The circulatory system of animals

The circulatory system is divided into two closed communicating through the heart, but performing different tasks of the system. We are talking about the presence of two circles of blood circulation. They are called by specialists in medicine because of the isolation of the system, highlighting their two main types: large and small.

These circles have cardinal differences in both the structure, size, number of vessels involved, and functionality. The following table will help you learn more about their main functional differences.

Circles of blood circulationFunctionOther important features
GreatDelivery to the cells of all organs and systems of oxygen, nutrients, as well as the outflow of carbon dioxide, metabolic products. Transfer of hormones produced in the nuclei of the hypothalamus to organs in need.Time period 23-27 seconds
МалыйEnrichment of returned venous blood with oxygen for further transportation throughout the body.Lasts 4-5 seconds

As can be seen from the table, the circles perform completely different functions, but have the same significance for blood circulation. While the blood makes a cycle in the big circle once, inside the small one 5 cycles are performed in the same period of time.

In medical terminology, a term such as additional circles of blood circulation is also sometimes found:

  • cardiac – passes from the coronary arteries of the aorta, returns through the veins to the right atrium;
  • placental – circulates in the fetus, developing in the uterus;
  • willisium – located at the base of the human brain, acts as a reserve blood supply for blockage of blood vessels.

One way or another, all the extra circles are part of the big one or are directly dependent on it.

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Great Circle

From the name itself, you can understand that this circle is different in size, and accordingly the number of vessels involved. All circles begin with a contraction of the corresponding ventricle and end with the return of blood to the atrium.

The great circle originates in the contraction of the strongest left ventricle, the expulsion of blood into the aorta. Passing along its arc, the thoracic, abdominal segment, it is redistributed through the network of vessels through arterioles and capillaries to the corresponding organs, parts of the body.

It is through the means of capillaries that oxygen, nutrients, and hormones are released. With the outflow into the venules, it takes carbon dioxide, harmful substances formed by metabolic processes in the body.

Then, through the two largest veins (the hollow upper and lower), the blood returns to the right atrium, closing the cycle. It is possible to consider the diagram of circulating blood in a large circle in the figure below.

Schematic representation of the transition of arterial blood into venous, a large circle of blood circulation.

As can be seen in the diagram, the outflow of venous blood from unpaired organs of the human body does not occur directly to the inferior vena cava, but bypasses. Having saturated oxygen and nutrition with abdominal organs, the spleen rushes into the liver, where it is cleansed by capillaries. Only after this, filtered blood enters the inferior vena cava.

The kidneys also have filtering properties; a double capillary network allows venous blood to directly enter the vena cava.

Of great importance, despite a fairly short cycle, is the coronary circulation. The coronary arteries emerging from the aorta branch into smaller ones and bend around the heart.

Entering his muscle tissue, they are divided into capillaries that nourish the heart, and the outflow of blood is provided by three heart veins: small, medium, large, as well as tebezium and anterior heart.

Schematic distribution of arteries and veins providing heart nutrition.

Small Circle

The structure of the small circle includes much less involved vessels and organs. In the medical literature it is more often called pulmonary and not casual. It is this body that is the main ones in this chain.

Carried out by means of blood capillaries, entangling pulmonary vesicles, gas exchange is of great importance for the body. It is the small circle that subsequently enables the large circle to saturate the whole human body with enriched blood.

The pulmonary circle of blood circulation is closed.

Small blood flow in the following order:

  1. By contracting the right atrium, venous blood, darkened due to an excess of carbon dioxide in it, is pushed into the cavity of the right ventricle of the heart. The atrioventricular septum is closed at this point to prevent the return of blood to it.
  2. Under pressure of the muscle tissue of the ventricle, it is pushed into the pulmonary trunk, while the tricuspid valve separating the cavity with the atrium is closed.
  3. After blood enters the pulmonary artery, its valve closes, which excludes the possibility of its return to the ventricular cavity.
  4. Passing through a large artery, blood enters the site of its branching into capillaries, where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is saturated.
  5. Scarlet, purified, enriched blood through the pulmonary veins ends its cycle in the left atrium.

As you can see when comparing the two circuits of blood flow in a large circle, dark venous blood flows through the veins to the heart, and in the small scarlet it is purified and vice versa. The arteries of the pulmonary circle are filled with venous blood, while enriched scarlet goes through the arteries of the large.

Prevention of circulatory problems, treatment

The best option for preventing disease, maintaining full circulation of the large and small circle is prevention. Compliance with simple but effective rules will help a person not only strengthen the heart and blood vessels, but also prolong the youth of the body.

The main steps for the prevention of cardiovascular disease:

  • quitting smoking, alcohol;
  • maintaining a balanced diet;
  • playing sports, hardening;
  • compliance with the regime of work and rest;
  • healthy sleep;
  • regular preventive examinations.

Bad habits, unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk of diseases.

An annual examination by a medical professional will help with early detection of signs of impaired blood circulation. In case of detection of a disease of the initial stage of development, experts recommend drug treatment with drugs of the corresponding groups. Compliance with the instructions of the doctor increases the chances of a positive result.

Quite often, for the prevention and treatment of the pathologies described by the editors, patients use alternative methods of treatment and recipes. Such methods require prior consultation with your doctor. Based on the patient’s medical history, individual characteristics of his condition, the specialist will give detailed recommendations.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.