Urine is the excretory fluid of the human body, formed as a result of metabolism. It contains pigments (uroserin, urochrome, uroerythrin, etc.), which give a characteristic shade (from light yellow to straw). The higher the concentration of these pigments in the urine, the brighter its color. The color of urine determines the condition of the kidneys and urinary system, as well as overall health. A person can detect pathologies in his body even without a laboratory study, paying attention to the shade of the excretory fluid. In medical practice, it is the main criterion in the diagnosis of a disease.
Often, urine acquires a certain shade due to the content of sediment, blood impurities, pus, epithelial cells, mucus and other substances in it. If a person independently discovered such components in his fluid, then this means almost 90% of the presence of any diseases, so you should consult a doctor immediately. It is especially important for parents to pay attention to the color of the child’s urine. It is worth knowing that a newborn in the first two weeks of his life has urine without any shade – this means that his kidneys have not yet begun to function fully.
The color of urine in infants is normally the same as in adults – light yellow or straw. A healthy infant urinates with a completely clear fluid. Moreover, not only the color of urine in children indicates pathologies in the body, it is also necessary to pay attention to its smell. For example, the pungent odor of acetone indicates toxic damage to the body, this is often observed with diarrhea or vomiting.
What urine should be normal?
The color of urine should normally be light yellow, amber or light orange, always transparent, without sediment, impurities and a pronounced odor. In the laboratory, an indicator is used by which the color of the urine of a healthy person is determined – straw yellow or straw. The urine fluid should not foam as foam indicates a strong concentration of pigments present in it. Of course, no one will taste urine, but according to the results of the experiments, it was determined that normal urine has a mild salty taste, while in people with diabetes it is sweetish.
During urination, a person should not experience any discomfort: itching, burning, pain in the urinary tract and lower abdomen, since these phenomena indicate an ongoing inflammatory process. If a person is worried about discomfort, but the urine is relatively normal in color, then you should consult a doctor and get tested, since changes in the excretory fluid may not appear immediately.
Factors affecting the color of urine in a healthy person
Not everyone knows what the color of urine depends on. In healthy people, its shade may change and this does not indicate deviations:
- Eating foods that contain natural dyes that can color the excretory fluid: beets, carrots, citrus fruits, spices. If a person has eaten a considerable amount of beets the day before, then his urine will acquire a pinkish tint, and if citrus or carrots – orange.
- Long-term use of medications of a certain group, for example, “triamterin” – is able to stain urine dark green or blue, “amidopyrine” – pink or reddish, acetylsalicylic acid – pinkish, “allochol” – bright yellow.
- Insufficient human fluid intake. If a person does not drink enough water per day, then his urine becomes more concentrated and acquires a rich yellow or orange hue. Excessive fluid intake, on the contrary, makes the urine colorless or slightly yellowish.
These factors, due to which the urine stains, do not pose a threat to health – it will acquire a normal color as soon as this or that factor is eliminated.
Unfortunately, in most cases, abnormal urine color indicates the presence of a specific disease.
Diseases affecting the color and consistency of urine
The color of the urine indicates the presence of a certain disease:
- Inflammatory process in the pelvic organs and kidneys. At the same time, people experience discomfort and pain when urinating, moreover, the urine becomes dark yellow.
- Dehydration. A dehydrated body is not able to excrete urine in sufficient quantity – it becomes concentrated and acquires a rich orange or dark yellow color, and a pronounced odor is often observed. With dehydration, a person also notes a loss of strength, darkening in the eyes and tinnitus.
- Renal failure The urine is pale yellow, but its shade may vary depending on the degree of the disease.
- Diabetes. Light yellow urine indicates endocrine disorders in the body, often with the smell of acetone.
- Liver disease. The urine turns dark yellow or brown (doctors compare it to a shade of dark beer). This color indicator indicates an increased content of bilirubin in the blood, which leads to jaundice – it is excreted in the urine, giving it a characteristic color. In case of damage to the gallbladder, urine can acquire a greenish color.
- Acute renal failure. With this ailment, the liquid acquires a pink color (“meat slops”) as a result of the destruction of red blood cells and the release of free hemoglobin into the urine.
- Various tumors of the urinary organs. Urine turns pink due to the ingress of a small amount of blood into it.
- Stones in the kidneys. The urine is red because the stones damage organ tissue and the blood goes directly into the urine. The same signs can be observed in the terminal stages of oncological diseases of the genitourinary system.
Urine color in pregnant women
The normal color of urine during pregnancy is yellow, but its various shades are allowed, which vary depending on the period. This is due to the increased work of the kidneys, since they have to process toxins for two. If a woman, being in position, noticed dark or too light urine, then she needs to pass a urine test. This color may indicate kidney failure. The color of the urine during pregnancy plays an important role, however, it is worth paying attention to its turbidity as well. A cloudy liquid indicates an increased protein, which means the course of the inflammatory process.
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