Pills for pressure under the tongue are taken for the speed of their therapeutic action. If you take the tablets inside, they begin to dissolve only in the stomach, from where the active substance enters the bloodstream through the mucous membrane. This route takes more time, as opposed to sublingual administration, when the tablets dissolve in the mouth. For example, nitroglycerin, which dilates the vessels of the heart, is not swallowed, but absorbed under the tongue.
Causes of high blood pressure
Blood pressure is normally not constant throughout the day. It is minimal at 3 a.m., rises by 10 a.m., remains stable during the day, and begins to decline late in the evening. Increased pressure is observed with high physical exertion, as a result of intense work of the heart. As a disease, arterial hypertension or hypertension is caused by many factors:
- salt consumption more than 300 mg per day,
- smoking, as nicotine constricts blood vessels,
- excessive alcohol intake,
- psycho-emotional stress at work and in life,
- a sedentary lifestyle, insufficient muscle development,
- metabolic disorders that cause vascular atherosclerosis,
- age-related changes in blood vessels in people over 35 years old,
- obesity phenomena leading to overweight,
- genetic conditioning of high blood pressure,
- excessive consumption of drinks with caffeine,
- dysfunction of the endocrine glands,
- influence of meteorological factors,
- inflammatory kidney disease.
A combination of adverse factors, the decisive of which are stress and excessive salt intake, gradually lead to constant high blood pressure. This state of the blood vessels is a risk factor for the appearance of hypertensive crises, when blood pressure rises sharply, to critical values.
Dangers of a sharp increase in blood pressure
The heart, like a pump, drives blood through the body through the arteries, collecting it with the help of veins. As a liquid, blood resists movement, so a certain pressure is created, which the heart overcomes. The blood pressure rate is usually expressed in millimeters of mercury, it is 120 mm in a healthy adult person during contraction of the heart muscle and 80 mm during its relaxation. Arterial hypertension means an increase in pressure relative to normal for a long period. They learned to heal her.
Dangers arise when blood pressure rises rapidly, to critical values, causing the following pathological conditions:
- sudden visual impairment caused by rupture of retinal vessels, hemorrhage, which can lead to blindness,
- impaired renal function, with symptoms of renal failure,
- an attack of ischemic heart disease, with pain syndrome,
- acute attack of heart failure with loss of consciousness,
- cerebral hemorrhage (ischemic stroke), leading to paralysis and paresis of the whole body or half of it,
- an attack of angina pectoris with severe heart pain, symptoms of heart and respiratory failure,
- myocardial infarction, manifested by necrosis of a portion of the heart muscle, with severe pain, clouding and loss of consciousness, fear,
- actually a hypertensive crisis after a strong psychoemotional stress, accompanied by headache, darkening of consciousness, symptoms of heart failure, nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms and signs of a sudden rise in blood pressure
The superposition of critical factors leading to a jump in blood pressure leads to the fact that there is a risk of strokes and heart attacks. The fact that a person is in a state of health hazard is evidenced by the following symptoms:
- There is a sudden and severe headache in the occipital region, pressing in nature.
- Flickering “flies” appear before the eyes, visual acuity drops sharply, “it becomes dark” in the eyes.
- The head is spinning, the gait becomes “drunk”, landmarks in space are lost.
- They suffer from bouts of nausea and vomiting that do not bring relief.
- Pains appear in the chest and in the heart.
When these symptoms and signs appear, blood pressure should be measured with a home blood pressure monitor. Exceeding the maximum blood pressure above the norm to 160 and above mm Hg. Art. means that the patient needs urgent medical attention. It consists in calling an ambulance, and before her arrival, taking special fast-acting vasodilators.
Rapid-acting drugs for high blood pressure
Sublingual administration of drugs, the same as sublingual, ensures rapid absorption of the drug into the bloodstream, which is due to the presence of many blood vessels under the tongue, through the walls of which the drug flows directly into the bloodstream, similar to intravenous administration. The active substance of the drug is not destroyed in the stomach and intestines, does not have time to cause an allergic reaction.
Council. Read the instructions carefully before taking sublingual tablets. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap, dry them with a clean towel, to avoid getting germs on the drug. After that, take out the pill from the package and place it under the tongue.
In case of emergency, before the arrival of an ambulance, you must do the following:
- to give the patient a comfortable position in a sitting or lying position,
- measure blood pressure with a tonometer,
- provide fresh air supply,
- free from embarrassing clothing,
- give sublingual pressure pills,
- if possible, offer a sedative from the medicine cabinet.
Every pharmacy has a list of fast-acting drugs that lower blood pressure, so you should have them in your home medicine cabinet.
Table. Drugs that urgently dilate blood vessels
Name of the drug Features of reception and action Mechanism of action Captopril (Kapoten) Tablets are placed under the tongue, the effect is observed after 10 minutes Capoten, as an ACE inhibitor, or its analogue Captopril blocks the action of enzymes that provide vasoconstriction, exhibits a pronounced vasodilatory effect Clonidine (Clonidine) Under the tongue, acts after 15 minutes effect on the medulla oblongata and hypothalamus, inhibits excitation from the sympathetic nervous system, dilates blood vessels, relieves pain Under the tongue, acts in 5-20 minutes Nifedipine reduces the permeability of the cell wall for calcium ions, therefore the smooth muscles of the vessels relaxes, with the expansion of the lumen
Supplement drugs that lower blood pressure, drugs that have a sedative effect. The fact is that jumps in blood pressure are most often caused by the action of stress factors, emotional stress. The patient can be given:
After the sublingual (sublingual) tablets have worked, it is necessary, even before the ambulance arrived, to measure the blood pressure again and, if necessary, give the patient medicine for the heart.
Advice! If you are caring for an unconscious person, place the pill under your tongue and put him in a sitting position to prevent the pill from entering the respiratory tract.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Sublingual Medication
The medicine, if taken under the tongue, acts quickly, which makes it possible to provide emergency assistance to the patient in a critical situation. However, most drugs are available in tablets or capsules for oral administration and act indirectly by being absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Sublingual intake has the following advantages:
- the medicine has no contact with hydrochloric acid and gastric juice, intestinal and liver enzymes,
- a dense network of capillaries in the sublingual space contributes to the ingress of the drug directly into the blood,
- the rate of action of the drug when administered sublingually is similar to that when administered by injection
- the drug does not need to be washed down,
- can be taken anytime, anywhere.
If all medications were possible to take sublingually, then many problems with the gastrointestinal tract would disappear. It is possible to say about the unconditional advantages of sublingual intake only in some cases, since there are disadvantages and limitations:
- irritation of the oral mucosa,
- unpleasant taste
- poor absorption of drug components,
- short duration of the shown therapeutic action,
- yellow or pink dyes in tablets spoil the color of the tooth enamel.
Despite the simplicity of the sublingual reception and its prevalence at the present time, there are certain rules that must be followed. These rules did not arise on a whim, they are developed by the experience of many years of using this method. Here they are:
- it is necessary to take the pill under the tongue while sitting or standing, since in the supine position the pill can enter the respiratory tract,
- you can not take a pill under the tongue just before bedtime,
- while the tablet dissolves, do not eat or drink,
- during the absorption of the tablet under the tongue, do not smoke,
- when the pill dissolves, it is not recommended to talk,
- you need to know that the tablet dissolves on average about 10 minutes,
- after complete resorption of the pill, it is not recommended to drink and eat for another half hour.
High blood pressure is becoming a mandatory attribute of a modern person, even at a young age. This is due to hypodynamia and increased emotional and informational loads. If 20 years ago, the diagnosis of hypertension meant a stable excess of the norm for a long time, then now arterial hypertension increasingly affects relatively young people.
Of course, the scourge of modern man is stress, leading to hypertensive crises, dangerous complications.
The increased frequency of heart attacks and strokes at a fully working age is largely due to the fact that during the attack (pressure surge), the person was not provided with timely medical care. A modern person, in principle, needs to have sublingual pills for high blood pressure with him, not so much for himself as in order to help others on time.
Treatment of hypertension assumes that the patient adheres to the rules of conduct prescribed by the doctor and regularly takes medications for pressure. A patient with high blood pressure must always have fast-acting drugs with him, that is, Nitroglycerin, Nifedipine (read more here) and others, since sublingual administration is similar in effectiveness to an injection.
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