In order to determine blood pressure, it is necessary to measure it using a special apparatus, called a tonometer. Most often, two types of devices are used – mechanical and electronic. Mechanical tonometer is rarely used today. However, regardless of the apparatus used, certain rules should be followed.
Self-measurement Blood pressure at home is carried out as follows:
- the cuff is worn 3 cm above the elbow;
- a stethoscope is applied to the ulnar fossa;
- with a pear pump air up to 220 mm;
- slowly blew air and at the same time listen to the pulse.
The upper indicator is fixed at the first recorded pulse beat, and the lower – at the last. Pulse pressure is also determined by subtracting a lower blood pressure from a larger indicator.
Today, pressure can be measured using a traditional blood pressure monitor with a cuff and listening to heart sounds
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In order to correctly determine what pressure an adult has, one should observe the rules of not only the use of the device itself, but also recommendations regarding behavior.
Before using the tonometer it is recommended:
- 10-15 minutes before the procedure, you need to relax;
- half an hour before determining the pressure do not smoke;
- Do not measure blood pressure immediately after eating;
- during the procedure it is better to sit with your back leaning on some support;
- the hand should be placed at the level of the heart;
- during the procedure they remain motionless and are silent.
In order to get a reliable picture of a person’s state of health, it is important to correctly measure blood pressure, this is easy:
- for an hour (at least 40 minutes) do not smoke, do not eat anything sharp, fatty, salty, do not drink hard drinks, coffee, tea;
- do not engage in physical labor;
- the pose for measurement should be comfortable, in a sitting position, the hand for tonometry – on a hard surface;
- two measurements are taken, with an interval of several minutes;
- the cuff is placed above the elbow, so that when using a stethoscope, it is convenient.
Blood pressure is a coefficient of force that affects vascular walls. Its occurrence is observed at the moment the heart pushes blood into the vessels. This ratio is systolic pressure (high). When the heart muscle relaxes, diastolytic pressure (low) is observed.
Assessment Blood pressure is carried out using a blood pressure monitor, which can be purchased at any pharmacy. In order to correctly evaluate the coefficients, it is recommended to use the device in accordance with the established rules.
There are several factors that affect a person’s blood pressure. It directly depends on:
- The coefficient of the frequency and strength of contractions, on which the movement of blood through the circulatory system depends.
- The state of the hormonal background and the efficiency of the thyroid gland.
- Stressful situations and depressive conditions, against the background of which vessels can narrow or expand.
- Atherosclerosis. During the course of this disease, deposits form on the walls of the vessels, which causes an additional load.
- Vascular elasticity. If they are worn, blood flow may be difficult.
The normal pressure in an adult is 120 to 80 mercury. This is a washed away parameter, since the coefficients directly depend on the personal characteristics of the body. According to the influence of certain factors, there is a range of tolerances. That is why for a person, the upper indicator 101-139, and the lower indicator 59-89, can be normal.
If we determine the normal coefficients by age in women, then after 40 years it will be 140/70. Despite a slight deviation in indicators, the state of health does not worsen. Normal pressure in men at this age will be considered 130/80.
In order to determine indicators, its determination is carried out. In order to determine the pressure in humans, it is recommended to use universal equipment – a tonometer. They are produced in several varieties. At home, the most common use is an automatic blood pressure monitor. Using this device provides not only the simplicity of the procedure, but also the accuracy of the results.
To determine blood pressure, certain coefficients are applied – millimeters of mercury. After the determination, two numbers appear on the tonometer screen. The first of them displays the upper pressure, and the second – the lower. In accordance with the figures and established standards, conclusions can be drawn about the state of human health. In this case, it is recommended to take into account the individual characteristics of a person.
Due to the simplicity of the tonometer design, it is possible to determine indicators as comfortably as possible and obtain accurate coefficients.
What pressure is normal
Blood pressure is determined by the strength of the effect of blood flow on the vessels and the degree of their resistance to such an effect. Blood pressure also depends on the number of heartbeats in one minute (pulse).
Blood pressure (BP) is an individual concept and depends on various factors
Two types of pressure are distinguished:
- diastolic (lower) – value in the period of relaxation of the heart;
- systolic (upper) – value at the maximum phase of contraction of the heart muscle.
Level measurement Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury. Its average norm, according to the WHO, is 120/80 mm Hg. Art. In most cases, increased pressure is noted. With a constantly high rate, there are risks of heart attacks, often leading to stroke, heart attack, etc.
It has been established that blood pressure changes with age. According to statistics, every ten years, starting from the age of twenty, there is an increase in the lower (up to 60 years) and upper indicator (all life). Experts evaluate indicators of what pressure is normal for a person, according to a table indicating average statistics Blood pressure by age.
These tables indicate the norm of the level of Blood pressure, not only in accordance with age, but also the gender of the person. Up to 40 years for a man Blood pressure is higher than for a woman, but after 40 years, the indicator changes.
Pressure indicators vary during the day and depending on age
You should not strictly focus on the indicators of the table. Experts in assessing the norm take into account the overall clinical picture.
Blood pressure depends, first of all, on the strength and speed of heart contractions and the amount of blood that this organ can pump in 1 minute
The norm and deviation of adult blood pressure
In Russia, it is customary to correlate the numbers Blood pressure with age, and optimal pressure is regarded as the norm only for young and healthy people. This, in fact, is correct, since from birth to old age changes in the vessel wall are inevitable, in addition, somatic diseases join in, blood viscosity changes – all this affects the systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicators, the level of which a person’s well-being depends on.
Upper or systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a marker of the heart, lower or diastolic (DBP) – blood vessels. Since the physiological characteristics of man, his anatomical structure are unique, the pressure of each of us is individual. In his youth, potential self-regulation abilities were preserved, which help to cope with overwork, overstrain, climate change, colds, maintaining pressure at a normal, comfortable level.
|Age of men||Index|
This is the norm by age for the stronger sex. If there are slight deviations of 5-10 millimeters of mercury, you should not worry. Slight pressure rises can occur against the background of fatigue or stressful situations. In women, the norm for age is slightly different.
Normal for a man aged 80 years is a pressure of 148/81. In 90 years, the figure may be 146/78. According to the age of the weaker sex, these coefficients are 80 years – 156/84, 90 years – 151/79.
What kind of pressure the patient has depends on age characteristics. This is due to the fact that with age, the course of irreversible pathological conditions is observed, which are the cause of gradual increases in indicators.
Pressure standards by age
Blood pressure means the force with which blood presses on the vascular walls. The indicators are affected by gender, human constitution, level of physical activity, figures differ greatly. Blood pressure over the years.
Slight data fluctuations in a healthy person occur due to stress, overwork, lack of sleep, exercise, and caffeinated drinks, spicy and salty foods can influence the value.
The main parameters of blood pressure:
- Systolic, upper, cardiac – occurs at the time of the ejection of blood from the heart. Optimal values are 110–130 mm Hg. Art.
- Diastolic, lower, renal – displays the force of pressure in the vessels during a pause in heart contractions. Values should be between 80–89 mmHg.
- If you subtract the lower from the upper indicators, you get a pulse pressure. The average value is 35–40 units.
In addition to blood pressure, a measure of health is the pulse, which shows the number of heart contractions. An adult healthy person has an ideal pressure “like an astronaut” – 120/80, a pulse of 75 beats per minute. Professional athletes have normal indicators – 90–100 / 50–60 mm Hg. Art.
|Age (years)||Systolic indicators (mmHg)||Diastolic indicators (mmHg)||Pulse (beats per minute)|
|0-12 months, boys||96||66||130-140|
|0-12 months, girls||95||65||130-140|
In obese people, blood pressure is usually slightly higher than normal, with asthenic physique, the data are below the average. For people of advanced age, over 60 years old, indicators of 145–150 / 79–83 mm Hg are considered optimal. Art. The increase in values is associated with vascular damage with atherosclerotic plaques, the heart muscle wears out, and it pumps blood worse.
Despite the fact that the WHO considers the pressure for a person with a normal age to be 120/80, it is almost impossible to meet older people with such an indicator, since 90% of the modern population by the age of 50 has chronic diseases and multiple health problems. The current rhythm and lifestyle also affects.
Norm for human pressure by age – the concept is purely general and uninformative for specific clinical situations
The deviation of blood pressure from the norm is affected by:
- addiction to bad habits;
- constant stress;
- improper diet;
- low physical activity;
- gene predisposition.
Violation of the functionality of the cardiovascular system, expressed in the increase / decrease in blood pressure, requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment measures.
The reasons for the increase and decrease in blood pressure
High blood pressure can be observed for a variety of reasons. The most common pathological process is observed against the background of:
- Vegetative-vascular dystonia, in which jumps in coefficients are observed. In this case, vegetative symptoms are noted.
- Essential arterial hypertension, in which there is not only an increase in blood pressure, but also the development of hypertensive crises.
- An isolated increase in the lower ratios for a variety of renal pathologies (nephroptosis, renal failure).
- Increased heart rate, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Hypotension (low blood pressure) is a disease in which there is a systemic decrease in rates. In most cases, the pathological process develops for the reasons:
- Myocardial infarction;
- Body mass deficiency;
- Long starvation.
If a person has anemia or vegetovascular dystonia, then this can lead to increased or decreased blood pressure. Quite often, its cause is insufficiency of the adrenal cortex. Hypothyroidism is also the cause of spikes in blood pressure. It can develop if there are inflammations in the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
Disorders Blood pressure can develop for various reasons. In a healthy person, pressure should always be normal. Otherwise, one can judge the development of pathologies and inflammatory processes. If deviations occur, the patient is recommended to undergo a diagnosis to determine a progressive disease.
An indicator of the work of the heart is not only blood pressure, but also the pulse, indicating the frequency of contraction of the heart muscles. When measuring the number of heart beats in a healthy person, the interval between contractions should be equal. Deviation relative to interpulse intervals is considered an indicator of pathological processes in the body.
Pulse is one of the most important criteria for human health, it shows the rhythm and heart rate, it can be used to judge the elasticity of blood vessels, the state of the myocardium
As a rule, with age, the pulse slows down, and with the risk of a heart attack it rises significantly. In case of illness, its increase to 120 is permissible. The indicator is 160 beats / min. and more may be a harbinger of cardiac arrest due to overload.
|Age||Beats per minute|
|70 years and more||90-95|
This table contains relative data, as, for example, athletes, pregnant women, etc., have a different heart rate.
In women, the pulse rate is slightly higher than in men
In order to determine deviations in the work of the heart muscles, each person must know what pulse is normal for him. In this case, the heart rate should be measured according to certain rules, since even a slight effect of external factors can give incorrect readings.
The use of a tonometer, especially an electronic one, will not cause any difficulties. With the “manual” measurement method, the procedure is carried out in the following order:
- on the wrist (on the inside) they find a night where the pulse is palpated;
- put a thumb on top of the point and press lightly to clearly feel the blows;
- within a minute, count the number of strokes.
A natural heart rate is observed after:
- adoption of water procedures;
- eating food;
- alcohol intake;
- being in a room with high temperature or under strong sun;
- physical activity;
- stressful situations.
If the frequency of contractions of the heart muscles or blood pressure is significantly exceeded relative to the established norm or individual characteristics, consult a physician or cardiologist. If the deviations are systematic, passing the diagnosis of the body is necessary.
General health is often determined by rhythm. Due to its characteristics, as well as the corresponding symptoms, it is possible to preliminarily make a specific diagnosis. In an able-bodied person, the coefficients normally range from 70 to 90 beats per minute. With age, there is a decrease in these coefficients. In childhood, the rhythm reaches 130 beats.
When determining the rhythm, an assessment is made not only of strokes, but also of the speed of movement of blood, rhythm, and features of the fluctuation of the vascular walls. If, due to certain circumstances, the rhythm coefficients increase, then this is the norm. An increase in heart rate is observed against a background of severe emotional damage. An increase in the coefficients is diagnosed with strong physical exertion.
Normally, in children under one year old, the rhythm is 135-145 beats per minute, from 1 to 2 years old – up to 110 beats, from 3 to 7 years old – 90 beats, from 8 to 14 years old about 85 beats, from 15 to 60 years old – about 75 strokes, from 60 to 70 years – 65 strokes, from 75 years – more than 65 strokes.
The patient should remember that with diseases, an increase in the coefficients can be diagnosed. That is why some people have more than 150 beats per minute. If separate clinical indicators are used, then the diagnosis in this case cannot be made.
Pulse and blood pressure are quite important factors. But, for the diagnosis it is recommended to evaluate other signs.
Blood pressure is a fairly important index of the health of the body. If it is within the normal range, then the person does not complain about the deterioration of health. With a decrease or increase in blood pressure, treatment with diet therapy and tablets is recommended. If the situation does not improve, then the patient is advised to consult a doctor.
Indicators of blood pressure and pulse allow you to assess the overall health of a person already at the first examination. Their fluctuations, arrhythmia speak of dysfunction of the cardiovascular system, make it possible to assess the severity of disorders, the nutritional level of each cell in the body.
Pulse and pressure are markers of myocardial contractility. It is no coincidence that the difference between the arterial pressure and the arterial pressure is called the pulse pressure (normally it is 30-50 units). It is by the pulse that the first symptoms of cardiovascular problems are recorded. Allowed fluctuations of not more than 15 units, otherwise there is a headache, fainting, anemia develops. This may indicate the presence of a person:
The indicators of pressure and heart rate by age in men and women are presented in the table.
|Men age||Norm GARDEN / DARTERIAL PRESSURE in mmHg Art.||Heart rate|
|From 20 30 up||123/75||51 – 91|
|Until 40||127/78||61 – 91|
|Until 50||130/80||62 – 82|
|Until 60||134/83||64 – 84|
|Until 65||137/84||72 – 91|
|Older than 65||135/89||75 – 90|
|Women age||Norm GARDEN / DARTERIAL PRESSURE in mmHg||Heart rate|
|From 20 30 up||125/75||60 – 70|
|Until 40||128/79||70 – 75|
|Until 50||131/81||74 – 82|
|Until 60||135/82||79 – 83|
|Until 65||137/85||81 – 85|
|Older than 65||135/87||82 – 86|
Symptoms of pathology
For a person, pressure with indicators of 120/80 is considered normal. If these coefficients are violated, the corresponding symptoms occur. Most patients complain of excessively fast fatigue, even when doing their usual tasks. The pathological process is accompanied by weakness and loss of strength. Soreness may occur in the area of the heart. Pathology is accompanied by the appearance of noise in the ears and flies in front of the eyes.
Patients claim that there is a feeling of having a tight hoop around the head, which constantly squeezes it. Pain may be aching or girdling. With a constant increase in the coefficients, retinal atrophy can be diagnosed.
If the normal pressure in a person is violated over the years, then this causes the corresponding symptoms. In this case, the patient is recommended to take appropriate measures to stabilize the condition.
How to lower blood pressure?
High blood pressure in the modern world is quite common. The pathological process can develop against the background of changes in the hormonal background, smoking, excessive emotional stress, drinking alcohol, genetic diseases, etc.
With an increase in blood pressure, the patient is advised to refuse certain foods. In this case, it is strictly forbidden to smoke, as well as take alcoholic beverages. The consumption of animal fats is strictly prohibited. Patients are advised to take rose hips and hawthorn, which belong to the category of cardiac stimulants.
In order to normalize cardiac activity, patients are advised to take pharmacy flax seeds and valerian. These drugs are characterized by the presence of a sedative effect.
If the diet and the above funds do not give positive results in stabilizing blood pressure, then the patient is recommended to seek help from a doctor. Only a specialist will be able to prescribe effective medications in accordance with the individual characteristics of the patient.
How to increase blood pressure?
If blood pressure has decreased to 90/60 ratios, then this requires appropriate measures. A pathological condition can be observed with low hemoglobin or low blood sugar. It also develops against the backdrop of malaise and a sharp overwork. This symptom often appears with lack of sleep.
If there is a malfunction in the digestive system or the thyroid gland, the coefficients may decrease. The pathological process is often observed with a sharp change in climate. In women, it can be observed during menstruation or at the end of it. If the human diet lacks nutrients, then this can lead to a decrease in blood pressure.
When a pathological condition appears, the patient is recommended to change his diet. Dishes should consist of fish and fatty meats. The use of chocolate, black tea and coffee is also recommended. The patient’s diet should consist of salted hard cheeses. Cooking is recommended from a variety of fatty dairy products. During cooking, the addition of ginger, pepper, seasoning is recommended. Experts recommend the consumption of nuts, sweets and dried fruits.
For an emergency increase in blood pressure, the use of tablets is recommended:
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Most experts do not recommend the use of chemicals. If a person has a persistent decrease in pressure, then he is recommended to consult a doctor to undergo an examination and prescribe adequate treatment.