Normosystole tachi and brady – the concept of how the norm and deviations are reflected in the ECG

Normosystole is understood as a sinus heart rhythm accompanied by a normal heart rate – from 55-60 to 80-90 per minute. It is this heart rate that allows the heart muscle to work without an increased load on the myocardium, while at the same time providing the necessary cardiac output, providing blood to the internal organs.

normosystole on ECG Radisystole and tachysystole, in turn, indicate a slowdown and acceleration of the heart rhythm, respectively. Read about these abnormalities on the ECG in separate materials – bradysystole, tachysystole.

If the doctor wrote in the ECG conclusion: “The sinus rhythm is correct, heart rate is 75 beats / min., Normal position of EOS”, then there is nothing to worry about – the heart is in order. Sometimes indicate sinus tachy or bradycardia. Tachycardia manifests itself in healthy people during emotional stress, physical activity, so it is important to record an ECG at rest.

In addition, heart palpitations occur in pregnant women, because they increase the volume of circulating blood to the heart, and for this the organ works at a faster pace. Bradycardia is diagnosed in people who regularly play sports and during sleep. When rhythm disturbances are detected on the cardiogram, the patient consults a doctor. After all, such signs in combination with other symptoms indicate the manifestation of such cardiological diseases:

  • damage to the heart valves (endocarditis);
  • cardiomyopathies, myocarditis;
  • congenital and acquired heart defects.

A frequent manifestation of rhythm disturbance is arrhythmia. Kinds:

  • atrial or ventricular extrasystole;
  • atrial fibrillation;
  • ventricular tachycardia;
  • ventricular fibrillation;
  • sinus node dysfunction.

Sinus tachycardia is a symptom of other non-cardiological diseases:

  • infectious diseases (with an increase in body temperature, an increase in heart rate occurs);
  • endocrine disorders (hyperthyroidism, malfunctioning of the adrenal glands);
  • pathology of the nervous system.

To clarify the diagnosis or exclude pathologies, they are additionally examined and consulted with adjacent doctors. They do a general blood test, biochemistry, Holter ECG monitoring, echocardiography, and are examined by a neurologist, endocrinologist.

Sinus rhythm is a sign that the heart and its conducting system are working properly. Not always the deviations that were detected on the ECG, speak of the disease. They are a variant of the age norm or arise temporarily under the influence of the environment or internal processes. Not all rhythm disturbances require urgent intervention and therapy.

Some changes take place on their own after normalization of the nervous system, hormonal levels, while others prescribe medication or even surgery (radio wave ablation or the installation of an artificial pacemaker) .The following sources of information were used to prepare the material.

Normosystole is understood as a sinus heart rhythm accompanied by a normal heart rate – from 55-60 to 80-90 per minute. It is this heart rate that allows the heart muscle to work without an increased load on the myocardium, while at the same time providing the necessary cardiac output, providing blood to the internal organs.

In other words, the commonly used term “sinus rhythm, normosystole” in the ECG protocol indicates that the heart is working correctly, and the examination result is good.

normosystole on ECG

Normosystole is understood as a sinus heart rhythm accompanied by a normal heart rate – from 55-60 to 80-90 per minute. It is this heart rate that allows the heart muscle to work without an increased load on the myocardium, while at the same time providing the necessary cardiac output, providing blood to the internal organs.

In other words, the commonly used term “sinus rhythm, normosystole” in the ECG protocol indicates that the heart is working correctly, and the examination result is good.

Bradisystole and tachysystole, in turn, indicate a slowdown and acceleration of the heart rhythm, respectively. Read about these abnormalities on the ECG in separate materials – bradysystole, tachysystole.

Normal heart rate

normal heart function – with sinus rhythm

The concept of normosystole usually also means the fact that electrical signals that contribute to the sequential electrical excitation of all parts of the heart are generated in the sinus node, which normally is a first-order pacemaker. In all other cases, they talk about the migration of a pacemaker or non-sinus rhythm. These processes are combined by the concept of cardiac arrhythmias, or arrhythmias.

Therefore, usually in the conclusion of the ECG, in addition to the characteristic of heart rate (HR), the first place is mentioned as to whether the patient has a sinus rhythm or not. If the patient sees the term “normosystole” in the protocol, then this most likely means that he has not only the correct, normal frequency of heart rhythm, but also the sinus one – that is, it comes from the sinus node, as it should be normal. (Nevertheless, there are wordings of “normosystole” with an even heart rate, but a non-sinus rhythm – more on that at the end of the article).

normal heart function – with sinus rhythm

Therefore, usually in the conclusion of the ECG, in addition to the characteristic of heart rate (HR), in the first place is a mention of whether the patient has a sinus rhythm or not. If the patient sees the term “normosystole” in the protocol, then this most likely means that he has not only the correct, normal frequency of heart rhythm, but also the sinus rhythm – that is, it comes from the sinus node, as it should be normal. (Nevertheless, there are wordings of “normosystole” with an even heart rate, but a non-sinus rhythm – more on that at the end of the article).

normal heart function – with a sinus rhythm The concept of normosystole usually also means the fact that electrical signals that contribute to the sequential electrical excitation of all parts of the heart are generated in the sinus node, which normally is a first-order rhythm driver. In all other cases, they talk about the migration of a pacemaker or non-sinus rhythm.

These processes are united by the concept of cardiac arrhythmias, or arrhythmias. Therefore, in addition to the characteristic of heart rate (HR), the conclusion of the ECG is usually given to mention whether the patient has a sinus rhythm or not. If the patient sees the term “normosystole” in the protocol, then this most likely means that he has not only the correct, normal frequency of heart rhythm, but also the sinus rhythm – that is, it comes from the sinus node, as it should be normal. (Nevertheless, there are wordings of “normosystole” with an even heart rate, but a non-sinus rhythm – more on that at the end of the article).

  • The P wave on the electrocardiogram necessarily precedes the QRS complex.
  • The PQ distance is 0,12 seconds – 0,2 seconds.
  • The shape of the P wave is constant in each lead.
  • In an adult, the rhythm frequency corresponds to 60 – 80.
  • The P – P distance is similar to the R – R distance.
  • The P wave in the normal state should be positive in the second standard lead, negative in the lead aVR. In all other leads (these are I, III, aVL, aVF), its shape may vary depending on the direction of its electrical axis. Typically, P waves are positive in both I and aVF.
  • In leads V1 and in V2, the P wave will be 2-phase, sometimes it can be predominantly positive or predominantly negative. In leads from V3 to V6, the tooth is predominantly positive, although there may be exceptions depending on its electrical axis.
  • For each P wave, the QRS complex, T wave, must necessarily be followed normally. The PQ interval in adults has a value of 0,12 seconds – 0,2 seconds.

    The sinus rhythm together with the vertical position of the electrical axis of the heart (EOS) shows that these parameters are within normal limits. The vertical axis shows the projection of the position of the organ in the chest. Also, the position of the organ can be in the semi-vertical, horizontal, semi-horizontal planes. When the ECG registers a sinus rhythm, it means that the patient has no problems with the heart yet.

    When passing the examination, it is very important not to worry and not be nervous so as not to receive inaccurate data. You should not do the examination immediately after physical exertion or after the patient ascended to the third or fifth floor on foot. You should also warn the patient that you should not smoke half an hour before the examination, so as not to get false results.

    The human heart is a pump that pumps blood in a certain rhythm. His work can accelerate or slow down, which depends on the physical activity of the person. The concept of “sinus rhythm” means that electrical impulses that make the heart work like a clock are generated in the so-called sinus node.

    This rhythm may be regular or irregular. The second option is a synonym for sinus arrhythmia. Sinus rhythm The heart can beat in different rhythms. For example, when a person accelerates a step while walking, the organ begins to contract faster. It also happens during a period of emotional arousal. As long as the heart beats in a steady rhythm, it is called normal (regular), that is, the time intervals between contractions are almost the same, the difference between them does not exceed 10%. As soon as this difference becomes larger, sinus arrhythmia (SA) occurs.

    The electrical axis of the heart is a concept that represents the electrical processes in this organ. The direction of EOS shows all the bioelectric changes in total that occur during the work of the heart muscle. During the removal of the electrocardiogram, each electrode fixes the bioelectric reaction in the strictly designated part of the myocardium.

    Then, to calculate the position and angle of the EOS, doctors present the chest in the form of a coordinate system in order to subsequently project the electrodes on it. Perhaps the horizontal position of the EOS, vertical and a number of other options. The electrical axis of the heart is a concept that displays the electrical processes in this organ.

    The conduction system of the heart muscle is atypical muscle fibers that connect various parts of the organ and help it contract simultaneously. Its beginning is considered to be a sinus node located between the mouths of the vena cava, so healthy people have a sinus heart rhythm. When an impulse occurs in the sinus node, the myocardium contracts.

    Since the weight of the left ventricle of the heart muscle in fully healthy adults is greater than the right, all electrical processes occur more strongly there. Therefore, the axis of the heart is facing him.

  • Normal position. If you project the location of the heart on the proposed coordinate system, then the direction of the left ventricle from 30 to 70 degrees will be considered normal. But it depends on the characteristics of each person, so the range from 0 to 90 degrees is considered the norm of this indicator in different people.
  • Horizontal position (from 0 to 30 degrees). It is displayed on a cardiogram in stunted people with a wide sternum.
  • Vertical position. EOS is in the range from 70 to 90 degrees. It is observed in tall people with a narrow chest.
  • Deviation to the left. If the axis deviates to the left, this may indicate an increase (hypertrophy) of the left ventricle, which indicates its overload. This condition is often caused by arterial hypertension, which occurs for a long time, when the blood hardly passes through the vessels. As a result, the left ventricle is working hard. Deviation to the left occurs with various blockages, lesions of the valve apparatus. With progressive heart failure, when the organ cannot fully perform its functions, the electrocardiogram also fixes the displacement of the axis to the left. All these diseases make the left ventricle work for wear, so its walls become thicker, the impulse along the myocardium goes much worse, the axis deviates to the left.
  • Offset to the right. Deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the right most often occurs with an increase in the right ventricle, for example, if a person has heart disease. This may be cardiomyopathy, coronary disease, abnormalities in the structure of the heart muscle. The right deviation is also caused by problems with the respiratory system, such as lung obstruction, bronchial asthma.
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    What is tachysystole, is it dangerous to human health

    Tachysystole is a collective concept used to indicate cardiac arrhythmias toward its increased frequency. Tachysystole includes several pathologies, accompanied by an accelerated contraction of the atria or ventricles. Some of them are relatively easy, some pose a threat to life.

    Sometimes a combination of normosystole and an irregular sinus rhythm – “normosystole, an irregular rhythm” may appear in the conclusion of the ECG. The latter can occur, for example, in respiratory or sinus arrhythmias. In this case, the rhythm comes from the sinus node (as it should be normal), but there are slight functional fluctuations in the heart rate due to the phases of inspiration and expiration (normally, when you inhale, the heartbeat slightly accelerates, while exhaling it slightly slows down). Therefore, if the patient sees a conclusion about normosystole with an irregular but sinus rhythm, there is no reason for him to panic.

    In the case when the patient registers an increase or decrease in heart rate, the doctor describes this as tachycardia or bradycardia. But sometimes he can write about tachysystole or bradysisystole, which literally means frequent or rare heart contractions, respectively. In this context (subject to sinus rhythm), the terms “cardia” and “systole” are synonyms.

    Again, tachysystole and bradyssystole can occur both in an absolutely healthy person and in various diseases of the heart or other organs. It all depends on other nuances obtained by ECG. But if a person has a sinus rhythm with a slightly slowed heart rate (at least 50 per minute) or rapid (90-100) – especially from excitement, then we can talk about normal rates.

    Sometimes a combination of normosystole and an irregular sinus rhythm – “normosystole, an irregular rhythm” may appear in the conclusion of the ECG. The latter can occur, for example, in respiratory or sinus arrhythmias. In this case, the rhythm comes from the sinus node (as it should be normal), but there are slight functional fluctuations in the heart rate due to the phases of inspiration and expiration (normally, when you inhale, the heartbeat slightly accelerates, while exhaling it slightly slows down).

    Therefore, if the patient sees a conclusion about normosystole with an irregular but sinus rhythm, there is no reason to panic. In the case when the patient has an increased or slowed heart rate, the doctor describes this as tachycardia or bradycardia. But sometimes he can write about tachysystole or bradysisystole, which literally means frequent or rare heart contractions, respectively. In this context (subject to sinus rhythm), the terms “cardia” and “systole” are synonyms.

    Again, tachysystole and bradyssystole can occur both in an absolutely healthy person and in various diseases of the heart or other organs. It all depends on other nuances obtained by ECG. But if a person has a sinus rhythm with a slightly slowed heart rate (at least 50 per minute) or rapid (90-100) – especially from excitement, then we can talk about normal rates.

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    Tachysystole is a collective concept used to indicate cardiac arrhythmias toward its increased frequency. Tachysystole includes several pathologies, accompanied by an accelerated contraction of the atria or ventricles. Some of them are relatively easy, some pose a threat to life.

    There are several types of tachysystole: atrial, paroxysmal, supraventricular, nodular, flutter and atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia. The treatment options are selected by the doctor individually, taking into account the type of disease and the individual characteristics of a particular patient. There are many reasons for which tachysystole can occur.

    Heart failure may be one of them. In this case, the most effective treatment may be the use of cardiac glycosides, which improve the contractile function of the myocardium, including affecting atrial-ventricular conduction. Cardiac glycosides contribute to the conversion of the tachysystolic form of atrial fibrillation to normosystolic, which is achieved by intravenous administration of glycosides.

    Prevention of attacks of tachysystole has problems in the importance of ischemic cardiomyopathy, since it is very difficult to predict the effectiveness of a drug in advance. During prolonged use of the drug, it is necessary to reckon with its side effects. It is because of this that those drugs in which side effects are minimal are advantageous.

    The most promising drug for the prevention of tachysystole attacks is Etmozin. Since with its prolonged use, it practically does not give side effects and at the same time, success with its use is achieved in 50% of all identified cases. Also, in some cases, a convincing effect was obtained from “Rhythmodan”, “Aimalina” and “Isotine”.

    If you have been given this diagnosis by a qualified specialist, then you first need to adhere to all its recommendations in order to improve your health. In addition, you should not engage in self-medication, because traditional medicine can only aggravate the state of health. After diagnosing tachysystole, constant monitoring by the attending physician is necessary. When new symptoms appear, it is necessary to seek advice from a medical institution in order to avoid a sharp deterioration in health.

    What dangerous conditions can be determined by ECG readings during decoding?

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    Extrasystole

    This phenomenon is characterized by a failure of the heart rhythm. A person feels a temporary increase in the frequency of contractions, followed by a pause. It is associated with the activation of other pacemakers, sending along with the sinus node an additional volley of pulses, which leads to an extraordinary reduction. It is characterized by a change in the frequency of the sinus rhythm, when the pulses arrive at different frequencies.

    Bradycardia

    It occurs when the sinus node is weak, unable to generate pulses with the proper frequency, as a result of which the heart rate slows down, up to 30-45 beats per minute.

    Tachycardia

    The opposite phenomenon, characterized by an increase in heart rate of more than 90 beats per minute. In some cases, temporary tachycardia occurs under the influence of strong physical exertion and emotional stress, as well as during a period of illness associated with fever.

    In addition to the sinus node, there are other underlying pacemakers of the second and third orders. Normally, they conduct impulses from a first-order pacemaker. But if their functions are weakened, a person may feel weakness, dizziness, caused by inhibition of the heart. It is also possible to lower blood pressure, because ventricles will contract less frequently or irregularly.

    Again, tachysystole and bradyssystole can occur both in an absolutely healthy person and in various diseases of the heart or other organs. It all depends on other nuances obtained by ECG. But if a person has a sinus rhythm with a slightly slowed heart rate (at least 50 per minute) or rapid (90-100) – especially from excitement, then we can talk about normal rates.

    The heart works like a clockwork. Like an arrow that ticks every second, an electrical impulse is generated in the heart, causing it to contract regularly. The time interval between which pulses appear is called the PP interval. When intervals are recorded on the electrocardiogram that differ by more than 10%, they speak of the so-called sinus arrhythmia. What are the causes of this condition? What is the danger of sinus arrhythmia, in what situation should it be treated? Read in this article

    While respiratory sinus arrhythmia is not considered a serious problem, it is sometimes considered as normal, non-phase – this is usually an occasion to think about your health. This form is often found in older people and indicates the various stages of coronary heart disease in which treatment is necessary.

    Although the exact cause of both forms of sinus arrhythmia is not known for certain, in the elderly they often occur during rest. There is a clear connection between apnea and this type of arrhythmia. Apnea – intermittent respiratory arrest that occurs during sleep – a dangerous condition, often leads to heart muscle infarction.

    Tachysystolic variant of atrial fibrillation: causes and treatment

    Of all rhythm disturbances, only this type of arrhythmia, such as flickering (fibrillation) or atrial flutter, is divided into normo, tachi, and brady systolic variants. In this case, the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, normosystole indicates pathology in the form of arrhythmia, but with a normal total heart rate.

    the normosystolic form of atrial fibrillation – despite the “waves” of flutter / atrial fibrillation, the ventricles of the heart contract at a normal frequency. This is a constant form of atrial fibrillation, when a person has been living with an irregular or non-sinus rhythm for a long time (months and years), and about the paroxysmal form (paroxysm – an attack), when the non-sinus rhythm occurs suddenly, and may well recover spontaneously or with the help of medications.

    Diagnostic criteria are similar to those for normo, brady and tachysystole with a sinus rhythm – from 60 to 80, less than 60 and more than 80 beats per minute, respectively. With a constant form of atrial fibrillation, normosystole is usually easier for patients to tolerate in case of a feeling of interruption in the heart, since bradysystole is fraught with a decrease in cardiac output and the resulting fainting, and heart rate with tachysystole sometimes reaches 200 beats per minute, which can lead to severe circulatory disorders.

    The treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with normosystole is strictly necessary, because paroxysm, even with a normal heart rate, requires urgent medical restoration of the rhythm. Typically, drugs such as cordarone, procainamide, a polarizing mixture are administered intravenously. A patient with normosystole with a constant form of atrial fibrillation should take drugs such as digoxin, aspirin to prevent blood clots, and sometimes warfarin for the same purpose.

    Rhythmic therapy with normosystole should be treated with extreme caution, since metoprolol, bisoprolol, verapamil and similar drugs can provoke a significant slowdown in heart rate and cause bradycardia with loss of consciousness. healthy heart, therefore, this term only indicates that for a specific ECG everything is in order.

    Of all rhythm disturbances, only this type of arrhythmia, such as flickering (fibrillation) or atrial flutter, is divided into normo, tachi, and brady systolic variants. In this case, the diagnosis of “atrial fibrillation, normosystole” indicates pathology in the form of arrhythmia, but with a normal total heart rate.

    normosystolic form of atrial fibrillation – despite the “waves” of flutter / atrial fibrillation, the ventricular contraction occurs with a normal frequency

    In this case, we are talking about both the constant form of atrial fibrillation, when a person lives for a long time (months and years) with an irregular or non-sinus rhythm, and about the paroxysmal form (paroxysm is an attack), when the non-sinus rhythm occurs suddenly, and it may well recover spontaneously or with medications.

    With a constant form of atrial fibrillation, normosystole is usually more easily tolerated by patients in terms of a sensation of interruptions in the work of the heart, since bradysystole is fraught with a decrease in cardiac output and the resulting fainting, and heart rate in tachysystole sometimes reaches 200 beats per minute, which can lead to severe circulatory disorders.

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    normosystolic form of atrial fibrillation – despite the “waves” of flutter / atrial fibrillation, the reduction of the ventricles of the heart occurs with a normal frequency

    In this case, we are talking about both the constant form of atrial fibrillation, when a person lives for a long time (months and years) with an irregular or non-sinus rhythm, and about the paroxysmal form (paroxysm is an attack), when the non-sinus rhythm occurs suddenly, and it may well recover spontaneously or with medications.

    The tachysystolic form of atrial fibrillation (AF), also called atrial fibrillation, is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by an increase in heart rate of more than 110 beats per minute. AF occurs when each individual muscle fiber of the heart chamber begins to randomly and actively contract. This uncontrolled and ineffective work disrupts the flow of blood through the heart.

    The complex of emergency measures for AF paroxysm (both large-wave and small-wave form) is aimed at protecting against thromboembolic events and rapid improvement of heart function. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, the tactics of urgent restoration of the sinus rhythm (in severe patients with compromised hemodynamics) or intensive care with heart rate control (in most patients) are chosen.

    There are such forms of AF (atrial fibrillation):

    • Paroxysmal – the rhythm returns to normal within 7 days;
    • Persistent – the episode lasts more than 7 days, the restoration of the sinus rhythm requires medical intervention;
    • Long-term persistent – the disease lasts more than 1 year;
    • Constant – it is either impossible or impossible to restore a normal rhythm.

    Treatment is selected depending on the type of disease. There is a normosystolic form (type) of atrial fibrillation, but it does not require therapy. If AF is paroxysmal, the attack must be stopped as soon as possible; if persistent – a continuous course of drugs is prescribed, especially in cases of aberrant complexes.

    The strategy for restoring normal rhythm involves cardioversion (drug or electric), followed by the prevention of relapse. Heart rate control tactics – normalization of the volume of cardiac output due to the reduction of heart rate while maintaining stable blood coagulation. The goals of treating AF are:

    • prevention of thromboembolism;
    • rhythm control and heart rate;
    • prevention of heart failure;
    • improving the prognosis, quality and life expectancy of the patient.

    Heart rate control is carried out by such drugs:

    • Beta blockers;
    • Calcium antagonists;
    • Cardiac glycosides.

    The combination and dosage of medicines is selected by the attending physician individually. During dose titration, the patient should regularly monitor his heart rate in order to avoid excessive reduction in heart rate. If tachyarrhythmia occurs during exercise, the doctor prescribes tests with bicycle ergometry to modify the treatment.

    Sinus rhythm control

    • Antiarrhythmics (amiodarone);
    • Beta blockers.

    Amiodarone is the drug of choice for patients in whom tachyarrhythmia is combined with heart failure. However, in patients with hypothyroidism, this drug can aggravate the symptoms of thyroid pathology, therefore, an endocrinologist should be consulted before prescribing treatment.

    In both cases, aspirin or indirect anticoagulants (warfarin) must be used to prevent thrombosis. This should be done under the control of coagulogram indicators.

    In the event that recurrences of atrial flutter repeatedly occur, and heart rate is not controlled by antiarrhythmic drugs or there are contraindications for their use, it is worth considering non-drug methods of treatment, such as:

    • Catheter radiofrequency or surgical ablation of the left atrium;
    • Catheter radiofrequency ablation and modification of the atrioventricular site with the installation of a pacemaker.

    Of all rhythm disturbances, only this type of arrhythmia, such as flickering (fibrillation) or atrial flutter, is divided into normo, tachi, and brady systolic variants. In this case, the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, normosystole indicates pathology in the form of arrhythmia, but with a normal total heart rate.

    Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia

    • Irregular sinus rhythm
    • Why does tachycardia occur?
    • Is sinus arrhythmia treated?

    A cardiologist patient receiving an electrocardiogram result may be faced with an irregular sinus rhythm record. What is it connected with and is it worth thinking about your health? Such thoughts arise in the head of a person.

    If an irregular rhythm is recorded in the cardiogram, then it is better to visit a doctor, since such a record indicates some heart problems. Only a specialist can correctly interpret the results of the ECG. Even a completely identical record in the results of an elderly person and a teenager can mean completely different things.

    Any person feels the beat of his own heart. Sometimes it seems to him that this vital organ is beating faster, sometimes, on the contrary, it freezes. The electrocardiogram index “sinus rhythm” has two meanings: regular and irregular. With an irregular rhythm, the heart rate may be increased or decreased. This condition is called sinus arrhythmia. And regular means quite good heart rate.

    Such arrhythmia occurs with changes in the work of the heart: the intervals between its contractions are not equal, as it should be. But at the same time, the heart itself beats with a rhythm of 60-80 beats per minute, which is the norm. Arrhythmia is of two types: physiological and conditionally pathological. Physiological or respiratory, arrhythmia is manifested as follows. When you exhale, the heart rate slows down, and when you inhale, it accelerates.

    This is typical for children and adolescents. If a child’s respiratory irregular rhythm disappears, heart disease can subsequently occur. Vegetative dystonia and recently transmitted infectious diseases can cause respiratory arrhythmia. Pathological arrhythmia is characterized either by a reduced heart rate (bradycardia) or, conversely, increased (tachycardia).

    With sinus bradycardia, a heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute is observed. Sometimes bradycardia becomes pronounced with a frequency of less than 40 beats. This condition is very dangerous, as it can lead to fainting and complete cardiac arrest. Lowering the heart rate contribute to:

    • diets and fasting;
    • changes in intracranial pressure;
    • too much use of heart medications;
    • thyroid diseases;
    • nicotine addiction;
    • cardiosclerosis.

    With sinus tachycardia, the heart rate is more than 80 beats per minute. It can be caused, in addition to heart pathologies, by active physical exertion, sharp excitement, and an increase in body temperature.

    The causes of tachycardia amid pathological changes are as follows:

    • high blood pressure (hypertension);
    • heart disease (heart disease, myocarditis, etc.);
    • low blood pressure (hypotension);
    • poisoning;
    • infectious diseases;
    • nerve diseases.

    A patient’s regular or irregular sinus rhythm shows an ECG. Additionally, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound. It is very informative and reveals many changes of a pathological nature, but only not about abnormalities in the sinus node, but about concomitant diseases. The patient does not feel signs of the disease, since more often arrhythmia is asymptomatic.

    Sinus rhythm is the normal rhythm of the heart that is generated by the sinoatrial node. Normally, the heart rate per minute ranges from 60 to 90 beats. The sinus rhythm is considered correct, in which each complex on the cardiogram is at an equidistant distance from the other. If the distance between the complexes exceeds 10% of the average, the rhythm is called irregular.

    Violation of the sinus rhythm can be observed in healthy adults as a reaction to emotional experiences. However, more often rhythm changes indicate the following conditions:

    • acquired heart defects;
    • cardiomyopathy;
    • myocarditis;
    • alcoholic heart disease;
    • thyrotoxicosis.

    An overdose of antiarrhythmic drugs or other drugs. There are situations when, in addition to regular heart contractions, extraordinary heart pulses occur. They are called extrasystoles. Quite often, extrasystoles are attributed to violations of the normal rhythm and its regularity. However, a small amount of extrasystoles can be found in healthy people as well.

    The number of supraventricular extrasystoles normally depends on the age of the person. An irregular sinus rhythm of the heart can be observed in the form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia attacks in pregnant women. Typically, such attacks are infrequent and bother a woman only with palpitations. Hemodynamics does not change.

    Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after H.M. Berbekova, Faculty of Medicine (KBSU) Level of education – Specialist State Educational Institution “Improvement of Doctors” of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Chuvashia The physiological processes in the body are caused not only by internal biochemistry – they are also affected by external factors.

    Changes in body temperature, respiratory rate and heartbeat – a natural reaction to the external environment, stress, psychoemotional state. Cardiac activity directly depends on a person’s momentary state. Sports, physical work, stress make the heart beat faster, as muscles and nerve tissues need more oxygen.

    The sinus rhythm of the heart comes from the sinus node. In a normal state in an adult, the sinus rhythm is 60-100 beats per minute. From the sinus node, the heart impulses move towards the atria and ventricles, which leads to a contraction of the heart muscle. Violation of the sinus rhythm indicates a heart disease.

    Sinus rhythm disturbance is associated with various causes. The main causes of sinus rhythm disturbance are:

    • heart disease
    • infectious endocarditis
    • cardiomyopathy
    • overloads of various nature (physical, emotional, psychological)

    Often the cause of rhythm disturbance is arrhythmia, tachycardia, bradycardia. The person does not have any symptoms, a deviation can be detected only by chance during a routine examination. Pathology can be congenital and acquired with age. Causes of sinus rhythm disturbance can also be age-related changes. It could be:

    • senile amyloidosis
    • arrhythmia
    • decreased thyroid function
    • liver disease
    • typhus
    • brucellosis

    The pathology of the sinus rhythm can be closely associated with hypoxia (lack of oxygen), with an increase in blood pressure, and an increased level of blood acidity. Sinus rhythm can go astray due to atrial tachycardia, due to atrial fibrillation. The main causes of sinus rhythm pathology are other heart diseases. It occurs at any age.

    Among children and adolescents, the diagnosis of sinus arrhythmia sounds quite often. The heart is the main organ of a person, therefore it is so important to determine and stop the disease in time. An irregular sinus rhythm a child can acquire from birth, or maybe in the process of growing up. Pathology is considered normal in adolescence.

    Adolescents may not feel the symptoms of sinus arrhythmia The period of sinus arrhythmia in adolescence can be asymptomatic, and may be accompanied by weakness, dizziness, pain in the heart. In the latter case, you should definitely consult a doctor to avoid complications. The risk group includes children of the following age groups:

    • birth defects associated with severe pregnancy and childbirth;
    • diseases of the nervous system
    • endocrine diseases
    • trace element deficiency
    • intoxication

    In most cases, children’s sinus arrhythmia disappears after a child’s lifestyle changes: a study and rest regimen is established, a diet is prescribed. If more serious problems are found after an ECG, treatment is carried out medically. Violation of a sinus heart rhythm in a child can be a complication after inflammatory heart disease, after a sore throat or acute respiratory infections, intestinal infections.

    “Irregular” means that there is a temporary difference exceeding more than 10% between the RR intervals on the ECG. With a normal sinus rhythm, this difference should be no more than 0,16 seconds. Anything more is classified as episodes of sinus arrhythmia. A condition in which, when viewed from an electrocardiographic tape, some PP intervals gradually expand, while others narrow.

    To identify SA, take the smallest and largest interval and determine the difference. Below is a picture of how the sinus arrhythmia looks on the ECG, where you can see the temporary difference between the PP intervals. For example, between the first and second teeth, the time interval is shorter than between the second and third. SA are divided into two types:

    • phase (sinus respiratory arrhythmia) – an option when the intervals of the RR on inspiration are lengthened, and on the exhalation are narrowed;
    • non-respiratory or non-phase occurs in a pathological condition.

    Tactics of treatment

    • 1 Types of sinus arrhythmia
      • 1.1 Physiological arrhythmia
      • 1.2 Conditionally pathological arrhythmia
      • 1.3 Mild sinus bradycardia
    • 2 Causes of pathology
      • 2.1 Repolarization of the ventricles
    • 3 Epidemiology
    • 4 Symptoms and manifestations
      • 4.1 The course of the disease in children
    • 5 Diagnostics
    • 6 Treatment of arrhythmia
    • 7 Prevention measures and forecasts

    Heading the Institute: “You will be amazed how easy it is to treat hypertension by taking it every day. Patients who have heart problems are familiar with this pathology, but many do not know what sinus arrhythmia means. It is characterized by a too long or short pause between contractions of the heart, but without disturbing their coordination – all parts of the heart contract in the correct sequence.

    Sinus arrhythmia is most often the result of other diseases or external causes. First you need to identify the cause of the pathology and try to get rid of it. First of all, you need:

    • get rid of bad habits
    • cure chronic infectious diseases
    • normalize hemoglobin level
    • normalize nutrition
    • correct thyroid function
    • review some medications
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    Drugs that slow the heart rate (heart rate) are added to this list. Beta-blockers, sedatives will help.If the pulse is not felt by the patient and other symptoms are not observed, then medications are not prescribed. If dizziness, fainting, weakness, other heart ailments are observed, it is recommended to use pacemakers or undergo an operation. Find out about cardiac arrhythmias from the proposed video.

    Irregular sinus rhythm is not a dangerous disease, it can serve as a signal about the presence of other more serious pathologies or an incorrect lifestyle. If symptoms interfere with comfortable living, then a visit to a doctor and an ECG are mandatory. Sinus arrhythmia is found in even the smallest children.

    Specific therapy is not required when there are no signs of the disease. When there is a symptomatology, then before determining how to treat sinus arrhythmia, the doctor monitors to find out what type of sinus arrhythmia is present. That is, an observation is carried out to exclude the physiological (phase) option, to make sure whether the symptoms are associated with the respiratory cycle.

    If a non-phase variant of the pathology is diagnosed, that is, a rhythm disturbance appeared against the background of any disease, then the latter is treated first. As a rule, in case of successful therapy, the symptoms of sinus arrhythmia disappear. If the manifestations persist, especially when rhythm disturbance is associated with another cardiovascular disease, then the doctor may suggest the following treatment options:

    • medications;
    • installation of a pacemaker (temporary or permanent);
    • heart ablation
    • implant a heart defibrillator.

    As a rule, treatment begins with drug therapy. Propantheline 15 mg three times daily is recommended to relieve symptoms of sinus arrhythmia. With prolonged use of this anticholinergic agent, effectiveness approaches 75%. In the case of a combination of sinus arrhythmia with tachycardia, beta-blockers can be used.

    Sinus arrhythmia does not require special treatment. An irregular rhythm does not mean that there is any of the listed diseases. Heart rhythm disturbance is a common syndrome characteristic of any age. The correct diet, daily routine, and the absence of stress can help a lot in avoiding heart problems.

  • Rejection of bad habits. Limit the use of alcohol, nicotine, energy.
  • Healthy lifestyle – the right diet, daily routine, minimizing stress, long walks in the fresh air.

    A healthy diet helps to enrich the body with the necessary vitamins and prevent serious changes in the heart. It is useful to fill the diet:

    • fruits rich in antioxidants (oranges, blueberries, grapes) and vegetables (spinach, cabbage, onions, beets);
    • foods containing vitamin D – parsley, milk, salmon, chicken eggs.

    Interpretation of results and diagnosis

    At the end, the specialist determines the diagnosis, in conclusion, the doctor indicates the correct rhythm, pulse, evaluates the position of the axis, and notes the deviations found.

    Heart Rate Decryption

  • Bradycardia – heart rate / min less than 60, sometimes an increase in the PP interval to 0,21 seconds is recorded.
  • Tachycardia – heart rate increases to 90, although other signs of rhythm remain normal. Often, oblique depression of the PQ segment can be observed, and the ST segment is upward. In sight, this may look like an anchor. If the heart rate rises above 150 beats per minute, blockages of the 2nd art.
  • Arrhythmia is an irregular and unstable sinus rhythm of the heart, when the RR intervals differ more than 0,15 seconds, which is associated with changes in the number of strokes per inhalation and exhalation. Often found in children.
  • Rigid rhythm – excessive regularity of contractions. RR differs by less than 0,05 sec. This may occur due to a defect in the sinus node or a violation of its neurovegetative regulation.

    Heart Rate Decryption

    Is sinus arrhythmia treated?

    Most often, an irregular sinus rhythm is a concomitant manifestation of some kind of heart disease. Therefore, the underlying disease is treated, if possible. And if it is impossible, its painful manifestations are partially removed.

    The patient himself can relieve his condition with preventive measures:

    • completely give up smoking and alcohol;
    • establish a healthy lifestyle: walks in the fresh air, restful sleep and good rest, feasible physical exercises;
    • observe proper nutrition and diet: no strong tea and coffee, restriction in eating spices, restriction of chocolate.

    A pronounced degree is much less common. More often in the elderly. It manifests itself against the background of heart diseases: rheumatism, cardiosclerosis, etc. The disease is quite dangerous, requires treatment. And first of all, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease.

    Most often, an irregular sinus rhythm is a concomitant manifestation of some kind of heart disease. Therefore, the underlying disease is treated, if possible. And if it is impossible, its painful manifestations are partially removed.

    A pronounced degree is much less common. More often in the elderly. It manifests itself against the background of heart diseases: rheumatism, cardiosclerosis, etc. The disease is quite dangerous, requires treatment. And first of all, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease.

    Heading the Institute: “You will be amazed how easy it is to treat hypertension by taking it every day. Since atrial flutter is an intermittent disorder, it’s impossible to say exactly how many people have encountered this problem. It is only known for certain that this violation of the heart rhythm occurs dozens of times less than arrhythmia.

    What it is?

    Atrial flutter refers to the frequent reduction of the atria to 400 per minute, while the correct regular rhythm is maintained. Frequent impulses are accompanied by partial blockade of the atrioventricular region, and they lead to a rare rhythm of the ventricles. For the treatment of hypertension, our readers successfully use ReCardio.

    Seeing the popularity of this product, we decided to offer it to your attention. Read more here . The attack of atrial flutter is a paroxysm lasting from a few seconds to several days. Due to the instability of the rhythm, a transition to the sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation occurs, which occurs more often.

    Types of flutter

    The atypical view is distinguished by the movement of the impulse in the right or left atrium, but the process does not affect the tricuspid valve. Such fluttering occurs against the background of heart surgery. A typical manifestation of atrial flutter occurs with accelerated movement of an electrical impulse around the valve of the right atrium. You can eliminate the pathology only by ablation. The procedure is not complicated, but requires professionalism and experience from a specialist.

    There are many reasons for the appearance of atrial flutter and not all are directly related to the work of the cardiovascular system. In some cases, a person does not have other diseases, and an attack of flutter occurs. This applies to the hereditary factor, if there was a heart disease in the family history, then the risk of occurrence increases several times. Cardiovascular system diseases can provoke atrial flutter:

    • various heart defects;
    • ischemia;
    • arterial hypertension;
    • inflammatory processes of the membranes of the heart;
    • heart failure;
    • open heart surgery.

    In addition, heart disease, atrial flutter can cause other serious disorders:

    • endocrine diseases, in particular diabetes mellitus and thyrotoxicosis;
    • overweight;
    • chronic lung disorders.

    symptomatology

    Signs of the disease depend on the form of its course. Each of them has its own differences and manifests itself in different ways, but they are very similar to some extent.

    ECG sinus heart rhythm – what does it mean and what can it tell

    One of the fundamental indicators of cardiac activity is the sinus rhythm. These are regularly occurring impulses that come from the sinus node of the main organ.

    Sinus rhythm shows heart activity

    The heart rhythm that comes from the sinus node and not from other areas is called sinus. It is determined in healthy people and in some patients suffering from heart diseases. Heart impulses appear in the sinus node, then diverge in the atria and ventricles, which causes the muscular organ to contract.

    One of the fundamental indicators of cardiac activity is the sinus rhythm. These are regularly occurring impulses that come from the sinus node of the main organ.

    Sinus rhythm shows heart activity

    What does it mean and what are the norms

    The sinus rhythm of the heart is the stable occurrence of electrical impulses in the sinus node (pacemaker). Through the right atrium, they evenly spread into the ventricles (first to the right, then to the left), which causes the heart muscle to move rhythmically. If the cardiogram shows a sinus regular rhythm with the vertical position of the heart axis, this means that the activity of the main organ is normal and pathological signs are absent.

    ECG sinus heart rhythm – what does it mean and how to determine it? In the heart there are cells that create an impulse due to a certain number of beats per minute. They are located in the sinus and atrioventricular nodes, as well as in the Purkinje fibers that make up the tissue of the heart ventricles. The sinus rhythm on the electrocardiogram means that this pulse is generated by the sinus node (normal – 50).

    What is atrial flutter and how is it treated?

    Types of flutter

    This is an uncoordinated atrial muscle fiber contraction in which the heart rate reaches 700 beats per minute. There are two forms of fibrillation:

    • paroxysmal – lasts no more than two days;
    • chronic – lasts more than two days.

    Atrial fibrillation is registered in 0,5% of the population, but among people older than 65 it is already found in 5%. 30% of the population have an idiopathic form of the disease, that is, which does not have visible causes. In the rest, the pathology develops against the background of cardiac and extracardial diseases:

    • heart attack;
    • pericarditis or myocarditis;
    • heart surgery;
    • heart defects;
    • hypertension;
    • cardiomyopathy;
    • alcoholism;
    • thyrotoxicosis;
    • Tela;
    • electrical injury;
    • pneumonia.

    More often, the pathology develops against a background of heart disease. Many foci appear in the heart tissue that generate electrical pulses (photo). As a result, excitation and contraction of individual sections of the myocardium occur.

    Manifestations

    Patients with atrial fibrillation complain of increased fatigue, dizziness, a feeling of heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and attacks of loss of consciousness. Some patients with underlying heart diseases have increased symptoms of heart failure. Less commonly, there are no complaints – an asymptomatic form. Examination gives characteristic signs of the underlying disease. During auscultation, a rapid heartbeat is recorded.

    Diagnostics

    To exclude thyrotoxicosis as a cause of fibrillation, the thyroid hormones in the blood are examined.

    The goals of treating atrial fibrillation are:

    • restoration of a normal rhythm;
    • prevention of paroxysms of fibrillation;
    • prevention of complications, primarily thromboembolic.

    With severe rhythm failure, emergency defibrillation is performed. Restoring the normal rhythm improves the patient’s overall well-being, reduces the risk of thromboembolic complications. To do this, use antiarrhythmic drugs of the first class – Propafenone or Amiodarone. Drugs are administered orally or intravenously.

    This is a regular atrial muscle contraction with a frequency of 250-300 per minute. It is rarely observed, as it is an unstable state, quickly turning into a normal rhythm or fibrillation. It is paroxysmal or chronic. The causes and symptoms of flutter do not differ from those with fibrillation. On the ECG, sawtooth F waves are recorded at the site of the R waves. The treatment is carried out similarly to fibrillation.

    These rhythm disturbances are characterized by uncoordinated ventricular contraction with a frequency of 250-300 per minute. An ECG is recorded as a sinusoidal curve. It leads to cardiac arrest, clinical death. Emergency defibrillation is required, resuscitation measures are provided. To prevent this condition, a cardioverter-defibrillator is installed in the heart region to patients.

    • Chronic heart failure (CHF)
    • Dilated cardiomyopathy
    • Cardiogenic shock

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  • Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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