifestations, consisting of three stages of development: ischemic, necrotic, sclerotic.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis most clearly begin to appear after 50 years. Very often they are paid little attention, taking them for natural age-related changes in the body.
Disorders of sensitivity, hearing or vision, impaired movement and speech. Such manifestations indicate that in order to avoid the development of a stroke, it is necessary to begin treatment of the entire cerebral circulation. In turn, a stroke leads to necrosis of brain tissue, loss of sensitivity and speech, paralysis.
It can also lead to a severe and irreversible decrease in higher brain functions. This disease is characterized by:
- memory impairment,
- poor concentration
- emotional changes
- up to protracted depressive states,
- sleep disturbances
- dizziness, which can occur during a sharp rise from a sitting or lying position.
If atherosclerosis is progressive, it develops rapidly, and treatment cannot be delayed. This form of the disease can affect the mental state of the patient. In advanced cases, progressive atherosclerosis can lead to complications such as complete or partial loss of speech or vision, multiple paresthesias, irreversible disorders of the most important brain centers, and even paralysis.
Quite often, vessels in the brain are affected by atherosclerosis. The very first symptoms of this vascular disease in the brain are considered “ischemic attacks” – short-term disturbances in tissue sensitivity, disturbances in the activity of the auditory organs, vision and speech. All violations are short-term, they go away by themselves.
If the patient is diagnosed with atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels, then the symptoms may turn out to be episodes of an “ischemic attack”, they are manifested by fairly stable neurological symptoms: sensory disturbances (loss of sensitivity or partial decrease), disturbances in movements (paresis with paralysis), and speech impairment vision and hearing.
Such symptoms are short-lived – they pass through a certain amount of time. There is a decrease in disability (also mental), sleep worsens, irritability increases, dizziness, noise in the head, forgetfulness and headache appear.
These phenomena are amplified in the future. At the same time, fainting conditions occur. The weakening of intellectual abilities progresses (in particular, memory decreases). The disease is slow, but progresses steadily. Other manifestations of vasoconstriction in the brain are sleep disturbances, changes in character (the patient becomes picky and capricious), depression may develop.
Symptoms usually appear in 60−65 years. They are interpreted as indicators of aging, but this is only partially true. Aging is an irreversible and physiological process, while atherosclerosis is a disease that can be prevented and treated to some extent.
In addition, a narrowing of the vessels of the brain can manifest itself with disorders of the nervous activity itself – depression often develops, and sensitivity in the emotional sphere increases. If you do not pay attention to such symptoms and do not start treatment, dementia, necrosis of areas in the brain and stroke develop.
Stages of development of the disease
Such damage to the vessels of the brain is sluggish, and the symptoms can be completely different. In its development, pathology goes through several stages:
- First one. Reflexes are pathological in nature and are asymmetric. A distinctive symptom of this stage is that the pupils give a weak reaction to light.
- Second. The patient’s ability to perform work decreases during this period, memory and will deteriorate, as well as cognitive functionality. Vascular damage can provoke frequent microstrokes, a symptom of which are paralysis and loss of consciousness.
- Third. At this stage of development, brain tissue is seriously damaged, and cognitive functions are permanently impaired. A person gets disability, as the symptoms are very pronounced. Treatment in this case is very difficult.
The classification of cerebral atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels can be described in another way:
- Stage of initial manifestations. Symptoms appear only periodically after severe physical or psychological overwork. These manifestations intensify in the afternoon. After a short rest, the symptoms disappear.
- Stage of progression. Symptoms of the pathology intensify, there is a violation of gait, speech, depression. The behavior of a sick person also changes.
- Stage of decompensation. Here the patient has serious memory problems, he cannot serve himself, his thinking worsens. The patient has an increased risk of stroke, and can also be paralyzed.
- Ischemic attack transient. This condition does not last long. For some symptoms, it resembles a stroke, but passes quickly. The signs of such a pathological condition depend on which part of the artery is damaged.
- Ischemic stroke. This problem appears if the vessels are already completely clogged. Brain cells in this state die due to a lack of nutrition and oxygen.
Cerebral atherosclerosis can be divided depending on the location of the blockage: carotid artery, small vessels, brachiocephalic trunk. The disease is slowly progressive, intermittent, acute and malignant.
An important role in the diagnosis of the disease is played by instrumental methods, which is ultrasound scanning with a duplex scanner. These devices provide a correct assessment of the state of vessels passing outside the skull and supplying blood to the brain.
These are the carotid, subclavian arteries and brachiocephalic (brachiocephalic) trunk. Diagnosis is enough to determine the patient’s presence of atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, the degree of clogging of the bloodstream, the nature of the structure of atherosclerotic plaques.
Together with the scanning of extracranial cerebral arteries, diagnostics of the condition of intracranial vessels is usually carried out. Often, ultrasound diagnostic methods complement transcranial dopplerography.
These methods together can provide enough information to determine the tactics and strategies for the treatment of atherosclerosis, to determine how much surgery is needed. The advantage of the methods is safe for patients.
Modern equipment enables specialists to evaluate the degree of damage to the main vessels, their diameter, to determine the shape and size of the atherosclerotic plaque. Doctors attach great importance to the structure of plaques. There is a classification of neoplasms according to their structure.
It is believed that the most dangerous heterogeneous atherosclerotic plaques, consisting of different elements with different densities. For this feature, they can easily be destroyed, and fragments can quickly go to other important vessels and clog them, which, as already mentioned, inevitably leads to acute cerebral ischemia or acute cerebrovascular insufficiency (cerebrovascular accident).
Sometimes you have to use brain angiography methods, which are related to x-ray research methods. Since the vessels cannot be seen on an x-ray, a special contrast agent is administered to the patient. This method gives doctors ample opportunity for diagnosis, and is often used by vascular surgeons to determine the tactics of the operation to restore blood flow.
Angiography, unlike ultrasound methods, does not pass unnoticed by the patient; some harm may be done. Therefore, for those patients who have suffered a stroke, instead of angiography, an additional examination by computed tomography (CT) is prescribed.
This method also makes it possible to determine how damaged the structure of the brain is, and the ability of doctors to determine the tactics of treating the disease, to determine whether an operation is needed. The treatment of cerebral vessels should be preceded by a high-quality diagnosis, the doctor will establish the localization of plaques, the degree of their development, and assess the state of the organs.
When passing the diagnosis, it is important to observe the complex principle, since the disease has many manifestations, complications. In this regard, do not be surprised if you are offered to visit an ophthalmologist, cardiologist, neurologist, vascular surgeon.
Try to tell the doctors in more detail about the abnormalities you noticed in your body. The most effective and modern methods are various types of electrocardiography with stress tests:
- Ultrasound of the cerebral vessels;
- duplex and triplex scanning with ultrasound examination of blood vessels;
- magnetic resonance imaging (allows you to visually assess the condition of blood vessels and examine atherosclerotic plaques);
- angiography, coronarography – minimally invasive examinations during which the doctor assesses the general atherosclerotic lesion.
The patient also undergoes a series of laboratory tests, the purpose of which is to identify metabolic disorders, hormonal disruptions and other causes of the development of pathology.
Treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis
In treating a patient, the main task of a doctor is to prevent further progression of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and stimulate the development of roundabout circulatory pathways of affected organs. The latter is achieved by the appointment of individual physiotherapy exercises in the form of dosed and regular, appropriate for the age and capabilities of the patient, physical activity.
Such a measure promotes the discovery of a collateral, not involved in rest and in the usual habitual inactivity, network of blood vessels that bring blood to an organ suffering from ischemia. In combination with physical exercises, outdoor walks, light body massage, water procedures, including balneotherapy with therapeutic iodine-bromine, rhodon baths or with the use of coniferous extract, sea salt, oat broth, will be useful.
These procedures also help reduce the excitability of the nervous system and normalize blood pressure. Measures aimed at preventing the progression of atherosclerosis include, first of all, rational nutrition with the restriction and equal content of vegetable and animal fats, a sufficient content of vitamins (primarily vitamin C, antioxidants – vitamins E, A, as well as B vitamins) and excluding the increase in body weight.
In case of excess weight, the organization of nutrition should be aimed at reducing it by limiting the calorie content of food. The removal of excess cholesterol from the body is facilitated by measures to cleanse it, in particular, cleansing the intestines from cholesterol associated with bile by periodically taking saline laxatives, including cereals rich in plant fiber, and multiple irrigation of the intestine.
Drug treatment under medical supervision with drugs that lower blood cholesterol, in this case, can only play a secondary role. If the patient has an early stage of narrowing of the vessels of the brain, the treatment consists in drug therapy and lifestyle changes (diet, alcohol, smoking, increased physical activity).
The goal is to lower cholesterol to normal. Surgical treatments include stenting and shunting. In particular, stroke is prevented by stenting of the carotid arteries.
- Plaque removal operations are performed in an open way (endarterectomy): access to the damaged vessel is organized, it is dissected, the plaque is removed, then a vascular suture is applied, and the tissues are sutured.
- The closed method involves the use of an endoscope and a stent. The operation is performed through a small (1-3 cm) incision, through which access to a large vessel is provided. A special catheter through the circulatory system is brought to the site of narrowing of the vessel, and then an artificial stent is inserted through the catheter, expanding the lumen of the vessel and strengthening its walls.
The treatment of atherosclerosis is carried out by therapists, cardiologists, neuropathologists. Often you have to turn to other specialists. An important role in the process of therapy is played by the revision of the patient’s nutrition system. The diet for cerebral arteriosclerosis is to limit the consumption of animal fats, smoked meats, and sweets.
This is especially true for patients with overweight. It is very useful for such people to introduce a large amount of fresh fruits and vegetables into the diet. A diet for atherosclerosis of the brain should be based on the consumption of a sufficient amount of seafood. They have an antisclerotic effect.
They have a lot of vitamins. So, for example, sea kale contains a huge amount of various active substances. It has vitamins C, A, D. B1, B6, B2, B12. It contains a lot of minerals. Seaweed helps normalize metabolic processes in the cerebral cortex.
Its consumption helps to improve memory, reduce headache. The diet does not allow the consumption of fatty dairy products and varieties of meat, sugar, confectionery, honey. Nutrition in this disease should include an optimal balance of animal and vegetable fats.
The treatment of atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain becomes more effective when performing a complex of therapeutic exercises designed specifically for such patients.
The treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis lasts a very long time. Often patients are forced to take medicines throughout their lives. With this disease, the following drugs are taken:
- Atromidine, Giemfibrozil, Clofibrate-Atromide (fibrates);
- Mevacos-Levostanin, Fluvastine, Lovastin, Atorvastatin Mefacor (statins); Zokor (simvastin);
- anion exchange resins;
- “Cerebrolysin”, “Lecithin”;
- vasodilators (“Eufillin”, “Papaverine”).
The treatment of atherosclerosis involves the use of iodine therapy, nicotinic acid, and the use of antioxidants. These include vitamins C, E, A, B and trace elements (e.g. selenium). The prognosis for this disease is uncertain. Disability depends on the functional safety of the brain. Eliminating risk factors significantly reduces mortality rates.
In the medical treatment of atherosclerosis, many drugs are offered. Drugs are prescribed individually by the attending physician. The doctor must strictly approach the choice of medications for the patient – he must monitor their tolerance, whether there are allergic reactions, whether there is a clinical improvement, how much cholesterol is contained in the blood, etc.
In this case, vitamins of group B, PP, C are used. Also, at the same time, you can not take more than one combination of drugs per month. In principle, it depends on the doctor and patient, which drugs will be useful or effective – it is up to the specialist to decide. You can focus on a more effective combination of drugs. Of course, with the corresponding weekly breaks.
The success of the treatment of atherosclerosis is based on a rational regime of working hours and rest, daily physical exercises, walking and therapeutic exercises, a proper diet, walks in the fresh air, in the forest, on the open spaces, swimming pools, air baths, sun baths, intake of oxygen through drinking cocktails. It will also be advisable to use various air ionizers
How to treat atherosclerosis at home
Atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels (ICD code 10-I 67.2.) Does not appear overnight, but develops over many years, letting you know about yourself only in adulthood and advanced age. The onset of the disease is associated with excessive intake and accumulation of cholesterol in the human body, which begins to be deposited on the walls of blood vessels.
The disease begins to manifest itself with characteristic signs:
- memory impairment;
- impaired attention;
- increase in pressure;
- headache and dizziness.
But the worst thing is that atherosclerosis is dangerous – the consequences of “blockage” of blood vessels, which is why the nutrition of the most important organs and systems of a person is disturbed. This leads to serious and often irreversible conditions: amnesia, dementia appear, orientation in space and time is disturbed, dangerous diseases develop (stroke, heart attack, renal failure, diabetes).
The main direction of the treatment of atherosclerosis at home is to lower blood cholesterol by adjusting lifestyle, physical activity, diet and the use of folk remedies that stimulate cholesterol synthesis.
Nature generously took care to provide people with the maximum effective means for the treatment of atherosclerosis – you only need to know how to treat it and how to choose the right components and proportions. Physical exercises for atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels must be active – a visit to the gym, aerobics, and swimming classes is welcome.
If visiting the gym seems problematic, it is enough to do a little gymnastics in the mornings, or attend a massage and physiotherapy exercises to keep the circulatory system in good shape. But for treatment with folk remedies to be effective, it should be carried out along with changes in the diet and lifestyle.
Of particular importance in the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis is the therapeutic anti-sclerotic diet. The diet of such patients should consist of the following foods and dishes:
- meat: low-fat fish and poultry in baked or boiled form, seafood (mussels, scallops, etc.);
- fats: dietary oil, vegetable oils (butter restriction);
- flour products: wheat and rye bread from grade I-II flour, inedible cookies, pastries with the addition of bran;
- first courses: vegetable and milk soups with cereals and vegetables;
- eggs: up to 3 pcs. Soft-boiled eggs, protein omelets;
- dairy products: skim milk and dairy products, unsalted low-fat cheese, low-fat cottage cheese, fat-free sour cream for adding to dishes;
- cereals: buckwheat, barley, oat, millet (pasta, semolina and rice are limited);
- snacks: soaked herring, salads with yogurt and vegetable oils, low-fat ham, salads with seafood and seaweed;
- vegetables: greens in dishes, cabbage, pumpkin, zucchini, beets, carrots, eggplant, potatoes, green peas in boiled, baked or raw form;
- fruits and berries: raw fruits and berries, dried fruits, jellies and mousses from them (in case of obesity grapes, raisins, jam are excluded);
- drinks: weak tea and coffee, fruit drinks and fruit drinks, vegetable and fruit juices, a decoction of wheat bran and wild rose;
- sauces and spices: tomato, vegetable, sour cream, milk sauces and fruit and berry gravy, cinnamon, citric acid, vanillin.
With obesity, it is necessary to limit the calorie content of food. For persons whose work is not associated with significant physical costs, it should be 2700-2800 calories per day (protein – 90 g, fat – 50-60 g, carbohydrates – 350 g).
The patient should exclude foods containing a large amount of fat and cholesterol from his diet:
- baking and puff pastry;
- meat, mushroom and fish broths;
- offal (liver, k >
In order to avoid atherosclerosis of the brain, it is most important to exclude the development factors of this disease. Doctors at the Neurodopomog Clinic recommend refraining from fatty foods, abuse of bad habits, and a sedentary lifestyle.
The diet should include fish, seafood, vegetable foods. Fatty meat, eggs, and low-quality flour products should be avoided. It is worth monitoring the systematic nature of pressure drops and contact the clinic in case of deviations from the norm.
It is important to start the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adolescence, because after 40 completely different measures may be needed – medications to control blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol levels.
Prices for the treatment of vascular atherosclerosis depend on how the disease progressed. To avoid unnecessary expenses and maintain health, you should contact specialists at the first symptoms of deviations from the usual state.
The doors of the Neurodopomog Clinic are always open for patients who want to forget about the symptoms of cerebral arteriosclerosis forever.
It is advisable to think about the prevention of atherosclerosis from a young age. Parents should take care of the family. It is necessary to stimulate the child’s desire to move more, run, play in the fresh air. In the diet include fresh vegetables and fruits, avoid overeating.
Mature people need:
- Do not “wind up” on trifles, that is, avoid emotional stress;
- systematically treat concomitant diseases;
- do physical exercises daily;
- to refuse from bad habits;
- follow the doctor’s recommendations;
- consume more vitamins;
- maintain weight at a normal level.
Atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels is of great concern to specialists, since this common disease leads to serious consequences that are difficult to treat.
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