In medicine, two main concepts are distinguished – viscous blood and increased hematocrit. The first indicator is characterized by the number of fibrinogen and the degree parameter of prothrombin. At the same time, the growth of cholesterol and hemoglobin leads to viscosity.
Negatively affects the increase in glucose saturation, as well as several other indicators. The hematocrit number is the ratio of the formed part to the plasma. Normally, this value will be 4: 6, although men have a slightly higher value.
When assessing viscosity, they are guided by:
- an increase in the number of red blood cells;
- increased hemoglobin;
- deviation in the proportions of red blood and plasma.
Viscosity parameters can be estimated with a viscometer. He makes a comparative measurement of the speed of movement of the investigated medium relative to the speed of distilled water. In the absence of deviations, blood usually flows 4-5 times slower compared to water. Viscosity will be 1,050-1,064 g / ml. When deviating from normal parameters, a diagnosis of the causes is carried out and treatment is prescribed.
Excessive blood density and lack of adequate therapy can lead to:
- varicose veins;
- hypertension, manifested in a prolonged increase in blood pressure;
- manifestations of thrombosis, thrombophlebitis;
- the occurrence of atherosclerosis;
- hemorrhagic or ischemic type stroke;
- myocardial infarction.
If the above arguments have not yet convinced you, then we will consider a more detailed picture.
As a result of this, the alkaline blood reaction rises, due to which cell adhesions form in the blood, it thickens, which leads to hypertension.
The consequences of hypertension
The development of atherosclerosis also provokes thick blood. Under the influence of the fact that fats and calcium salts are deposited on the walls of arteries, their elasticity decreases significantly and gives them rigidity.
The formation of blood clots on the inside of the veins leads to their inflammation. In the sequence of which thrombophlebitis is diagnosed.
Strengthening blood vessels, blood coagulates and in situations with varicose veins. Taking thinning products can avoid these diseases, and long-term courses of therapy. These include foods with a high concentration of vitamins C and P, and bioflavins, fresh fruits and vegetables contain their high concentration.
While maintaining proper nutrition, you can do without medications. To begin with, it is worth putting your diet in order, reducing the consumption of blood-thickening foods.
To increased coagulability lead to:
- Food made from animals, such foods store a lot of cholesterol and fatty acids. It is not worth removing completely from the diet, but it is possible to reduce consumption. These do not include dairy products,
- Fried and smoked dishes,
- High protein foods
- Fast carbohydrates (sugar, sweets, candy bars, cakes, pastries, potatoes),
- Alcoholic drinks and soda.
- Strong tea and coffee
For effective liquefaction, they recommend:
- Green tea – makes blood vessels stronger, useful for varicose veins,
- Blueberries – does not allow blood clots to form, in addition, it is a natural antimicrobial agent,
- 4 fresh tomatoes per day and the balance of water in the blood will be stabilized, the risk of thrombophlebitis and heart attack is reduced,
- Pepper – dissolves blood clots, improves metabolic processes,
- Garlic is a natural thinner, equivalent in action to aspirin,
- Ginger – lowers sugar and liquefies,
- Sack celery, raspberry juice,
- Sea fish,
- Yoghurts and kefir,
- Non fatty meat (turkey and chicken),
- Sunflower seeds
- Olive oil,
- and others.
Folk remedies for liquefaction:
- Willow bark – does not allow clots to form, liquefying blood,
- Dandelion juice
- Dried nettle
- Peony root
Almost all of these funds can be bought at pharmacies in your city.
At the time of gestation, liquefaction is more relevant than ever. During pregnancy, the blood becomes viscous in all women. Such indicators are considered normal, and after childbirth they return to the norm.
However, this process should be monitored, as varicose veins, fetal oxygen deficiency, miscarriage, or blood clots can develop.
Means that are allowed to take when carrying a child can be obtained from a consulting doctor.
Taking medications during pregnancy is not recommended, so you need to include such products in your diet:
- Citrus fruit,
- Berries: blackcurrant, cranberries, wild strawberries, sea buckthorn, raspberries, plums,
- Vegetables: garlic, onions, tomatoes, zucchini,
Caution! Taking berries or citrus fruits can trigger an allergy. For use, during such an important period, it is worth consulting a doctor.
With age, many people experience bleeding disorders. The mechanisms of this process are different, some are not fully understood.
What can I take to thin the blood? Strokes, as well as thrombosis and thromboembolism, are pathologies that arise due to the fact that blood clots clog the lumen of the vessel and stop blood flow in a certain area of our body.
These vascular problems are very dangerous, they never pass without a trace: without timely medical assistance it is either a fatal outcome or a disability.
According to reviews, blood thinners without Aspirin are on the first place for prophylactic purposes to prevent thrombosis, and therefore they prevent mortality from cardiovascular diseases.
In addition to prevention, they are also used to treat already formed thromboses.
- Many are interested in the question, why does blood viscosity appear?
- Antiplatelet agents without Aspirin
- Trombo ACC
- Aspirin Cardio
- Folk remedies for blood thinning without Aspirin
- Prasugrel (Effect)
- Other drugs
- To whom are they appointed and in what cases?
- Direct-acting anticoagulants
- New generation anticoagulants
- The safest drugs for the stomach
- How to thin the blood during pregnancy?
Many are interested in the question, why does blood viscosity appear?
- First of all, blood can thicken due to poorly selected water. As a result, the total energy of the body increases. Many people like to drink water from the tap, but this can not be done.
- Blood viscosity may occur due to a lack of enzyme for the breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. All this ultimately leads to the bonding of red blood cells.
- Strong destructive work of the spleen can also cause thickening of the blood.
- Another factor is the slagging of the body.
- Such an ailment may appear due to dehydration of the body due to strong physical exertion and prolonged exposure to the sun.
- Lack of water and salt or consuming a huge amount of sweets.
- Living in a bad climate.
- There is no healthy diet.
All of these causes affect blood quality. At the initial stage, you can determine this condition by some signs. Usually it is increased drowsiness, fatigue, memory impairment and depression. Blood clots may eventually form.
You can thin the blood in various ways. To enhance the effect, they can be combined. To restore the normal state, you can try medication, alternative methods, the use of medical leeches and the use of products to thin the blood. Regularly monitor your health, and you will constantly feel good.
Antiplatelet agents without Aspirin
Blood thinning preparations will now be presented. They help prevent blood clots and improve blood condition. All means are good in their own way, but only a doctor has the right to prescribe one or another drug. It is forbidden to pick up medications yourself.
- Heparin is very popular. This medication prevents blood clotting. It contains substances that are contained in the saliva of leeches. Pills dilute blood at the moment when saliva enters the human body. Heparin can only be prescribed by a doctor. It is with him that the dosage of the drug used will be discussed.
- What other medicines help to thin the blood? The second most popular and effective are Warfarin tablets. The drug is available to everyone, as it is inexpensive. It can be purchased at any pharmacy without a doctor’s prescription.
- There is another effective remedy – Curantil. It dilutes blood and is used as a prophylaxis for blood clots in case of atherosclerosis and varicose veins.
- Dabigatran is a substitute for Warfarin. This drug restores the body completely.
- Aspecard is used to strengthen the walls of blood vessels. The substances included in the composition of the drug help, if necessary, reduce platelet levels in the blood.
- Preparations with zinc and lecithin, which prevent thrombosis, do their job well. There is an excellent assimilation of water, which normalizes the state of the blood in the body.
- The thickening effect is due to the drug Escuzan. It is able to inhibit blood viscosity and makes the walls of blood vessels more elastic. As a result of taking this drug, the circulatory system returns to normal.
- Vitamins help the vessels recover. Medications reduce the risk of blood clots. They can only be prescribed by a doctor. In urgent cases, phenyline may be needed. Does he thicken blood or not? This is the most important question. In fact, this fast-acting drug is used as a last resort, so that a person’s life can be saved. But this tool must be used carefully, as there are a number of side effects. All medicines have instructions, so before using the drug, you need to familiarize yourself with it first.
- Cardiomagnyl is very popular. By preventing blood thinning, the product restores the entire body. Acetylsalicylic acid affects the state of the blood, and magnesium hydroxide reduces the activity of the main substance on the gastric mucosa. Cardiomagnyl can be taken only after the appointment of a doctor. As a self-prophylaxis, the drug is prohibited to use.
There are a number of medications aimed not only at thinning the blood. But for the normal functioning of the whole organism, it is simply necessary to take them in combination with the main drugs. These medicines include: Sermion, Phlebodia, Mexidol, and Diacarb. Angioprotectors may also come in handy.
The body benefits greatly: Diosmin and Hesperidin, Angiovit, Detralex and Omega 3. To this list you can add Heparin, Troxevasin, Actovegin, Venarus. This is a large list of pharmaceuticals. And what kind of remedy to use should be decided by the attending physician. It is forbidden to make a decision independently in order to avoid accidents.
Pharmacology provides a wide selection of different drugs. In pharmacies, there is a whole list of blood thinners. There are two groups of medicines intended for these purposes.
All of these blood thinners are used. The first group is able to prevent increased blood coagulation due to a decrease in the rate of fibrin formation. The second group allows you to normalize the process of platelet production.
Ascorbic acid helps the body to get the necessary substances, but this method is very popular not only because of the low cost of the drug, but also because of its effectiveness. It’s about Aspirin. This tool reduces the likelihood of developing hemorrhage in the brain and rupture of the heart. Aspirin is able to slow down the process of gluing platelets.
Experts recommend taking this drug every day, especially for people with angina pectoris, atherosclerosis. Aspirin is prescribed for oral administration after a stroke or heart attack. Up to 150 mg should be taken per day. But exceeding the dose is strictly prohibited. Only a doctor can do this. If you think that by adding a few mg, you will achieve a blood thinning, then you are mistaken. Increasing the dose can lead to complications.
This drug has its contraindications. Aspirin is prohibited for people with gastritis and an ulcer. The explanation is simple. The fact is that aspirin negatively affects the gastric mucosa. It is forbidden to take this medication in the presence of bronchial asthma.
- The first group includes Warfarin, Metolazone, Simvastatin, Testosterone, Fluoxetine and Levamisole. Phenylin also belongs to anticoagulants.
- The second group includes Koplaviks, Klopidogrel and Aggregal.
All blood thinners have the same effect.
With thrombophlebitis and varicose veins, in addition to blood-thinning agents, it is necessary to use drugs to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and reduce the inflammatory process.
Blood thinning in this case is one of the mechanisms of getting rid of the main pathology.
Venotonics (Detralex, troxevasin, phlebodia capsules) and anti-inflammatory drugs that sparing the stomach are prescribed to such patients.
Most popular with patients and doctors due to the well-studied and proven in practice result.
They have a swift effect, modern forms of drugs are used in the framework of not only therapy, but also the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, pathologies of the circulatory system.
However, accurate dosing and an extremely careful approach to the condition are required, since drugs based on acetylsalicylic acid often provoke dangerous side effects.
The essence of the pharmacological action is the ability to block the special substance thromboxane-2, which is responsible for the adhesion of the same shaped blood cells.
Moreover, the effect on coagulation factors themselves is minimal (the destruction activity of a particular fibrin protein increases, but to a small extent).
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page .
The classic name, known since ancient times. It is used less and less, because in its pure form it provokes a lot of undesirable phenomena.
In addition, the beneficial effect of the drug is minimal in duration and not as pronounced as that of the analogues of new generations.
The use of aspirin is advisable in the framework of first aid, for example, in acute conditions. As chewable tablets. And that is not always because the effect can be unpredictable.
Gradually, Aspirin is a thing of the past, but due to its cheapness and ease of acquisition, it is still popular in the post-Soviet space, including as a medicine for relieving headaches.
Due to the serious imbalance in the “benefit-harm” system towards negative phenomena, it is still not recommended to take it. There are safer analogues, which are much more effective than their “ancestor”.
Acetylsalicylic acid-based blood thinning tablets. They contain half the main active ingredient than their predecessor. Thanks to this, it is possible to more accurately dispense the medication.
The name is considered “pure”, therefore it provokes fewer side effects, they are not so severe and are found at times less.
A beneficial effect is achieved after the very first pill. And the comparative softness of the medication allows you to use it for a long time, however, even in this case, careful monitoring of the human condition is required. To avoid dangerous complications.
Widely advertised in the media, on television. In fact, this is still the same acetylsalicylic acid, but one tablet accounts for three times more active substance than in the predecessor of the name. In classic Aspirin, the concentration reaches 100 mg, here – 300.
Is there any benefit from this moment or special harm? As practice shows, no.
The drug is usually prescribed in courses, not for prolonged use. Because shock doses of acetylsalicylic acid hit the digestive tract, they can provoke bleeding.
However, in the treatment of subacute and acute (rarely) cardiac conditions, Aspirin Cardio is well suited. Causes a minimum of side effects, especially with proper prescription.
It is also used in the prevention of heart attack, stroke, coronary insufficiency and ischemic disease.
It combines the concentration of acetylsalicylic acid as in classic Aspirin (100 mg per tablet) and the comparative safety of modern items.
Ideal for long term use. It is possible to prescribe in parallel with other drugs to reduce blood viscosity.
Preparations of the named subgroup prevent thrombosis due to the predominant inhibition of the production of a particular substance, to a lesser extent affect the activity of the fibrin protein.
This effect allows you to achieve a lasting result without increasing the risk of critical complications.
These medicines were created as a response to the need to develop drugs with similar or even greater efficacy compared to acetylsalicylic acid, but without identical “side effects”.
The mechanism of action is different, such medicines are not completely safe.
It was created almost the first in the group of blood-thinners without aspirin. Despite a fundamentally different composition, the result from the application is the same. With a few exceptions.
In addition to reducing the rate of platelet adhesion and preventing thrombosis, ticlopidine increases the necessary time for blood coagulation.
Side effects rarely occur, limited to dyspeptic symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion), less often more dangerous moments.
He is Plavix. According to studies, it is much safer than Ticlopidine and even other analogues in the subgroup.
It is used as part of the treatment of coronary insufficiency; it also has proven higher effectiveness when it comes to the prevention of heart attack and stroke.
Folk remedies for blood thinning without Aspirin
Medicines of this type act gently when compared with more aggressive counterparts in the pharmaceutical group (anticoagulants).
The essence of the effect is to prevent platelet adhesion, which usually causes the formation of blood clots that clog vessels.
At the same time, antiplatelet agents do not affect blood coagulation factors, and therefore the effect is not as long and aggressive as in similar drugs.
However, it cannot be called safe. There are risks of bleeding, increased fragility of blood vessels, their permeability.
The negative effects are especially noticeable with prolonged use of drugs based on acetylsalicylic acid. Without it, too, albeit to a lesser extent.
This is the only antiplatelet agent that is not contraindicated in such delicate cases.
Used within the same framework, has fewer side effects, with proper use they are not observed at all.
A relatively new drug, began to be used around 2010. It has an extremely narrow scope.
It is prescribed to patients who have surgery on the heart or blood vessels, as a preparatory measure.
More widespread use is possible, but this is impractical, since the cost of the medicine is several times higher. The price for packaging is about 4000 rubles and this is not the limit.
Used for a long time and successfully. It has a mixed effect. On the one hand, it dilutes blood and prevents platelet adhesion, on the other hand, it dilates blood vessels and restores microcirculation.
Pentoxifylline is available in the form of solutions and tablets, it is considered a kind of universal drug for blood thinning.
It is prescribed for many diseases of the heart, blood vessels, also as part of the prevention of such. In acute periods and after.
As a drug for blood thinning, it is close in effectiveness to Aspirin, but not so aggressive and provokes side effects at times less.
Medicines of the antiplatelet group are prescribed first. But they do not always have sufficient effectiveness in the course of emergency conditions.
All the drugs described without exception have at least the following list of indications for use:
- Coronary heart disease.
- Coronary insufficiency Exists in two forms. Angina pectoris and heart attack. In the second case, the possibility of application is decided on the spot, based on the situation.
- Prevention of the same conditions, plus stroke.
- A tendency to form blood clots if clots are still absent. As part of preventing a negative phenomenon.
Perhaps the use of atherosclerosis and a number of other diagnoses. These are the main ones.
Antiplatelet therapy is prescribed in the following situations:
- With damage to the muscles of the heart, provoked by a deficiency or disruption of the blood supply to the myocardium.
- With ischemia of the heart, which occurs with the occurrence of ischemic necrosis of the muscle area.
- Patients with arrhythmias.
- Secondary prevention of blood clots in people who have suffered a stroke.
- After any surgical interventions on the heart and blood vessels.
- Patients with lesions of the peripheral arteries.
Subsequently, several drugs without acetylsalicylic acid, which have antithrombotic effects, are currently used in clinical practice.
But it must be remembered that absolutely safe medicines of this group do not exist, each of them has certain limitations, and only a doctor prescribes them. Some modern antiplatelet agents are prescribed even as an adjunct to acetylsalicylic acid.
List of blood thinners without Aspirin:
- “Dipyridamole” (“Curantyl”).
- “Ticlodipine” (“Ticlid”).
- Clopidogrel (Plavix).
- “Ticagrelor” (“Brilinta”).
- “Prasugrel” (“Effient”).
- “Cilostazol” (“Pletax”).
- Pentoxifylline (Trental).
Further, antithrombotic drugs for blood thinning without Aspirin will be discussed in more detail.
- Plants that help thin the blood are white willow bark, sweet clover, roots of the Caucasian dioscorea, hazel bark and leaves, horse chestnut, medunica, ginkgo biloba leaves.
- Due to the pharmacological properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), patients manage to get rid of the increased acidity of the stomach and thick blood.
- Cranberries are filled with a huge amount of vitamins. The increased content of ascorbic acid has a positive effect on the wall of blood vessels, making it stronger, which reduces the likelihood of blood clots.
The drug according to the spectrum of exposure is considered an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, and also has a vasodilating and antiplatelet effect. Its action is slightly weaker than that of Aspirin, but it is completely justified in case of the individual intolerance to the latter.
In addition, Dipyridamole is the only antiplatelet agent that is approved for use in pregnant and lactating women. The drug is taken at 75 milligrams four times a day, if necessary, the daily dosage is increased to 450 mg.
Dipyridamole is produced in tablet form. A medicine with the brand name Curantil will cost more – from 650 to 800 rubles.
- There is another effective drug, but it is aimed slightly at another. With varicose veins use Venarus. The drug allows you to increase vascular tone and normalize blood flow. Venus also reduces blood stasis. If you take this remedy regularly, then the signs of venous insufficiency will be reduced in the eyes.
Venarus is available in pill form. Just swallow it and wash it down with water. Venous drug must be combined with food. Venarus is able to treat hemorrhoids. To do this, take up to 6 tablets per day. They can be divided in two stages. It is advisable to take 3 tablets in the morning and the same amount in the evening. Thus, you should take the drug for 4 days, and then reduce the number of tablets to 4.
- The drug Phlebodia is able to reduce the extensibility of the veins and strengthen the capillary wall. The tool eliminates venous stagnation. Phlebodia is available in tablet form. They are rapidly absorbed from the digestive tract. After 2 hours, they are detected in plasma. Phlebodia is well tolerated and has no side effects. It is necessary to take 1 tablet daily per day. Phlebodia is allowed to use during pregnancy. This is especially evident in the period of 1 and 3 trimesters. The tool helps to get rid of lymphovenous insufficiency. But you should take only 1 tablet.
- Mexidol is usually prescribed 1-2 tablets 3 times a day. First you need to take 1-2 tablets twice a day. And then the dose is increased to two tablets three times a day. Mexidol should be taken up to 1,5 months. This drug can even treat alcoholism. The course of treatment in this case is designed for a week. Mexidol can be used in dentistry for rinsing the oral cavity.
- Detralex is a venotonic agent. It helps restore blood flow tone in small vessels. As a result, Detralex makes capillaries resilient and resilient. This medication is available in the form of tablets. Detralex is excreted in the feces. With urine, only 13% of the drug is excreted. Detralex is part of the group of angioprotectors, which are aimed at improving the functioning of blood vessels. It is usually used to treat diseases accompanied by venous congestion. This drug has an antioxidant effect, as it prevents the appearance of free radicals. The medicine allows you to improve the tone of the veins, reduces their extensibility and eliminates stagnation. Detralex contributes to the outflow of lymph.
- Troxevasin belongs to the group of angioprotective agents that are used in the treatment procedure of chronic diseases of the circulatory and vascular system. Troxevasin protects blood vessels and capillaries from fragility and regular damage. The tool restores the strength and density of the vascular walls. Troxevasin relieves swelling and blood clots, which leads to normalization of blood flow. The drug is available in the form of a gel or capsules. In the first embodiment, absorption takes longer than in the second. After only 30 minutes, Troxevasin penetrates all layers of the skin.
- Actovegin positively affects the transfer and removal of glucose, and oxygen is actively consumed. This allows the drug to have an antihypoxic effect. Actovegin is available in the form of tablets or ampoules. Normal use is 2 tablets three times a day before meals. The tablet does not need to be chewed, just drink it with water. Actovegin in ampoules is administered intravenously and intramuscularly.
All of the above drugs are intended to thin the blood. But each of them has a number of contraindications and side effects. Mexidol, Detrolex, Troxevasin, Actovegin and Heparin – all these medicines have a beneficial effect on the body.
In addition, you need to know that such drugs remove fluid from the body, so during consumption, increase the consumption of drinking water. Follow the instructions and advice of a doctor, then the work of internal organs will be adjusted.
Date of publication of the article: 09.10.2018/XNUMX/XNUMX
Article update date: 2.06.2019/XNUMX/XNUMX
The drug inhibits the aggregation of blood platelets, reduces blood viscosity and prolongs bleeding time. The drug is prescribed 250 milligrams twice a day. The pharmacological effect of blood thinners without Aspirin is achieved on the fourth day of therapy.
- thrombocytopenia (a disease that is characterized by a decrease in platelet count below normal, which is accompanied by increased bleeding and problems with stopping bleeding);
- leukopenia (a decrease in the amount of white blood in the blood);
- pain in the abdomen;
The cost of the drug is 1600 rubles.
To whom are they appointed and in what cases?
It is believed that with age, blood tends to thicken. This is influenced by various factors, including a decrease in the volume of fluid consumed.
Cardiologists, blood thinners, recommend taking to all people after 50 years. Some patients who have been diagnosed with diseases of the cardiovascular system may need medications that prevent thrombosis, and at an earlier age, for example, 30 or 40 years old.
Normally, human blood consists of 80% of the liquid medium. Thickening of the blood leads to a slowdown in its movement, obstructed intake of beneficial substances and oxygen in the tissue, impaired elimination of toxins from toxins.
The following symptoms may result from circulatory problems:
- persistent drowsiness;
- the appearance of signs of varicose veins;
- memory impairment;
- slowdown of analytical and mental abilities;
- deterioration in overall health.
At first, such manifestations are not pronounced, so a person may not attach great importance to them. But over time, poor blood circulation leads to more serious problems and impaired functioning of many organs.
Increased blood viscosity contributes to the development of thrombosis and narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels. In turn, this can cause the development of ischemia in a certain area and impair the functioning of the whole organ.
Thus, it is recommended that blood-thinning drugs be taken both for prophylaxis and for the treatment of the following conditions:
- progressive angina pectoris;
- heart attack;
- postoperative complications.
Separately, it is worth considering pregnant women, during the period of bearing a child they can be prescribed injections in the abdomen (usually it is Heparin, Kleksan, Fraksiparin). The thing is that when the body prepares for childbirth and the upcoming associated blood loss, blood coagulation increases. Basically, this goes unnoticed by a woman, but in some of them, due to the presence of pathologies, this can lead to serious consequences. In such cases, injections are injected, droppers are sometimes placed.
The spectrum of action of the drug is similar to “Ticlodipine”, but it is more effective and safer. It should be consumed 75 milligrams once a day, regardless of food. The cost of blood thinners without Aspirin varies from 300 to 900 rubles.
Assign “Clopidogrel” in the following conditions:
- In acute coronary syndrome, 300 milligrams is prescribed once.
- As a preventive measure to prevent stent thrombosis after stenting. In the absence of restrictions, it is used in combination with acetylsalicylic acid.
- Coronary heart disease, which occurs with the appearance of ischemic necrosis of the myocardial site.
- Ischemic stroke (impaired microcirculation of the brain with damage to brain tissue, impaired function due to difficulty or cessation of blood flow to a particular department).
- Peripheral arterial occlusion (vascular insufficiency, which develops with impaired patency or clogged vessels, resulting in impaired blood transport to a particular organ, which leads to problems in its functioning).
Unfractionated heparin is a natural anticoagulant, it is found in many tissues of the body. In the blood, it inhibits thrombin, thereby reducing the ability to form clots.
“Heparin” is used parenterally in elevated concentrations – to eliminate acute myocardial infarction, limb arterial thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, in small doses – for prophylactic purposes to prevent thromboembolism. The medication is prescribed with extreme caution under the control of blood coagulation only in a medical facility.
Heparin ointments and gels for local use are also produced (heparin ointment, Lyoton, Venitan, Venolife). They are recommended for varicose veins of the saphenous veins, as well as hemorrhoids.
Low molecular weight heparins are usually administered subcutaneously twice a day. Dispensed in disposable syringes. In most cases, the following drugs are prescribed:
- Dalteparin (Fragmin) – 2500 micro-units / 0,2 milliliters – there are ten syringes in the package. The cost of the drug varies from 1700 to 2800 rubles.
- “Nadroparin” (“Fraksiparin”) – is produced in different concentrations, the cost of the drug ranges from 2000 to 4000 rubles.
- “Enoksoparin” (“Kleksan”) – dosing in syringes from 2000 to 8000 units, the price varies from 700 to 3000 rubles.
- “Bemiparin” (“Zibor”) – produced in syringes 3500 micro units of ten pieces, 3900 rubles.
As a rule, low molecular weight heparins are used for prophylactic purposes to prevent thrombosis in patients after surgery. In addition, they can be used by pregnant women with an autoimmune state of hypercoagulation provoked by antiphospholipid antibodies.
“Sulodexide” is an antithrombotic medication that consists of two glycosaminoglycans formed from the mucous membrane of the intestines of a pig. The spectrum of exposure resembles low molecular weight heparins. It is used, as a rule, to prevent microthrombosis in people with diabetes. The advantage of the drug is its good tolerance, as well as the possibility of use not only in injections, but in capsules for oral use. The price of 10 ampoules is 2000 rubles, the cost of capsules is 2700 rubles.
“Warfarin” is almost the only anticoagulant that is prescribed for prolonged use. It is still considered the standard against which all modern medicines with the same effect are compared. In the liver, it blocks the exchange of vitamin K and thereby prevents the formation of several plasma coagulation factors. Subsequently, blood loses its ability to form clots.
With prolonged use, Warfarin reduces the frequency of strokes by 64 percent. But this medication is imperfect, it is inconvenient for frequent use.
- The need for regular laboratory monitoring and constant dosage adjustment.
- Strict adherence to diet.
- Incompatibility with most drugs.
- Frequent bleeding.
Warfarin still remains the most used anticoagulant, mainly because of its affordable cost. The dosage of the drug is selected under the control of a laboratory blood test, sometimes the selection of the optimal concentration of drugs takes a couple of months.
The medicine is produced in tablet form, 2,5 milligrams each. The price of the medicine varies from 70 to 200 rubles, depending on the manufacturer.
New oral anticoagulants are the latest generation of medicines, introduced into medical practice not so long ago, but were quickly accepted by doctors and patients.
All new oral anticoagulants can be divided into two groups:
- Direct thrombin inhibitors (Dabigatran).
- Direct inhibitors of factor Xa (Rivaroxaban, Apixaban, Endoxaban).
Their effect can be compared with Warfarin, but it is more convenient to work with them both for a medical specialist and for a patient. The main advantage is that they do not require general laboratory control. The main disadvantage is their high price.
Dabigatran inhibits thrombin, thereby preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. It is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Its influence is also comparable to Warfarin. Adverse reactions are rare, and use is much more convenient.
“Dabigatran” is made in capsules of 75, 110 and 150 milligrams, used twice a day, the daily dosage is selected by the doctor depending on the purpose of the appointment. It is forbidden to use the drug for bleeding, as well as a recent hemorrhagic stroke, severe renal failure, pregnancy. Laboratory monitoring is usually not required.
The cost of the drug is 1900 rubles.
“Rivaroxaban”, “Apixaban”, “Edoxaban” inhibit both free and thrombus-related factor Xa. Trade Names:
- Rivaroxaban – Xarelto.
- Apixaban – Elikvis.
- Endoxaban – Lixiana.
Indications for use are the same as those of Warfarin. All three drugs are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
The differences are that you need to use the Ksarelto tablets with food, the rest – regardless of the meal. “Elikvis” – twice a day, the rest – once.
The process of blood coagulation consists of several stages and is quite complicated.
For a general understanding, we will analyze only the main points:
- Under the action of the enzyme thrombokinase and various coagulation factors, the blood protein prothrombin is converted into thrombin. At this stage, there is an increased activity of platelets, on the surface of which there are special complexes, which are called internal coagulation factors.
- There is an increase in the concentration of calcium in the blood and the transformation of soluble blood protein into an insoluble form of fibrin.
- Then fibers of the physiological thrombus are formed, which firmly adheres to the vessel wall or clogs the site of damage.
The first group inhibits the coagulation process at the stage of fibrin production. They prevent the transition of fibrin into an insoluble form. The indisputable advantage of medicines of this group is the absence of a negative effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa, because they do not contain aspirin. This factor is important in clinical practice, because all blood-thinning drugs require long-term use.
Antiplatelet agents inhibit the adhesion of platelets to each other and prevent the attachment of platelets to the vessel wall, preventing a thrombus from forming. Most representatives of antiplatelet agents contain acetylsalicylic acid. Known to all, acetylsalicylic acid really has a pronounced blood-thinning effect if taken in small doses. But with prolonged use, aspirin has a damaging effect on the gastric mucosa, causing gastritis or peptic ulcer.
Determine that the patient has thick blood and only a doctor should prescribe a specific drug. Self-medication in the field of cardiology is strongly discouraged. Despite this, some pharmaceutical companies offer several over-the-counter drugs that can be taken to prevent strokes and reduce blood viscosity by patients on their own.
This includes funds based on Heparin or its derivatives. Their pharmacological effect is manifested due to the ability to inhibit the work of the main factors involved in the coagulation process, as well as inhibit the formation of insoluble forms of thrombotic proteins – thrombin and fibrin.
Heparin is considered a standard anticoagulant and additionally:
- slows down the process of adhesion and activation of platelets;
- reduces vascular permeability;
- relieves spasm of the vascular wall, which is also one of the mechanisms for stopping bleeding and the coagulation process.
Heparin is available in pharmacies in various forms of release. For the treatment of serious systemic disorders, the medicine is used injection. In the form of an injection, intravenous injections, intramuscular and subcutaneous, can be given. Such manipulations are performed by a medical professional when the patient is in hospital.
Local application of heparin has a less pronounced effect and is characterized by a shallow penetration into the tissues.
Topical agents are often prescribed to relieve leg fatigue with varicose veins, as well as to reduce soreness with hemorrhoids.
These include drugs that stop the coagulation process by directly blocking thrombin. The mechanism of action can be compared with the enzyme hirudin, which is naturally produced by leeches. Due to this, synthetic hirudin – bivalirudin and its natural analogues – lepirudin, desirudin, found its application in medicine.
The list of such tools is not very wide. The most popular representative is Arikstra, based on fondaparinux and sodium hydrocytrate. The latter has anticoagulant properties, but is used only in laboratory conditions for the preservation of blood.
These drugs affect substances that take part in the blood coagulation process. They reduce the amount of proteins or coagulation factors, which indirectly affects the process of thrombus formation.
Among them, the following subgroups can be distinguished:
- Phenindione-based drugs. Representative – Fenilin. Available in tablets, intended for regular use, the maximum effect is observed after about a day. It is not recommended to take it at the same time as some hypoglycemic agents.
- Coumarin derivatives. This includes herbal products and synthetic analogues of natural coumarin. Representatives: Warfarin, acenocumarol, Sincumar, Neodicumarin. Coumarin anticoagulants exhibit a fairly strong hemorrhaging effect, so the treatment regimen and dosage should be prescribed only by a doctor.
The pharmacological effect develops within a day after taking these drugs.
The treatment regimen involves regular use at the same time. An increase in the blood-liquefying effect is observed while taking with medications for gout (Allopurinol), antibiotics (Cefuroxime, Norfloxacin, Azithromycin and others), hormonal drugs (Testosterone, Tamoxifen) and others. In combination therapy, a reduction in the dose of anticoagulants may be required.
New generation anticoagulants
Warfarin, as one of the typical representatives of anticoagulants, is quite difficult in the selection of doses. For proper maintenance therapy, it is necessary to constantly measure INR and take into account the individual sensitivity of the patient to this active substance. Pharmaceutical companies have proposed more advanced blood viscosity lowering agents.
There are three main drugs:
- Xarelto. Very good drug with minimal risk of bleeding. It is one of the safest, does not require INR control. Designed for long-term use.
- Apixaban (Elikvis). This thinner is used for venous thrombosis, as well as pulmonary embolism. After a week of treatment with the initial dosage, the drug should be drunk in maintenance quantities for life.
- Pradaxa. It is often prescribed by doctors in the treatment of ischemic strokes. It can be used as a prophylactic for some surgical interventions and prosthetics.
Medications of the latest generation make it possible to change the scheme of therapy and switch from one remedy to another. It is necessary to begin treatment with a new drug after warfarin after canceling the latter and receiving an INR result of less than 2,0. With the reverse transition, Warfarin is added to the modern remedy, and then unnecessary medicine is canceled.
The process of blood coagulation involves the stage of platelet adhesion, which leads to the formation of a primary clot and clogging of the wound. Antiplatelet agents exhibit properties that inhibit the bonding process, thereby preventing the formation of a blood clot and preventing the stage of enzymatic coagulation.
In medical practice, all antiplatelet agents are divided into two subgroups:
- aspirin-containing and their analogues;
- medicines not containing Aspirin.
Acetylsalicylic acid-based drugs occupy the widest segment of the antiplatelet group. They are available under different brand names and are available to patients at very different prices.
The main group of such drugs is NSAIDs, but when taken in doses below 300 mg, the tablets show an anticoagulant effect.
It should be noted that when taken orally, preparations based on acetylsalicylic acid are well absorbed in the stomach, and their pharmacological effect develops after 20 minutes. At the same time, anti-inflammatory drugs have an ulcerogenic effect, which makes them dangerous for the gastric mucosa with constant use. Doctors try to prescribe coated tablets for the prevention of gastritis and duodenitis.
In the pharmaceutical market, combination agents based on acetylsalicylic acid are also widespread. They contain an auxiliary component – magnesium hydroxide, which protects the gastric mucosa from the adverse effects of acetylsalicylic acid.
Agrenox is another combined remedy. In addition to aspirin, it contains a second antiplatelet agent – dipyridamole, which enhances the therapeutic effect.
The most popular drugs of this series:
- Dipyridamole. The effect is approximately comparable with acetylsalicylic acid, however, in addition, dipyridamole exhibits a coronary expansion effect. The medicine is not very convenient to use, since it needs to be drunk 3 times a day. The advantage is the absence of an ulcerogenic effect. More often prescribed for angina pectoris and heart attack.
- Ticlopidine. The activity of this active substance is several times higher than standard Aspirin. The pharmacotherapeutic effect develops only after a few days of administration. Suction also occurs quickly and completely. Designed for long-term use. In elderly patients, the maintenance dose is often halved to reduce the likelihood of side effects.
- Clopidogrel. One of the most popular antiplatelet agents, which rarely has side effects. It is superior to Aspirin in the strength of the effect.
- Pentoxifylline (Trental). It is used as a blood thinner and more. In addition to improving the rheological properties of blood, it contributes to vasodilation and better oxygen saturation of the myocardium. Such properties help to establish metabolism in the tissues and normalize blood circulation. It is prescribed for angiopathy, atherosclerosis, asthma attacks, microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus.
The safest drugs for the stomach
NSAID-based drugs can negatively affect the condition of the gastric mucosa.
If there are problems in the field of gastroenterology, patients will be better off replacing these drugs with others.
Also worth mentioning separately is Cardiomagnyl, ThromboASS, Aspecard, Aspirin Cardio – these are drugs that contain a minimal amount of aspirin, so they practically do not have an ulcerogenic effect (they do not cause problems with the stomach and intestines).
Biological supplements are designed more for the prevention of strokes and thrombosis than for the treatment of existing pathologies. They must be taken with caution, not exceeding the recommended dose. Patients also should not wait for a quick and pronounced effect after taking such drugs, they simply are not able to thin the blood.
Prevent the formation of blood clots will help:
- Blood pressure is the norm – it is also prescribed for hypertension to reduce pressure.
- Fucus Litoral – additionally increases the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels and strengthens them.
- Pine Pollen.
How to thin the blood during pregnancy?
The decision to take hemorrhage drugs by pregnant women is made only by a doctor. Low molecular weight heparins (Fraxiparin and Clexane) do not pass through the placental barrier, and Warfarin injections are very dangerous for the fetus.
For this category of patients, the use of heparin, injections of Clexane, the appointment of Curantil is allowed. The dosage form (ampoules or tablets) is selected taking into account the patient’s condition. Before the planned date of birth, hemorrhages are gradually withdrawn to reduce the risk of extensive bleeding.
During the first trimester, hemorrhage is not recommended, since this period is very important for the development of all the baby’s organs.
Hemoptysis agents are often part of complex therapy for various heart diseases.
For example, heart failure is treated with cardiac glycosides, antihypertensive drugs and anticoagulants, arrhythmia with beta-blockers, indirect anticoagulants, antianginal drugs.
Warfarin, Sinkumar, Arikstra, Cardiomagnyl can be appointed.