What is a pre-infarction condition How to provide first aid for it

The morphological basis of the pre-infarction syndrome is based on the increase that the occlusion wall in the corresponding coronary artery acquires, which, for example, can develop due to an increase in thrombosis.

Returning directly to the heart attack itself, we note that it is not only an acute condition, but also leads to the necrosis of a certain area of ​​tissue in the heart muscle. Moreover, myocardial infarction can cause a halt, or even a heart break, and its effect can be expressed in ventricular fibrillation and the formation of an acute type of heart failure.

Naturally, any condition that provokes myocardial infarction can carry a more than serious risk to human life. Therefore, it will not be an exaggeration to highlight the fact that the timely recognition of symptoms of a pre-infarction condition will allow you to save the life of a person who, in fact, these symptoms arose.

What can a pre-infarction condition lead to?

In fact, the preinfarction state in different cases can vary in duration, severity and symptoms. You need to know very well the possible symptoms and be extremely vigilant. Chest pain can be a sign of unstable angina pectoris, which is much more dangerous than regular angina pectoris.

With any manifestation of the symptoms that we described above, without hesitation, consult a doctor so that he makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment as soon as possible, until the disease begins to progress.

Preinfarction condition: the main forms of manifestation

Preinfarction condition is also commonly defined as unstable angina pectoris. It includes situations of the following type:

  • Angina pectoris, arising for the first time.
  • Progressive angina pectoris. In this case, the condition provides for the presence in the past of angina attacks with their frequent manifestation in recent times. Here, situations with the occurrence of prolonged and more pronounced pains, with a change in their localization and the appearance of irradiation (that is, the spread of pain in areas outside the heart muscle) are noted here. The elimination of pain involves the use of more nitroglycerin than before.
  • Angina pectoris (with the occurrence of earlier angina pectoris). Pain in this case occurs after physical exertion in one form or another.
  • Early angina pectoris. Attacks of pain occur in the period from the first day to a month from the moment of myocardial infarction.
  • Angina pectoris after shunting. An operation of this kind is performed if, due to atherosclerotic plaques, the lumen is narrowed in the large arteries of the heart.
  • Prinzmetal angina, arising from a spasm in the coronary arteries. It is characterized by severe pain attacks, manifested mainly in the morning.

Remember .

Symptoms of a pre-infarction state are also characterized by the fact that acute chest pain occurs during general stress of the body and subsides after a short rest.

A heart attack can be identified by the following symptoms. It causes much more severe chest pain, and can last more than 5 minutes. In this case, the pain will not go away, even if you rest.

In conclusion, it is worth saying that preventing heart disease is easier than curing them. This is the best advice for those who want to always be healthy and full of vitality and energy. For this reason, it is important to undergo appropriate medical examinations from time to time. They will help to detect heart problems in a timely manner and prevent them through the immediate necessary treatment.

Symptoms of major heart diseases in women Heart disease is one of the most common causes of death in our time. It is very important to be able to recognize their symptoms on time .

Causes of myocardial infarction

Recognizing a classic myocardial infarction is easy. The most characteristic symptom of the pathology is acute, compressive pain behind the sternum. People describe her as “an elephant sitting on his chest.” The pain can spread to both hands (usually the left), the neck, back, upper abdomen, lower jaw. It differs from bouts of angina pectoris by its longer duration, intensity of pain, lack of effect from nitroglycerin intake.

Other possible symptoms:

  • headache;
  • dizziness;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • sweating;
  • rapid and / or irregular heartbeat;
  • dyspnea;
  • anxiety, a feeling of impending death;
  • nausea;
  • indigestion.

However, even with the classic course of a heart attack, the pain is not intense enough. People ignore minor thoracic discomfort, they seek late emergency treatment and treatment.

In addition to the classical, there are atypical forms of myocardial infarction, which are much more difficult to recognize. You can read more about symptoms of myocardial infarction in articles on heart attack symptoms in men and women.

The manifestation of a pre-infarction state can occur for a number of different reasons:

  • the presence of bad habits, including alcohol abuse and smoking;
  • the use of foods with high cholesterol, which negatively affects the vessels in the body (cholesterol slowly begins to kill them, contributing to the appearance of plaques on their walls);
  • diabetes mellitus (people who suffer from this disease are at risk);
  • large physical exertion;
  • regular severe stresses that accompany a person literally everywhere.

It is the last reason that most often provokes a pre-infarction state.

Almost always, the cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis of the cardiac (coronary) arteries. Atherosclerotic plaque in the process of growth accumulates cholesterol and other lipids, becomes more friable and ruptures, causing the formation of a blood clot. There is a spasm of the smooth muscles of the vessel wall. Blood flow decreases, the myocardium lacks nutrients and oxygen, tissue necrosis occurs.

Atherosclerosis Risk Factors:

  • elevated blood cholesterol and triglycerides;
  • high blood pressure;
  • smoking;
  • dehydration;
  • obesity;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • male gender;
  • age;
  • heredity;
  • metabolic disorders (gout, diabetes, amyloidosis)
  • hormonal disorders.

The load on the heart muscle, the influence of hormones and hormone-like substances, nervous regulation, blood circulation bypasses, and other factors are also important.

Rare causes of heart attack:

  • inflammation of the heart and arteries;
  • arterial injury;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • aortic dissection;
  • blockage of coronary vessels by detached blood clots or tumors;
  • malformations of the heart and blood vessels;
  • carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide poisoning;
  • increased blood viscosity;
  • heart bruise;
  • cocaine use.

Exercises – chemical, physical, mental, circadian (associated with a circadian rhythm) – often provoke the onset of a heart attack in people with coronary vessels narrowed due to atherosclerosis.

The first sign of myocardial infarction is pain. The pain may be accompanied by tingling, burning, a feeling of constriction and heaviness in the chest. In most cases, it captures the left side of the body, including the neck, jaw and back. To the sternum, pain sometimes does not spread at all. The duration of the pain syndrome varies from 15 minutes to several hours.

Symptoms are similar to angina pectoris. Panic attacks, in which patients develop bouts of fear, phobia, and unreasonable anxiety, may indicate an approach of a heart attack. Manifestations are accompanied by circulatory disorders. In this case, an ambulance must be called as soon as possible. Otherwise, tissue necrosis and the onset of sudden death are possible.

Signs of myocardial infarction at the initial stage are:

  • Shortness of breath, shortness of breath.
  • Numbness of the upper limbs, leading to loss of sensation. Manifestations are the result of poor blood supply.
  • Blanching of the skin and discoloration of the mucous membranes.
  • Increased sweating.
  • Decrease in body temperature.
  • Pressure instability.
  • Tachycardia attacks: alternating increased heart rate and complete absence of a heartbeat.
  • Coordination and speech disorders.
  • Pain in the epigastric region, attacks of nausea, vomiting, heartburn.

In men, these manifestations are more pronounced, which allows to identify pathology faster. A much greater danger is the hidden onset of the disease, which is usually observed in women. An acute heart attack cannot be cured without consequences. In women who have crossed the 50-year milestone, its occurrence often occurs during menopause, due to the cessation of estrogen production by the body.

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Myocardial infarction is caused by certain causes and a number of predisposing factors. Among them are:

  • Reinforced physical activity.
  • Psychological and emotional overstrain.
  • Passive lifestyle.
  • The presence of excess weight, obesity.
  • Violation of metabolic processes in the body.
  • Alcoholism and smoking. During smoking, blood pressure rises and oxygen content in the blood decreases.
  • Наследственность.

Among the diseases against which a heart attack can occur, there are:

  • Atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels. As a result of the formation of plaques and their deposition on the inner vascular walls, a narrowing of the lumen occurs, which entails a violation of the blood flow and the development of thrombosis.
  • Hypertensive heart disease, characterized by increased pressure, resulting in an increased need for oxygen to the myocardium.
  • Ischemia, in which there is a chronicity of coronary circulation disorders.
  • Any type of diabetes.
  • Previous heart attacks.

In veterinary medicine, five periods of the course of myocardial infarction are clinically distinguished:

  1. preinfarction or prodromal lasts from several hours to a month, although it may be absent;
  2. the acute period begins with the onset of severe myocardial ischemia and lasts until signs of necrosis appear;
  3. the acute period is characterized by the formation of necrosis and a course for two to fourteen days;
  4. the subacute period is the completion of scar formation, the replacement of necrotic tissue with granulation tissue. It can last up to eight weeks from the onset of the disease;
  5. the post-infarction period is characterized by scar compaction, and the myocardium is maximally adapted to new working conditions within six months from the onset of a heart attack
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Self-medication in such a situation is dangerous to the life of the animal. It is urgent to call a veterinarian to your home or to bring a dog to a round-the-clock veterinary clinic. Before that, the animal is left in peace and quiet.

In most cases, the dog quickly copes with myocardial infarction, because its heart has many collateral vessels. Instead of damaged areas, they quickly take on the load.

  • Antianginal drugs are widely used in veterinary medicine to relieve shock and a speedy recovery.
  • Heparin is administered to prevent thromboembolic complications
  • Vitamin therapy and diet are also needed.
  • Nutrition should be based on easily digestible lactic acid and carbohydrate fortified feed.
  • Fats, sweets and spices are excluded from the diet of the animal
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Causes and symptoms of a heart attack in dogs

The development of the pre-infarction state is affected by a number of reasons that are very similar to factors stimulating the development of other diseases of the heart muscle.

The main reasons provoking a pre-infarction condition:

  • High pressure ;
  • Severe stress, constant overwork, irregular schedule;
  • In some cases, even colds are provocateurs of the development of the condition preceding a heart attack;
  • Alcohol, as a rule, an overdose of alcohol-containing drinks is one of the most common causes of disturbances in the functioning of the heart;
  • Illiterate use of drugs, drug overdose;
  • Thermal shock can also cause a pre-infarction condition;
  • Sharp, excessive physical activity, especially in cases where the load is not familiar to the body. Oddly enough, even athletes are at risk, especially those involved in power sports;
  • Hypothermia;
  • Smoking;
  • The presence of heart disease. High risk in those people who do not follow the doctor’s recommendations refuse treatment.

1. Strong psycho-emotional overstrain and stress.

2. Excessive physical overwork.

3. Overheating in the sun.

4. Frequent drinking.

5. Frequent smoking (including second-hand smoke).

6. Overdose of certain types of drugs.

9. Progressive hypertension (hypertensive crisis).

10. Excessively intense sports training.

11. Elevated blood cholesterol, which clogs the blood vessels of the heart.

12. Acute or chronic heart failure.

13. Severe heart disease, which gave complications in the form of unstable angina pectoris.

Symptoms of a pre-infarction state in women

Does the patient’s symptoms resemble myocardial infarction? The first action is an emergency call. This must be done even if there is doubt about the correctness of the diagnosis. After all, the symptoms of a heart attack are ambiguous. Even doctors make a diagnosis only after additional studies.

First aid for myocardial infarction before the ambulance arrives.

As soon as you suspect a heart attack – convince the victim to stop current activities, help him lie down. Sometimes this is not easy. Patients are often agitated, irritable, or vice versa closed, suspended. However, physical, mental peace is very important for reducing heart load.

Therefore, the next step is tranquility. Talk to the victim, give water. The use of sedatives is possible, but undesirable, can aggravate the patient’s condition.

Ask if the patient has contraindications for taking aspirin. No – give the pill. The medicine should be chewed slowly, and then swallowed with a little water. So aspirin is much faster to digest. Taking the drug slows the growth of the blood clot, prevents the formation of new formations.

Then, a nitroglycerin tablet is placed under the patient’s tongue. Before that, be sure to check if he has any contraindications, count the pulse, measure the pressure. Weak, slow pulse, low blood pressure (less than 90/60 mm Hg) – a contraindication to taking the drug. Nitroglycerin helps to reduce heart rate, lower blood pressure.

Next, you should wait for the ambulance to arrive, controlling the pulse, the pressure of the victim. It is forbidden to leave the patient alone, send another person for aspirin or skip this step. After all, if the victim’s heart stops, he will need emergency care here and now.

First aid for myocardial infarction is to itself just like someone else. But there is one significant difference. Only three recommendations are binding: immediately call a doctor, take a half-sitting position, move less. The remaining steps must be performed as far as possible.

For example, if the window is closed tightly or it is impossible to reach it without a stool, leave the window closed. Excessive movements will do much more harm than good. For the same reason, refuse to search for aspirin or nitroglycerin tablets. There is at hand or easy to get – accept, no – sit down, wait for a doctor.

A pre-infarction condition does not appear in one day. Therefore, you can recognize the symptoms in the early stages and start treating the disease in time. Signs to pay attention to:

  • pain periodically occurs in the heart, in the side on the right or in the right shoulder blade;
  • sometimes weakness occurs;
  • there was a feeling that there was not enough air.

With these symptoms, the key is the word “periodically.” This is not a regular phenomenon, it occurs sometimes and then passes. That is why many do not take this seriously. Although, if such symptoms are detected, you should already consult a doctor for an examination.

In the event of the first signs of a heart attack, the victim must call an ambulance as soon as possible. While waiting, he is put to bed with a raised headboard. When the body is upright, there is a risk of injury in case of loss of consciousness. The patient needs to provide an influx of fresh air: open the window or window. It is necessary to free the patient from the tight elements of clothing: unfasten the upper buttons, loosen the tie and belts.

A prerequisite is the exclusion of any physical activity. The patient should not smoke, eat and get out of bed.

If nitroglycerin is at hand during an attack, you can use it. This drug has a vasodilating effect. The tablets are placed under the tongue every 15 minutes. If after three meals a day the pain in the heart does not recede, then it is not worth giving the patient. Acetylsalicylic acid is recommended, which, in addition to the analgesic effect, thins the blood and prevents the formation of blood clots.

In case of cardiac arrest, artificial respiration and indirect heart massage will be required for the patient. Further events are held in a hospital setting.


In the pre-infarction state, it is very important to provide first aid, this will not only save a person’s life, but also save you from serious complications. First aid for a pre-infarction condition is of particular importance, because if it is indicated correctly and in a timely manner, the condition will not go into a heart attack.

At the prehospital stage, it is necessary:

  • To provide the patient with complete rest, in the form of bed rest, it is better to rid his irritants. The most optimal body position for heart pain is half-sitting.
  • Be sure to call the doctors.
  • Relieve anxiety, calm the patient. To do this, use such sedatives as: tincture of motherwort, valerian, corvalol, etc. It is better to use those sedatives that are the patient’s habits.
  • Exclude any physical activity.
  • Ensure a normal temperature in the room, with a stream of fresh air. In this case, hypothermia should be avoided.
  • Remove restrained movements and breathing clothing. It is best for the patient to wear simple and light home clothes.
  • It is advisable to take a nitroglycerin tablet or similar drugs.
  • Measure the pressure and, on this basis, give tablets to increase or decrease the pressure.

If you can not stop the symptoms of a pre-infarction condition on your own, urgent medical attention is needed

The main task of emergency ambulance in the pre-infarction state is to prevent the development of a heart attack and relieve acute pain.

1. Lay the person in a horizontal position on high pillows so that he is in a half-sitting state.

2. To reassure the patient and give him tincture of valerian or motherwort.

3. Open the window to make it easier to breathe. You also need to rid the patient of a tight tie, loosen the belt or replace a sweater with a tight neck.

4. It should be controlled so that a person in this state does not get up and in no case was engaged in physical activity, as this can give an impetus to the development of acute heart attack.

5. For the prevention of thrombosis, a person can be given the drug Heparin. It will not only have its anticoagulant effect, but also weaken the severity of the attack of angina pectoris. Moreover, this drug will improve lipid metabolism, which plays a very important role in the treatment of acute angina pectoris.

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6. Also, the patient can be given one tablet of Nitroglycerin. After taking it, a person may feel dizzy, but this is not dangerous, since such an effect of the drug passes quickly.

7. It is very important to periodically measure the patient’s blood pressure until the emergency doctors arrive. With obvious tachycardia, you can give a person one tablet of Anaprilin.

In a pre-infarction state, just stopping an attack of angina pectoris will not be enough. A person must be hospitalized in a hospital, conduct examinations and prescribe therapeutic therapy.

Preinfarction condition: treatment methods

Immediately after hospitalization, the patient undergoes a cardiogram of the heart. After that, the doctor writes an individual treatment regimen. It is aimed at preventing the development of necrosis of the heart muscle (prevention of heart attack).

1. The appointment of antispasmodics for chest pain.

2. The appointment of anticoagulants and beta-blockers.

3. The patient must always observe bed rest and minimize the load on the heart.

4. A therapeutic diet is indicated. It provides for a complete rejection of salty, fatty, fried and sweet. All dishes should be very light and well digestible. It is advisable for a person to eat cereals, vegetable soups, cottage cheese and kefir.

5. The patient needs to constantly monitor indicators of the heart and blood pressure.

6. Prescription of antiarrhythmic drugs (Cordinorm).

7. It is mandatory for a person to prescribe drugs of the calcium antagonist group. They will help supply oxygen to the heart muscles. The best drugs in this group are Nifedipine and Corinfar.

In the absence of clinical improvements in the patient’s condition (with drug therapy), the patient is prescribed surgical treatment. As a rule, aortocoronary bypass grafting is performed on a person. It is important to do this operation no later than six hours after the first signs of pain. Using this procedure, the development of myocardial infarction can be prevented.

Preinfarction condition: treatment, prevention

1. To control your weight and prevent obesity, since in this state an even greater burden is placed on the human heart. If you can’t lose weight yourself, you need to contact a nutritionist and gastroenterologist who will prescribe an individual diet and a general weight loss program.

2. Avoid worries, nervous strain and stress. At the same time, it is worth learning to control your psychoemotional state and remain collected even in critical situations.

3. To quit smoking and take alcoholic beverages, since in addition to total harm to the body, these habits do not bring absolutely any benefit.

4. Avoid severe physical fatigue and hypothermia.

5. At least once a year, contact a cardiologist and conduct a routine examination. Moreover, people over the age of forty are advised to examine their heart every six months.

6. It is very important to eat right. At the same time, the diet should be rich in fiber (most found in vegetables, herbs and fruits) with vitamins, protein foods (fish, meat, eggs) and other useful substances. Moreover, you need to completely abandon the use of fatty, fried foods, as well as minimize the consumption of animal fats. This is justified by the fact that such dishes contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol, which adversely affects the functioning of blood vessels.

7. Monitor laboratory blood counts (with high cholesterol, follow a diet).

8. Be physically active. This does not mean that you need to squeeze all the “juices” in the gym, but yoga, walking or regular swimming will be very useful.

9. With hypertension, you should always monitor your blood pressure and prevent its sudden changes.

10. In case of chronic heart disease, it is necessary to drink all the prescribed drugs. Also in this condition, you should maintain a special regime of the day and follow a diet.

11. When the first signs of a pre-infarction condition appear, one should not panic and try to wait until the simple illness is gone. It’s best not to endanger your health and call a doctor right away.

Prevention of a pre-infarction condition is of particular importance, because if you do not follow the doctor’s recommendations, then the condition will recur and will probably worsen.

Prevention is doubly necessary for those who once suffered a heart attack, since in the second case the probability of death increases several times.

In order to maintain your body in good condition, you must follow these rules:

  • Regular intake of vascular and cardiac drugs, as prescribed by the doctor. Violation of recommendations, overdose or refusal to take can lead to death.
  • Pressure and cholesterol control.
  • Diet. Refusal from fried, fatty, salty foods. Ban on overeating. It is best to consume more fruits and vegetables. It is best to cook steamed, use lean meat. Refusal of coffee, carbonated drinks, strong tea is also recommended.
  • The balance between work and rest, avoiding overwork. Moderate stress, avoidance of nervous strain. You can engage in physical therapy. Healthy sleep in a ventilated room.
  • Visit to a specialist. It is advisable to visit the hospital from time to time and take all the necessary tests in order to identify pathological disorders in the early stages and begin treatment.
  • Avoidance of stress, nervous strain.

It is important to remember that all these measures do not give a 100% guarantee that a person will no longer encounter diseases. But, only observing these rules, visiting a doctor and following his recommendations significantly reduce the likelihood of a re-occurrence of a pre-infarction condition or death.

If you do not go to the doctor when the first signs of a pre-infarction state appear, this will result in myocardial infarction. That is why when the slightest suspicion appears, you should visit a cardiologist.

Diagnosis of this disease is reduced to examining the patient with a doctor and conducting an ECG, which the cardiologist subsequently decrypts. After this, the patient is usually placed in a hospital, as a rule, this is an intensive care unit. Treatment consists in taking special medications. Also, the patient will be provided with complete rest, silence and a sparing diet, in which there will be a minimum cholesterol content.

Also, the patient should independently monitor blood pressure. You should abandon strong stresses, emotional and physical, try to adhere to proper nutrition and get enough sleep.

Those who have pathologies of the cardiovascular system should carefully monitor their condition and be constantly monitored by a doctor. For everyone who is at risk for a pre-infarction condition, there are special preventive recommendations to avoid the onset of a pre-infarction condition. Among them:

  • taking drugs for the cardiovascular system, which should be prescribed by a doctor;
  • regular monitoring of blood pressure;
  • proper nutrition and monitoring of cholesterol;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • maintaining an active and healthy lifestyle;
  • observe the regime of good rest and sleep.

By adhering to these recommendations, you can significantly reduce the risk of a pre-infarction condition.

In cardiology, there are three main periods of myocardial infarction:

  • Acute, the duration of which is 10 days. There is a replacement of necrotic tissue granulation. At this stage, a high probability of death. To save lives, patients need resuscitation.
  • Subacute. Its duration is about a month. It is characterized by the fact that cells in the affected area are replaced by connective tissue. At the same time, a gradual improvement in the condition of patients is noted.
  • The period of scarring, during which the healing process and the formation of the scar. Its duration varies from 8 to 16,5 weeks.
  • Post-infarction. Scar compaction occurs, compensatory reactions are triggered in the body, and the heart adapts to work in new conditions. The duration of the post-infarction period is six months. At this time, the development of complications is not excluded.

People with a tendency to myocardial ischemia and their loved ones need to know how to behave when developing signs of pre-infarction, whether it is necessary to go to the doctor or call an ambulance. I also want to tell you how to behave before the doctor arrives and what measures will be taken after the patient enters the hospital.

If even the most minor symptoms appear, you should immediately go for an examination and begin treatment of a pre-infarction condition in a hospital. This is important, since it is an untimely visit to the doctor that often causes death in the first hours of myocardial necrosis.

If acute pain suddenly appears, if it occurs more often and more intensively, and a picture of autonomic disturbances is also observed, it is best to transport the patient in a special machine with a medical team. She will begin emergency care and take an ECG. In the case when the symptoms are not severe, you can go for a consultation with a cardiologist at the place of residence. But you do not need to stand in line, it should be clarified that a person has an acute attack and requires a quick response from a specialist.

Treatment of preinfarction begins with simple actions at home:

  • take the most relaxed and comfortable position (lying or sitting);
  • unfasten squeezing clothes;
  • open the window and give access to air;
  • calm down, drink a sedative;
  • put a tablet of “Nitroglycerin” under the tongue;
  • if there is no result, repeat the medication (every 5 minutes);
  • use Aspirin, and chew Captopril at high pressure.

Worse situation and when ambulance is required

If the patient ignores the previous symptoms, his condition worsens. Pain in the heart becomes stronger, felt more and more. Their duration also increases. The pain ceases to pass by itself; the patient has to take medicine to get rid of it. After taking the medication, my health improves, the pain goes away. At this stage, you should immediately contact a doctor.

If you ignored the second stage of the development of the disease, it will begin to progress. When there is severe pain in the area of ​​the heart, which constricts your movements and breathing, taking medications does not help to improve the condition. It is recommended to call an ambulance. In most cases, these signs are characteristic of the onset of a heart attack and the patient requires urgent medical attention.

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Many are in no hurry to receive signals from the body, because they are not aware of the consequences that a heart attack can entail. It affects the work of the whole organism. When a failure occurs in the blood supply to the heart muscle, this leads to necrosis of some of its parts. In some cases, a heart attack leads to heart failure.

Tachycardia begins to develop, accompanied by high blood pressure, nausea and a constant feeling of anxiety. A few weeks after the attack, you can observe aneurysm of the heart. Her symptoms are shortness of breath, a feeling of weakness and fever.

A heart attack can provoke the development of pericarditis when inflammation of the pericardial sac occurs. Signs of the disease are a fever attack, pain behind the sternum, shortness of breath, dry cough, and sometimes vomiting occurs.

The consequences of a pre-infarction condition are many. And all of them significantly worsen a person’s health and his quality of life. That is why it is important to pay attention to the signs of the disease in time and not to ignore your malaise. With timely and proper treatment, regular monitoring of the state of health, you can avoid not only the negative consequences, but also the heart attack itself.

The consequences of a heart attack can be different. The later treatment is started, the greater the likelihood of complications. As a result of a heart attack, pulmonary edema may occur, the heart may stop and death may occur. An extensive heart attack sometimes causes a shock.

The death of ventricular tissues leads to rupture of their walls. An attack can provoke regurgitation – a violation of the mitral valve. Serious complications of myocardial infarction are all kinds of arrhythmias, limb paralysis, aseptic pericarditis, circulatory failure, cardiac tamponade, thrombosis, thromboembolism.

The late consequences of the disease are: angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, Dressler syndrome, chronic left ventricular aneurysm.

The prognosis after a heart attack in most cases is unpredictable. The fact of irreversible changes that have occurred in the tissues of the heart remains known. After that, the body will no longer be able to fully perform its functions. In order to try to prevent a repeated heart attack and the development of other complications, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of the attending physician.


To make the correct diagnosis can be involved:

  • survey data (presence of angina pectoris, heart attack risk factors, complaints);
  • external signs;
  • general blood test (leukocytosis, increased ESR by the end of the first day of illness);
  • biochemical studies:
    • troponins;
    • creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and MB-KFK isoenzyme;
    • AST;
    • LDH and its 1st isoenzyme;
    • total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol;
    • triglycerides, glucose
    • α2- and γ-globulins, C-reactive protein.
  • ECG, if necessary – around the clock on the monitor screen, recording daily at the beginning of the disease;
  • Echocardiography and dopplerography;
  • blood coagulation indicators;
  • heart scintigraphy with 99Tc or 201Tl.
  • chest radiography.

The basis for the diagnosis of heart attack are patient complaints, research results (ECG, ultrasound of the heart, blood tests) and assessment of the patient’s condition after examination.

In a hospital, the victim will be given the necessary assistance: they will be given oxygen, they will stop the pain with morphine or other analgesics. If necessary, inhalation anesthesia can be used.

The first is carried out without taking into account the location of the thrombus, and the second involves the administration of the drug directly to the site of the clot. The meaning in the manipulation is only in the period from the first one and a half hours from the onset of the disease and in the next 6 hours. Without thrombolysis with heart attack, the risk of death is significantly increased.

In order to dilute blood, patients are prescribed heparin and anticoagulants. To prevent the formation of new clots, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin is performed. To facilitate the work of the heart muscle, reduce vascular spasms, reduce the load on the organ and improve blood flow, nitrates are included in the treatment regimen.

In order to ensure an energy-saving mode of operation of the heart in the event of an adrenaline rush into the blood, adrenoblockers are prescribed. To reduce the myocardial oxygen demand and prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques – ACE inhibitors.

With myocardial infarction, patients can be prescribed surgical treatment, which is carried out according to indications. It is advisable to consider the methods of surgery:

  • Coronary angioplasty involves implantation of a stent – a special metal structure – in order to restore blood flow. Stenting is an alternative to thrombolysis. It can not be performed after 12 hours after the initial manifestations of a heart attack. The technique of intervention is to expand the vessel in the thrombus zone by mechanical action, indent the clot into the vascular wall and install the stent into the lumen of the coronary artery. A significant disadvantage of this method is its high cost.
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting is an open heart operation. The intervention consists in transplanting the patient’s own veins in order to ensure oxygen delivery to the affected area and improve vascularization of the myocardium directly.

The rehabilitation period after surgery involves compliance with medical recommendations. Patients may be prescribed blood thinners, diet therapy, and exercise therapy.

The diet after surgery is developed individually and depends on the condition of the patient and his weight category. Food is recommended to be made fractional, at least 6 times a day. With elevated cholesterol, it is assumed that the intake of liver and eggs is limited.

High-calorie foods, salt, animal fats, fried, spicy foods and smoked foods, coffee and alcohol should be excluded from the diet.

Useful for the heart and recommended are products containing a large amount:

  • iodine: low-fat varieties of sea fish, seafood;
  • potassium: pumpkin, blackcurrant, raisins, dried apricots, prunes, figs, rosehips, dried apples and parsley;
  • quercetin: apple juice and apples;
  • magnesium: buckwheat, barley, wheat, oatmeal, walnuts, peas, bananas, carrots and beets.

Do not eat foods that cause fermentation in the stomach.

Diagnosis of a pre-infarction condition is the work of a cardiologist. To make a conclusion about the presence of such a condition in a patient can only field of a number of examinations. External signs of the disorder can be misleading and not always guaranteed to mean the onset of angina pectoris.

  • General blood analysis ;
  • First of all, during the diagnosis, the doctor examines the patient’s complaints, the nature and time of the onset of symptoms.
  • It is important to know whether the patient has undergone surgery, whether there are cases of heart disease in the patient’s family;
  • Ultrasound procedure ;
  • One of the most important procedures is an electrocardiogram (ECG), the cheapest and most effective way to detect cardiac abnormalities;
  • Magnetic resonance therapy.

And only after a full range of examinations does the specialist conclude that there is or is not a disease.

ECG is the most affordable diagnostic method for detecting heart disorders


  • Cardiogenic shock;
  • pericarditis, pleurisy, pneumonitis;
  • arrhythmias;
  • unstable post-infarction angina pectoris;
  • sudden death;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • heart failure;
  • left ventricular aneurysm;
  • rupture of the wall of the heart;
  • blockage of blood vessels by blood clots;
  • exacerbation of chronic diseases of other organs.

In order to prevent myocardial infarction, you need:

  • no smoking;
  • avo >

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a pathology, the occurrence of which is caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart, as a result of which part of the cells of the heart muscle die. Signs of a heart attack are signs such as mild malaise, fatigue, high blood pressure, etc. MI often results in death. This can be avoided by having an idea of ​​the initial manifestations of the disease.

A heart attack can occur both against the background of other diseases, and under the influence of predisposing factors: overeating, stressful situations, physical exertion. The percentage of mortality from a heart attack is quite high. Very often, doctors do not have time to save the lives of patients when MI is detected. The victims are most often people in old age, especially men, although mortality from heart attack is higher in women.

How to recognize a smoker’s cough and get rid of symptoms at home

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.