Respiratory arrhythmia, causes of symptoms and therapeutic effects

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Diagnostics

This is a kind of pump that pumps blood, thanks to which it circulates through the circulatory system and nourishes the whole body.

But sometimes his work fails. Let’s see what it is – sinus arrhythmia of the heart, whether such a rhythm disturbance is dangerous, and why.

General information

Sinus arrhythmia means a malfunction in the heart when the difference between heart contractions is more than 10% (if this indicator is less, there is no pathology). In this case, the pulse remains within normal limits (60-80 beats per minute).

Sinus arrhythmia should be present in a person, since in a calm state the heart beats moderately, and in response to excitement or at the time of physical exertion, the pulse increases. It allows you to see the level of fitness of the heart muscle for stress and is, within certain limits, a sign of good health.

A person’s heart cannot constantly beat in the same rhythm (like a clock), this indicates the depletion of its reserve abilities.

According to statistics, arrhythmias account for 10-15% of all heart diseases. In recent years, the number of cases is growing. Sinus arrhythmia is most often observed in older people, as well as in those who abuse alcohol or drugs.

In children, sinus arrhythmia is present quite often, but, in most cases, is not a pathology, since the nervous system simply does not keep up with the growing body.

Symptoms of the disease, especially in the early stages, do not appear brightly. A person may for quite some time not be aware of his health difficulties.

Stages

The following stages of the disease are distinguished:

  • Mild (moderate) sinus arrhythmia – for the most part, does not manifest itself in any way, it can be a specific feature of a particular organism, as well as accompany old age. It is not a deviation from the norm if it is associated with hormonal changes in the body (in adolescents). It is necessary to consult a doctor to determine the exact cause and nature of the disease.
  • Sinus arrhythmia of the first degree – symptoms rarely occur and, as a rule, pass by themselves, the patient does not experience discomfort. Often manifested in respiratory disorders (respiratory arrhythmia), detected in adolescents during puberty, in athletes, in the elderly. A doctor’s consultation is required, especially if frequent syncope is present.
  • Sinus arrhythmia of the second degree – the symptoms are most pronounced and coexists with different heart diseases. A person has severe weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath.
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Severe sinus arrhythmia can be dangerous to human health, needs compulsory treatment.

  • Sinus arrhythmia of the third degree – the symptoms manifest themselves very clearly. It is extremely important to conduct timely diagnostics to identify the exact cause of the disease and prescribe treatment. Serious complications are likely. An examination of all internal organs is required.
  • Symptoms and signs

    Symptoms of sinus arrhythmia are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. A person complains of a “sinking” heart, shortness of breath, lack of air, dizziness, weakness and fainting, he has panic attacks associated with a sense of fear and anxiety.

    The first signs of the disease are:

    • palpable palpitations;
    • pain on the left side of the chest, extending to the arm;
    • inability to take a full breath;
    • dyspnea;
    • pulsation in the temporal region;
    • bouts of severe weakness, dizziness, fainting;
    • cooling of limbs.

    First aid

    An attack can be taken by surprise, it suddenly begins and also ends. The patient should call an ambulance.

    Before the arrival of the brigade, you need to try to calm the person, create comfortable conditions, open the window, you can give a sedative (motherwort, valerian, valokordin).

    If the patient loses consciousness, you need to tilt your head back and unfasten the collar. In the absence of breathing and palpitations, it is necessary to do artificial respiration before the ambulance crew arrives.

    Treatment should be strictly controlled by a specialist. Basic techniques:

    • healthy balanced nutrition (refusal of coffee, strong tea, alcohol, fatty and sweet foods);
    • to give up smoking;
    • drug treatment (sedatives, tranquilizers, antiarrhythmic drugs);
    • installation of a pacemaker (in severe cases of the disease);
    • surgery;
    • traditional medicine (only with the main treatment and with the permission of the doctor): treatment with asparagus, lemons, walnuts and honey, hawthorn;
    • leech treatment.

    How to treat sinus arrhythmia of the heart in each individual case, determines the attending physician.

    Rehabilitation after an attack of sinus arrhythmia consists in receiving medical care, which will be aimed at restoring the heart rhythm (drug or electrical stimulation), ensuring the most calm conditions.

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    The patient himself must adhere to a healthy lifestyle (balanced diet and rejection of bad habits), limit reasonably physical activity.

    During examinations, children and adolescents are often diagnosed with respiratory arrhythmia. What is it and whether parents whose children have been diagnosed with this condition should be worried will be considered in detail.

    All cardiac arrhythmias, medically designated as arrhythmias, can be conditionally divided into potentially unfavorable and those that under normal conditions are not capable of causing significant complications.

    The second group of diseases is often associated with inorganic pathology of the heart, since this organ, although vital, is closely connected with other body systems.

    Therefore, any changes that take place in it are reflected to one degree or another on cardiac activity.

    In adults and children, heart rate is different: for the first, it is 60-90 times per minute, for the second, the norm is 100-120 times per minute, depending on age.

    The vagus nerve primarily affects the heart rate. Its activity is manifested in slowing heart rate.

    The functioning of the nerve itself depends a lot on the breathing process, so everyone could note for themselves that a deep breath made it possible to calm the often beating heart. Also known is the phrase that is said to all overexcited – “breathe deeper.”

    Therefore, in medical practice it is customary to distinguish such a form of rhythm disturbance as respiratory arrhythmia, whether this condition is dangerous can be found out by considering the topic in detail.

    The mechanism of respiratory arrhythmia is not associated with organic disorders of the heart muscle.

    In this condition, hemodynamic disorders do not develop that affect the general condition of a person and cause complications such as cardiogenic shock, swelling, shortness of breath. Also, the heart rate during respiratory arrhythmia remains normal, sinus.

    Respiratory arrhythmia is often referred to as sinus, since the main electrical impulse comes from the sinus node. It can be observed in constant form or registered only during some ECG cycles.

    It is mainly manifested by a rapid heartbeat, especially at the time of a deep breath, and its slowdown during exhalation.

    The presence of other symptoms may indicate the development of pathology of other organs and systems of the body.

    For example, vegetovascular dystonia is often diagnosed with respiratory arrhythmia, therefore, along with increased heart rate, complaints of increased sweating, sticky sweat, and frequent extremity cooling will be presented.

    In many cases, respiratory arrhythmia is asymptomatic, so many parents do not even realize that their children experience a heartbeat or other discomfort in the heart.

    Respiratory arrhythmia often develops in children (newborns and in infancy) than in adults. This is due to the characteristics of the children’s body, and at 6-7 years old – with intensive growth, when there is a rapid development of the heart and all other organs.

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    In adolescence, an increased growth of the musculoskeletal system is carried out, therefore, during preventive examinations, frequent heart rate associated with periods of breathing is often determined.

    The child may complain of fatigue, weakness, periodic sensation of lack of air.

    During pregnancy, hormonal changes, the functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Such factors, combined with an increase in the load on the heart, in some cases lead to the development of respiratory arrhythmia. Then the woman may feel difficulty in breathing, which pass through time independently.

    So when and what can be dangerous respiratory arrhythmia? You need to worry if the child, the pregnant woman or the young man complains of a heartbeat that causes severe discomfort or even pain in the area of ​​the heart. Particular attention is required in the presence of disorders from the work of the heart, which are determined by the ECG and other diagnostic methods.

    Upon presentation of complaints, the patient is examined, during which you can see pallor, cyanosis near the nasolabial triangle. Further, while listening to the heart, weaker tones are often heard against the background of rhythmic sinus heart activity.

    To clarify the diagnosis, the best method is electrocardiography. It begins to be prescribed from one month and healthy children are recommended to conduct a study about once a year.

    When may additional diagnostic methods be required?

    Preventive measures

    Unfortunately, it is impossible to predict and prevent the development of respiratory arrhythmia. That is why preventive measures for this condition can be reduced to restorative and health-improving measures. Among these measures, doctors usually call:

    • adherence to a healthy correct lifestyle;
    • proper nutrition;
    • observance of general hygiene measures;
    • obtaining sufficient physical exertion on the body;
    • avoidance of stressful situations.

    However, if this condition is found, the patient should periodically visit a cardiologist to monitor the progress or regression of such arrhythmias. Do not neglect preventive examinations by specialists and be healthy!

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    Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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