Spasm of the vessels of the lower extremities symptoms treatment

The causes of spasms of the vessels of the head are the most diverse: starting from the general condition of a person, ending with various pathologies that provoke the phenomenon.

The brain gets tired just like other parts of the body. With intense and prolonged work without the necessary rest, its blood supply deteriorates.

Fatigue can affect the state of the vessels of the brain and cause spasm

In this regard, such spasms can cause the following conditions:

  1. Lack of sleep.
  2. Overwork.
  3. Stressful situations.
  4. Lack of oxygen.
  5. Smoking.
  6. Changes in the condition of arteries associated with age.

In addition, spasms can cause hypothermia (a walk in frosty weather without a hat) or severe emotional situations.

Therefore, in any situation, you should remain calm, not worry and not worry about trifling occasions.

Cervical osteochondrosis is one of the common causes of spasms.

There are ailments that increase the likelihood of spasms. The causes of “cramps” in the head can be pathologies:

  • osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
  • tumor formations;
  • Thyroid gland diseases;
  • hypertensive disease;
  • renal dysfunction;
  • heart failure;
  • VSD.

Not every person is subject to this condition. There are certain categories of people who are more at risk of a similar body reaction.

The risk group includes those people who have:

  1. Relatives suffered a stroke or heart attack.
  2. Diabetes.
  3. Hypertension, angina pectoris.
  4. There is a tendency to thrombosis.
  5. Alcohol or nicotine addiction.
  6. The body is sensitive to weather changes.

Unbalanced and too emotional people are also prone to a pathological phenomenon.

Symptoms depend on the site of spasm and the size of the affected artery.

This feature is characterized by different locations and intensities, and it is possible to gradually spread to a wide area.

Additional symptoms of vessel spasms are the manifestations:

  • dizziness;
  • darkening, flickering of “flies” before the eyes;
  • pallor of face;
  • soreness in the eyes, neck;
  • sensation of tinnitus;
  • high / low blood pressure;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • increased feeling of fatigue;
  • numbness, tingling of lips and temples.

If spasm occurs as a precursor to a stroke or rupture of an aneurysm, then the patient may experience the following manifestations:

  1. Violation of speech.
  2. Loss of orientation.
  3. Loss of consciousness.
  4. Violation of coordination of movements.
  5. Memory losses.

Cramping can develop quickly, then the symptoms appear suddenly and are pronounced.

In chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, the symptoms are less pronounced, but this condition can be more dangerous due to its complications.

Many patients are interested in how to relieve spasm and prevent its reappearance.

Therapy is complex, because it is necessary to eliminate the cause of the disease, to resume the nervous regulation of arteries, to normalize blood circulation.

Pathology is treated conservatively. The doctor prescribes certain medications, physiotherapeutic procedures, and a diet.

Physiotherapy is an effective treatment for cramping

Drug treatment has already been reviewed previously.

As for physiotherapeutic treatment, the following types of procedures can be prescribed to a patient:

  • electrophoresis;
  • oxygen therapy;
  • balneotherapy;
  • magnetotherapy;
  • darsonvalization;
  • hydrotherapy.

In addition, the patient is prescribed a massage of the neck and neck area, physiotherapy exercises to improve blood circulation.

Following a diet will help strengthen the vascular walls, increase their elasticity and normalize blood circulation. To do this, follow the rules:

  1. Eat plenty of vegetables, fruits, greens.
  2. Refuse fatty meat, fried foods, smoked meats, coffee, black tea, mayonnaise.

The diet should include a large amount of raw food: vegetables, fruits, greens.

In addition to all of the above, the patient should give up smoking and alcohol, establish a daily regimen and avoid stressful situations.

The main reason for the occurrence of a spasmodic reaction lies in the biochemical processes of the body. With a disorder in the transport of calcium, sodium and potassium ions, a frequent reduction in smooth muscle occurs, as well as spasm of the vascular walls, as a result of which the muscle tone remains high all the time.

As a rule, angiospasm is localized in nature and occurs only in the area of ​​lesions – inflammatory processes, aneurysms, blood clots, without affecting the entire bloodstream. As a result of the narrowing of the vessels, the tissue sites in the zone of angiospasm do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients that are transported by blood. If this phenomenon becomes permanent, ischemia may occur.

A spasm can be physiological in nature – this is one of the varieties of the body’s defensive reaction. So, a similar physiological reaction can occur as a result of injuries or injuries (even with minor damage to the tissues of the hands and feet). A similar reaction occurs with severe hypothermia, in which spasm performs a protective function – heat conservation to ensure blood circulation in other, more important organs.

A pathological spasm occurs as a massive reaction to a certain irritating factor. For example, with hypothermia of the legs or hands, the heat causes a sufficiently rapid expansion of the vascular walls, but in the case of pathology, a strong blanching of the skin surface appears.

Angiospasm is the first signal indicating a violation of the cardiovascular system. Often this phenomenon is ignored due to the fact that it does not cause much discomfort and does not continue for a long time. But over time, cramping can lead to a number of negative consequences:

  • Frequent cramping leads to increased swelling of the tissues;
  • The walls of blood vessels weaken, which in the end result leads to circulatory disturbance;
  • Ischemia gradually develops, which can cause the loss of working capacity of the damaged organ, as well as necrotic changes.

Most often, a spasm of the vessels of the lower extremities is observed. It can occur as a result of narrowing of the channel of the vascular periphery, and as a result of spasm of the main vessels. In more rare cases, cerebral or coronary spasm may appear.

Initial symptoms are best seen in circulatory disorders in peripheral vessels and capillaries. As a rule, the following symptoms occur with angiospasm:

  • White finger syndrome or Raynaud’s disease appears. It is characterized by bleeding of the extremities (both arms and legs), the fingers become marble-white, the sensitivity disappears and the temperature of the tissues decreases.
  • Mesh Livedo. On the surface of the tissues, most often in the area of ​​the legs, some areas become bluish, and the skin around becomes pale.
  • Severe swelling. Most often it arises as a result of the development of Livedo, subject to ongoing cramping.
  • Cramps. In the event that the cramps become permanent, a seizure of the limb may occur, in which blood circulation is impaired.
  • Spasms of the great vessels lead to the appearance of a symptom such as “commander’s leg”. The phenomenon is very similar to Raynaud’s disease, but the whitening of tissues is observed on the entire surface of the legs, and not just the fingers or feet. With prolonged cramping, the skin may become a bluish tint.
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If the vessels are narrowed not only in the region of the lower or upper extremities, but also in large vessels in the body area, a number of other symptoms may appear, such as headache attacks, visual impairment and cognitive abilities in cerebral spasm, soreness of the body and somatic disorders systems in case of spasms in the trunk.

It is forbidden to conduct an independent treatment of pathology. In 95% of cases, angiospasm occurs not as an independent disease, but as secondary symptoms in another disease. Without a thorough diagnosis and clinical studies, getting rid of the pathology is impossible.

As a rule, conservative treatment is used, which consists in diagnosing diseases or factors that provoked the appearance of angiospasm. To eliminate narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels, measures such as the determination and treatment of the underlying disease (atherosclerosis, hypertension, inflammatory processes), restoration of the nervous system and elimination of the negative consequences that have developed as a result of the existing pathology are used.

Each living organism has its own adaptation mechanisms necessary for further survival. Man is no exception. Vascular narrowing occurs with traumatic tissue damage, which makes it possible to avoid large blood loss, and thus contributes to survival. Cerebral angiospasm can also occur when exposed to cold factors, while preventing excessive heat transfer.

Changes in the tone of the vascular wall also occur during infectious processes in the human body, which prevents the spread of infectious agents and their metabolites, thereby limiting the infectious process. In such conditions, angiospasm does not require treatment or correction, since it is one of the protective mechanisms of man.

Pathological reactions are called an excessive reaction to irritating factors that do not correspond to the degree of irritation. With prolonged spasm of the vessels, a breakdown in the regulation of their activity occurs, which ultimately leads to ischemia of organs and tissues. An example is the effect of narrowing of the vascular wall on the brain, eyes, heart, upper and lower limbs, and peripheral vessels. This condition requires immediate treatment by appropriate specialists.

Disease risk factorsDiseases that can cause a pathological process
Young age (30-50 years)Arterial hypertension
Personal accentuations (hysteroid, emotionally labile, cycloid types)Vascular damage atherosclerosis
Severe psycho-emotional stressVascular wall inflammation (vasculitis)
Imperfection of nervous regulation (the so-called vegetative-vascular dystonia)Thrombosis
Excessive consumption of vasoactive substances (nicotine, coffee, energy drinks, alcohol)Systemic diseases (scleroderma, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)
Drug useGanglioneuritis (inflammatory lesion of the sympathetic nerve nodes)
Abdominal obesityHypothalamus dysfunction
Lack of sleepInjury to sympathetic nerve formations

Why does vasospasm appear?

General mechanism of spasm

It is proved that such a mechanism can take place directly in the area of ​​influence (for example, inflammation, aneurysm or thrombus) and not extend to the entire vascular bed. This should be considered when prescribing treatment for angiospasm.

The vessels of the human body play a very important role, as they are responsible for the delivery of nutrients to the tissues of the whole body. Due to this, they are saturated with oxygen. If vascular spasms occur, circulatory disorders occur. Their narrowing is noted, which leads to violations of normal blood transmittance.

Because of this, the tissues of the body are forced to starve without oxygen and gradually collapse. Despite the harmless name, vasospasm is a serious pathology that needs timely treatment. If a person does not undergo therapy, then it is likely that he will have complications. This can even lead to limb amputation, stroke or heart attack.


Vascular spasms or angiospasm is a pathology in the process of which these elements begin to narrow and disrupt blood circulation. In the normal state, the organs of the human body should gradually relax and contract, due to which there is a blood distillation in all parts of the body. For the normal state of blood vessels, a person must lead an active lifestyle and constantly move.

This will positively affect the operation of all systems. With angiospasm, the vessels begin to strain and narrow too much. Because of this, they cease to normally distribute blood throughout the body, resulting in oxygen starvation. If this happens in the brain, it can provoke a person’s problems with mental processes, coordination and cause severe headaches.

When vascular spasms occur in the limbs, the pain syndrome is localized in the arms or legs. It is fair to say that such phenomena are not always extremely dangerous. In some situations, angiospasm is the norm. This can occur as a defensive reaction to various factors. For example, if a person is cold, or if he suffers from bleeding, then in this case, spasms of blood vessels are a necessary measure in order to stop blood loss.

An interesting fact is that such states can even be triggered by emotions. For example, when a person is scared, his blood vessels begin to narrow, which leads to blanching of the skin. In a state of anger and aggression, the vascular system, on the contrary, expands. Because of this, blood begins to flow to the skin, and they turn red.

Vascular angiospasm is a disease in which vasoconstriction occurs, while blood circulation is disturbed. Normally, the vessels are constantly relaxing and contracting, driving blood over all the necessary parts of the body, this is facilitated by an active lifestyle, constantly moving.

Normal and pathological vessel With angiospasm, the vessels become tense, narrow, cease to normally distill the blood. as a result, the tissues that feed the affected vessel stop receiving oxygen. If the brain is affected, then there are problems with thoughts, coordination, and headaches. When the limb is affected, discomfort occurs in a sore leg or arm.

It is worth noting that vascular spasm is not always a dangerous pathology, sometimes this condition is the norm. Vascular spasm can also occur as a protective reaction of the body in various situations, for example, when a person is cold, or during bleeding to stop blood loss. Interestingly, angiospasm can also occur due to emotions, for example, when a person is afraid, his blood vessels narrow the ccz, and the skin turns pale.

With severe angiospasm, the cardiac artery narrows and angina pectoris occurs; for this condition, the appearance of heart attacks with severe chest pain is characteristic. Attacks most often occur at night, they are long, they are associated with recent physical exertion. A moderate spasm of the vessels is characteristic of the lower extremities and the great vessels, so a moderate spasm in the retina of the eye can occur. When the legs are affected, the skin is characterized by blanching, with further redness. When the eye is affected, its nutrition is slightly disturbed.

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Peripheral spasm is the most common form, usually associated with vegetative-vascular dystonia. This type of angiospasm is divided into the following subspecies:

  • spasm of the hands;
  • acrocyanosis occurs with poor blood supply to the capillaries, the skin acquires a blue tint;
  • mesh lead is characterized by blue skin with the appearance of a characteristic pattern on it;
  • accompanied by lung pathology;
  • accompanied by chronic heart failure;
  • Raynaud’s disease is characterized by damage to the small arteries and narrowing of the lumen of the capillaries, sensitivity is impaired.
  • chills accompanied by blue skin.

The main causes of spasm of blood vessels:

  • Atherosclerosis;
  • Osteochondrosis;
  • Endocrine disorders;
  • Constant stress, overwork;
  • Lack of sleep;
  • Cerebral hemorrhage;
  • Pathology of the heart and blood vessels;
  • Brain tumor;
  • Brain injuries;
  • Passive lifestyle.

Symptoms of angiospasm depend on which area was affected. In general, a number of common symptoms can be identified that are disturbing with such a pathology:

  • Fast fatiguability;
  • Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite;
  • Headache, tinnitus;
  • Spots and flies in the eyes;
  • Fainting;
  • Memory problems;
  • Weakness in the limbs.

Consider the symptoms of angiospasm of the brain, retina and lower extremities separately. Spasm of the cerebral vessels is a common disease that even young people today have, the reason for this is bad ecology. Constant stresses, smoking, and osteochondrosis of the cervical spine worsen the condition. Such a violation is usually accompanied by characteristic symptoms:

  • severe headache, sometimes to nausea and vomiting;
  • a violation of blood pressure, it can be both high and low;
  • with brain damage, memory disturbances are observed, thoughts get confused, coordination is disturbed.

With cerebral angiospasm, the symptoms are more pronounced. Pain can occur in various areas of the brain, this can be accompanied by darkening in the eyes, whistling in the ears, fainting, paresis and a violation of the sensitivity of half the body. Retinal spasm is a common pathology. If earlier problems with the eyes occurred mainly in older people, now most young people suffer from visual impairment.

  • Vision is impaired;
  • Flies appear in the eyes;
  • Annoyed, the person often blinks.

Also, the patient may be disturbed by general symptoms, such as headache, general fatigue, dizziness.

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For angiospasm of the vessels of the lower extremities, a special symptomatology is characteristic. With this disease, the affected leg changes color. At first it turns pale, it is associated with a rapid outflow of blood, due to a lack of blood circulation, the limb takes on a bluish tint, and in the end it turns red when the blood rushes to the tissues again.

Such attacks at first last for 15-20 minutes, and then they begin to drag out. Too long attacks, when the tissues are deprived of oxygen for a long time, entail serious complications, such as cyanosis, and then tissue necrosis. Necrosis, or necrosis, leads to the formation of gangrene and amputation of the limb.

Peripheral vasospasm

The most common angiospasm is peripheral vasospasm.

Spasm of peripheral vessels is one of the most important mechanisms in acute blood loss. Blood flows from the periphery to the center, where vital organs are located that are more sensitive to hypoxia (brain, heart, endocrine glands).

On the lower extremities, a spasm is visible to the naked eye and is expressed by the pallor of the skin, which then turns blue. The pallor is due to the outflow of blood into the central vessels, and the blue color is due to a lack of oxygen. Ultimately, oxygen deficiency in tissues leads to their gradual death. If such symptoms are detected, you should immediately consult a doctor and consult a doctor.

As a rule, this pathology is caused by vegetative-vascular dystonia. There are several subspecies of this angiospasm:

  • Acrocyanosis. In this case, the malaise is due to poor blood supply to the capillaries. The main characteristic feature of this pathology is blue skin.
  • Spasm of the hands.
  • Mesh Livedo. In this case, the blue skin is also observed with the appearance of the same pattern on them. Also, a similar pathology can be caused by problems with the lungs and due to heart failure.


In this case, we are talking about additional treatment, which can be combined with taking medications. However, it is first necessary to consult a doctor and clarify whether the patient has intolerance to one or another plant.

If a person has a severe headache, and he thinks of blood vessels, then it is enough to apply a cold or garlic compress. If the pain is localized in the lower extremities, then contrasting baths are suitable. Also, decoctions of herbs (for example, chamomile, sage, string or eucalyptus) can be added to warm water. With this bath you can improve blood circulation in the limbs and relax the legs.

Fresh potato juice is an excellent way to prevent thrombosis. It is worth noting that traditional medicine helps to fight only with symptoms. It is impossible to completely cure an ailment by such methods. Also, if a person has a spasm of blood vessels at a temperature, then antipyretic drugs may be required.

Spasm of the vessels of the heart

A spasm of the coronary vessels is called a temporary and sharp narrowing of their lumen. To date, doctors have not learned the exact causes of this condition. It is believed that smoking, stress, and changes in platelet activity play a role in the development of spasm. Manifested by periodic pain in the sternum, a sense of fear. This condition can lead to adverse consequences for the patient’s health, so treatment should be started as soon as possible.

In addition to coronary vessels, a change in the lumen of the capillary wall is noted. With capillary spasm, characteristic changes in the electrocardiogram can be detected. Some scientists have suggested that a constant spasm of capillaries of the heart leads to spasm of the corresponding vessels.


Prevention of any cramp requires a regimen and dietary restrictions.

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According to the WHO, abuse is a single use by men of more than 60 ml of alcohol (150 ml of vodka, 0,5 l of wine, 1,3 l of beer), for women – more than 50 ml (125 ml of vodka, 0,4 l of wine, 1,1 l of beer) even once a month.

Treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis helps to avoid the appearance of additional symptoms that enhance the underlying disease.

Many doctors advise patients after 40 years to take a daily dose of a blood thinning drug (Cardiomagnyl, Cardiask).

To strengthen the immune system, a course dose of Aloe, ginseng tinctures, drugs from the Transfer factors group is useful.

To increase vascular tone, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle. It implies quitting smoking and excessive drinking. The next preventive measure is proper nutrition. It is forbidden to eat refined foods and animal fats, as they contribute to the appearance of cholesterol plaques, which adhere to the walls of blood vessels and narrow their lumen.

In order for the vessels to be healthy, you need to include in the menu:

  • cereals;
  • fruits and vegetables;
  • seafood;
  • beans;
  • berries and freshly squeezed juices;
  • low-fat fish and poultry;
  • dairy and sour-milk products with a small percentage of fat content.

Also, in order to prevent vascular spasm, it is recommended to play sports. Due to physical activity, even insignificant internal organs are fully supplied with blood, and oxygen is more actively supplied to the brain.

You need to get enough sleep. In order for the vessels to recover, they need 8 hours. It is recommended to sleep in a cool room, preferably on an orthopedic mattress, so that the body can relax. Vascular angiospasm occurs due to chronic stress. Negative emotions increase pressure, while smooth muscles are greatly reduced.

The best preventive measures to prevent pathology are systematic sports, supplemented by a contrast shower.

Physical activity, the absence of stressful situations, a healthy diet contribute to maintaining the normal functioning of the circulatory system.

A healthy lifestyle is the prevention of the disease

With special attention to their health should be treated by patients who are at risk.

Pathology is easy to stop at an early stage of development. To do this, you need to regularly undergo examinations and perform simple preventive measures.

In order to prevent the development of vasospasm, it is necessary to adhere to the recommendations of specialists. First of all, you need to start eating properly. This means that it is advisable to eat as little fatty, spicy, salty and other junk food as possible. Instead, diet foods, fruits, and vegetables should be preferred. An active lifestyle also helps keep the whole body toned.

To prevent the development of such a serious pathology as angiospasm, and to avoid the life-threatening consequences of this disease, follow these recommendations.

  • You need to eat right, limit fatty, spicy, salty and junk food, try to eat diet foods rich in vitamins and minerals.
  • It is very important to lead an active lifestyle, do exercises every day so that the blood does not stagnate.
  • It is recommended to strengthen the immune system, eat enough food, which has a beneficial effect on the walls of blood vessels.
  • Patients in old age are advised to take blood thinners for prevention.
  • Refusing bad habits such as smoking and drinking is one of the most important requirements;
  • Lead a healthy lifestyle, eat varied and balanced, move more;
  • Avoid stress, overwork, observe sleep and wakefulness;
  • Reduce weight in case of obesity – this will positively affect blood sugar, blood pressure and the cardiovascular system.
  • Do not abuse caffeine-containing drinks that increase blood pressure and stimulate the nervous system.

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Many patients are interested in how to relieve vasospasm. Therapy of angiospasm is usually complex, it is necessary to eliminate the cause of the disease, as well as restore the nervous regulation of arteries, normalize blood circulation of tissues. In addition, patients should follow a number of recommendations:

  • Do not drink alcohol or smoke; these substances cause vasospasm;
  • To eliminate overwork, you need to establish the daily routine and rest for a sufficient amount of time;
  • Try to avoid stressful situations and not get nervous over trifles;
  • Establish nutrition, eliminate harmful and cholesterol-containing foods;
  • Perform all appointments of the attending physician.

The disease is treated with conservative methods, the doctor prescribes drugs that relieve vasospasm, as well as physiotherapeutic procedures, and a diet. The patient needs not only to take medication, but also to change his lifestyle, try to strengthen immunity. As a medication, prescribe antispasmodics, with spasm of the arteries of the heart, Nitroglycerin is indicated.

It is also necessary to take funds to improve microcirculation, and anticoagulants are prescribed to prevent thrombosis, they thin the blood. Physiotherapeutic treatment consists in visiting procedures such as electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, and a contrast shower is very effective. Also, to improve blood circulation, the patient is prescribed massage, physiotherapy exercises.

Therapeutic foot baths With angiospasm, the following recipes are used:

  • For headaches during angiospasm, it is recommended to apply a cold compress to the neck.
  • Also, a garlic compress helps well from a headache, for its preparation you need to apply garlic mashed potatoes to your temples and lie down for half an hour.
  • Contrast baths are great for relieving pain and tension in the legs.
  • Foot baths with decoctions of herbs, for example, with chamomile, string, sage, eucalyptus and aromatic oils, are also effective. Such baths relax the legs and improve blood circulation.
  • To prevent thrombosis of the lower extremities with spasmodic vessels, you need to drink fresh potato juice.

It is worth remembering that the recipes of traditional medicine are exclusively symptomatic treatment, and they can not get rid of angiospasm. Self-medication will cause the symptoms to subside, and the disease will continue to progress, as the cause of the pathology has not been eliminated. It is worth noting that external remedies according to folk recipes can not be used on affected skin.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.