Urine analysis for diabetes mellitus norms and decoding

Diabetes mellitus at any time can give complications, which are very important to identify at the initial stages of development. In most cases of complicated conditions of the disease, it is the kidneys that are affected.

A urine test can provide a doctor with information that cannot be obtained from other tests. It gives an idea of ​​the course of the internal processes of the body, allowing timely detection of a critical increase in sugar levels, which is called hyperglycemia.

It is also possible to detect kidney disease at an early stage, when it is most responsive to treatment. If a patient with diabetes does not have any complaints, then taking tests is mandatory at least twice a year.

What tests should I take?

In the normal course of the disease, a patient with diabetes mellitus should have a general urine test. If the doctor discovers significant deviations from the norm, then the degree of kidney damage is already diagnosed. To find out how much the kidneys are already affected, the Nechiporenko method and other tests are used.

Normative indicators

  • Color: yellow, light to dark shades.
  • Transparency: transparent.
  • Smell: none.
  • Density: ranges from 1012 to 1025 grams per liter.
  • Urine pH response: Normal ranges from 5,0 to 7,0.
  • Protein content: None, or up to 0,033 g per liter.
  • Glucose content: None.
  • Leukocytes: 1-3 in the field of view.
  • Ketone bodies: none.

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Preparing to pass urine

Before passing urine, it is important to fulfill several requirements, the accuracy of the study depends on them:

  • A few days before delivery, do not eat food, which can lead to a change in the color of the liquid.
  • If possible, for a while before taking the test, stop taking medications that contain dyes.
  • Carry out hygiene procedures for the external genital organs.
  • You can not collect urine for women during critical days.


Collect urine in the morning, which has accumulated in the bladder overnight. A small portion of the liquid should be drained into the toilet, and then, without stopping the urination process, collect about 50 ml of liquid in a special disposable container.

After urinating, close the container with a lid and take it to the laboratory of the medical institution for research. The collected liquid should not be stored for more than two hours, otherwise irreversible processes occur in it, which can distort the results of laboratory research.

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Urine color in the presence of diabetes

Urine can lose its color in diabetes mellitus, but this indicator is not decisive, since it is influenced by many factors: from the amount of fluid a person has drunk to the presence of various infections and diseases.

Results and their interpretation

  • Color: with diabetes, partial or complete discoloration of the liquid is possible. Many factors can affect color. With dehydration, the shade becomes more saturated, and the color change also occurs when taking various medications and food, which contain dyes.
  • Clarity: Haze is the main indicator of the protein content.
  • Odor: a pungent, acetone odor indicates the release of ketone bodies into the urine, which are a harbinger of one of the complications – ketoacidosis, which, if not treated promptly, leads to a ketoacidotic coma.
  • Density: exceeding the threshold of 1030 g/l indicates the release of a large amount of organic substances. High density can also be due to some glucose and protein content. Density less than 1010 g/l is possible due to excessive intake of drinking fluids. Another possible cause of decreased density is renal failure.
  • Urine reaction (pH): An increase in pH above 7,0 indicates the possible presence of viruses in the genitourinary system, chronic renal failure, or may occur after repeated vomiting or eating large amounts of plant foods. A pH value below 4,5 indicates the content of a large amount of acids and may indicate diabetes mellitus, a lack of potassium in the body. Also, acidity increases due to diarrhea, dehydration, intake of large quantities of meat-containing products.
  • The presence of a protein component: protein content above 0,033 g/l is possible after intense sports activities or after recent stress. If the patient was at rest on the eve of the analysis, then the presence of protein in the urine is a symptom of many pathological conditions, most often kidney problems.
  • Glucose: is an essential factor in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus. The presence of any amount of glucose in the urine indicates pathological changes in the body, including diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, pancreatic dysfunction, and others.
  • Leukocytes: An increased white blood cell count is always a sign of inflammation in the genitourinary system. Excessive leukocyte counts appear as pus. In the presence of kidney and ureteral stones together with infection, these manifestations are also possible.
  • Ketone bodies: are the result of metabolic disorders due to insulin deficiency. They are also the source of an unpleasant, pungent acetone odor.

When and with what results is there cause for concern?

The danger is the presence of glucose, protein and ketone bodies. The latter are often accompanied by a pungent acetone odor emanating from urine. If glucose is found in the urine, then the patient has already exceeded its amount excessively, since initially glucose is contained only in the blood. This condition is called hyperglycemia.

If one or more of the signs listed above are found in the analysis results, then it is very important to contact a specialist in time. In any case, the doctor prescribes additional studies to clarify the diagnosis. A postponement of a visit to a medical institution can threaten the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic coma and concomitant renal failure.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.