With this diagnosis, the child has a violation of the frequency and strength of the heart contractions. This disease is dangerous at any age, especially at a young age, as it is difficult to diagnose. Sinus arrhythmia in a child today is treated quite quickly, but it is better not to allow its appearance, since the heart in children is still not strong enough and is not able to withstand constant malfunctions.
– poisoning; – inflammatory process in the heart channels; – CNS disorder; – intestinal infection; – acute form of pneumonia.
In addition, arrhythmia can be inherited from parents along with genetic material.
The cause of the onset of the disease can also be a malfunction in the development of the embryo in the womb. In adolescence, changes in the work of the heart most often occur as a result of severe emotional stress against the background of hormonal changes.
At this age, heart rate is very important. During the restructuring of the body, the hormonal background in adolescents is extremely unstable. Therefore, in some children by this age, there is a sharp increase in temperature. Any overheating or poisoning can cause the development of arrhythmias. In rare cases, the disease appears due to a violation of the thyroid gland.
– the long course of the disease in the young body causes serious complications, including heart failure;
– with poor blood circulation, the brain and internal organs are subject to oxygen starvation;
– A mild form of the disease can develop into chronic tachycardia.
When they talk about sinus rhythm, they mean that the heart works normally. This is a normal state of a healthy person: the heart performs a certain number of beats per minute at regular intervals.
It all starts with the fact that the intervals between contractions of the heart are unstable, although the number of contractions per minute is within normal limits, but sometimes it can slightly increase or decrease. The younger the child, the more often he is diagnosed with sinus arrhythmia. The reason is the baby’s not fully formed nervous system.
The risk group includes:
- premature babies;
- those with increased intracranial pressure;
- children with increased body weight may feel unwell during exercise, this is also associated with malfunctions of the heart.
In addition, the main causes of sinus arrhythmia are:
- An infection in the body.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Myocardial damage (myocarditis).
- Complication after angina, leading to damage to the heart muscle.
- Vegeto-vascular dystonia.
- The presence of a tumor in the heart (benign or malignant).
- Inflammatory diseases.
- Stress, great fear.
- Heart defects (congenital or acquired).
- Disruption of the hormonal background in adolescence.
Moderate sinus arrhythmia in a child is not dangerous if its cause is immaturity of nervous regulation, as is the case with respiratory arrhythmia. However, even in trained children, an unreasonable sinus arrhythmia may appear at first glance, and in this case a visit to a cardiologist is necessary.
Each case of arrhythmia in a child should be monitored and strictly controlled, because if sinus arrhythmia occurs for no apparent reason, especially if the child presents complaints, which will be discussed below, a comprehensive examination of the body is necessary.
If the child’s age is too young to formulate a complaint about feeling unwell or pain, observant enough parents themselves can notice changes in the child’s behavior if they look at the baby. At the time of interruption in the activity of the heart, a child may experience cyanosis (blueness) or pallor of the skin.
It is also accompanied by shortness of breath, which may occur at an early age with intermittent, “choking” crying. Such cases of arrhythmias can occur at any time of the day, and therefore the child is characterized not only by anxiety during the day, but also sleep disturbance at night. The kid loses his appetite or continues to eat, but with great reluctance.
Also, looking closely, in some cases, you can consider the pulsation of large vessels. Older children may lose consciousness at the time of a cardiac arrhythmia or may complain of dizziness.
Of course, each of these complaints in itself seems to be a reason for visiting a doctor, and if there is a combination of several of them, most likely the child suffers from something more serious than moderate sinus arrhythmia.
First of all, after the examination, the child will be sent for electrocardiography, and then two scenarios are possible: the baby can continue to be observed on an outpatient basis or sent for hospitalization.
In the case of hospitalization from the studies, a clinical analysis of blood and urine, an ultrasound examination of the heart, an echocardiogram, an x-ray of the chest organs are performed. In general, each case of diagnosis is individual, and further tactics are determined by the attending physician.
The phenomenon is inconstant, i.e. may occur continuously or be paroxysmal. Its main reasons are:
- Tumor of the heart.
- Congenital heart abnormalities.
Quite often, non-respiratory arrhythmia manifests itself after a long infectious disease. There is no pain, only a periodic rapid heartbeat. If the baby is diagnosed with non-respiratory sinus arrhythmia, then parents will need to take him to the ECG procedure once every 1-3 months to control the pathology.
If the disease manifested itself at a later age, then it can be confirmed by going to an electrocardiogram. Causes of respiratory arrhythmia:
- Rickets 1 year of life.
- Congenital disorders in the work of the heart.
- Hormonal malfunction during puberty.
For an accurate diagnosis, the results of studies on the ECG apparatus, an echocardiogram are used. Currently, this type of arrhythmia is detected in children quite often. Often the cause of its occurrence is heavy loads, both physical and emotional. Therefore, parents need to consider the frantic rhythm of modern life and take care of their baby.
Parents of “sports” children, faced with arrhythmia in their child, immediately ask two questions:
- Is sport guilty of causing the ailment?
- Can I continue to play sports?
The only consequence for the child will be a regular visit to a cardiologist and a quarterly ECG. Regular confirmation of heart rhythm disturbances, whatever it is, categorically denies the possibility of practicing professional sports.
Respiratory-type sinus arrhythmia is not capable of causing the child serious concern. The maximum is a feeling of a rapid heartbeat. The child’s complaints about the inability to breathe normally, rapid fatigue, a general feeling of weakness and frequent dizziness should alert parents: sinus arrhythmia cannot be accompanied by such symptoms.
Such a clinical picture is more characteristic of quite serious heart diseases. Your child should talk about these symptoms with a cardiologist. In the same way, with pronounced cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, shortness of breath and repeated fainting.
In addition to counting the number of heart contractions, the size of the intervals between beats can also be estimated. If the pauses between strokes are different, then we can confidently talk about sinus tachycardia or bradycardia.
Frequent changes in heart rhythm characteristic of arrhythmia can lead to serious consequences:
- Disruption of the heart, which results in a decrease in blood volume production.
- Due to the malfunctioning of the myocardium, the brain is primarily affected.
- Often, patients experience dizziness, fainting, loss of consciousness can occur, and completely unexpectedly.
- Due to a decrease in the ability to contract heart muscle, coronary blood flow is impaired. As a result, pulmonary edema and acute heart failure develop.
- Non-dangerous forms of failure
- Sinus arrhythmia
- Symptoms in children
- Sinus arrhythmia in a child – possible consequences of the disease
- Sinus arrhythmia in a child – possible consequences of the disease
- Sport and sinus arrhythmia
- Diagnosis and treatment
- What are the causes of arrhythmia in children and its prevention?
- How should the doctor and parents act
- Survey plan
- How to treat
- Pathology on the ECG in children
- Nontraditional methods of treatment
Non-dangerous forms of failure
Depending on the mechanism of occurrence of pathology, several forms of arrhythmia are distinguished. Below are considered which of them are safe and which can lead to serious complications.
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In most cases, this form is considered non-hazardous. It is respiratory arrhythmia that is often diagnosed in infants, and its cause is the immaturity of the nervous system. As the child grows up, the violation will disappear, and the work of the heart will be restored. While the symptoms are still present, the child should be registered with a cardiologist to periodically undergo an examination and identify sudden complications in time.
Respiratory arrhythmia is manifested by an increase in the frequency of contractions of the heart during inhalation and a slowing of the rhythm on exhalation. In children, such a violation is not considered a diagnosis and does not limit the child in attending any kind of events, including sports.
In addition to the delayed maturation of the nervous system, respiratory arrhythmias can trigger pathological causes:
- increase in ICP
- neurological diseases and brain damage due to hypoxia
- inferior development of the body due to premature birth
- metabolic disorders that affect the work of breathing and the heart
Here the rhythm of contractions goes astray due to functional disorders of the organ. Very often they are temporary and occur as a concomitant symptom of other problems in the body (decreased immunity, hormonal disruptions). It can occur after an infectious disease or as a result of malfunctioning of the endocrine organs. This form is not common and is usually regarded as a non-hazardous condition. After eliminating the cause, the work of the heart returns to normal.
This form is the most dangerous and is diagnosed in the presence of serious pathologies in the structure of the heart. Anatomical disorders affect both the tissue of the organ itself and the conduction system of nerves. Symptoms in organic disorders are most pronounced, and the consequences can be quite serious, so the disease requires urgent treatment for a long time.
Violations of the rhythm during organic changes are permanent and do not go away without treatment. Arrhythmia negatively affects the condition of the child and affects the quality of his life. The patient needs a complete diagnosis with an exact definition of the cause of the pathology and the selection of a comprehensive treatment regimen. This form of arrhythmia rarely appears apart, more often it is accompanied by other diseases – rheumatism, heart defects, myocarditis.
Respiratory arrhythmia occurs in many children. It is characterized by an increase in heart rate on inhalation and a slowdown on exhalation. Such a reflex reaction is checked during electrocardiography by placing the patient on a couch with a cold oilcloth on top of it. Due to its effects, the child instinctively holds his breath. In the presence of this form of arrhythmia, the heart rate will slightly decrease.
There is a respiratory type of failure in the rhythm of the heart due to the immaturity of the nervous system. The frequency of seizures and their intensity depends on the age of the patient. This arrhythmia develops due to the influence of the following factors:
- postnatal (from birth to 1 week) encephalopathy;
- high pressure inside the skull;
- prematurity of the child;
- rickets, provoking excessive excitation of the nervous system;
- excess body weight causes tachyarrhythmia after physical exertion;
- phase of active growth (6-10 years).
The severity of the failure depends on the cause of its occurrence. Often, arrhythmia is provoked by the inability of the vegetative department to keep up with the active growth of the child. Over the years, this problem resolves itself.
The functional form is not as common as the respiratory one. It is not considered dangerous, and in most cases passes without the intervention of a doctor. Arrhythmia occurs for the following reasons:
- endocrine disruptions;
- weakened immune defenses;
- immature nervous system.
Functional failure caused by the following factors is more dangerous:
- diseases caused by infections (bacterial or viral);
- impaired thyroid function.
In children, two types of arrhythmia occur. Respiratory arrhythmia – occurs due to the immaturity of the child’s NS. It manifests itself as a reflex increase in heart rate during inhalation, and a decrease – when exhaling. Subject to this violation:
- overweight children, rickets;
- babies with postnatal encephalopathy;
- children in the age period of 6 to 7 years, from 9 to 10 years, when the NS “does not keep pace” for the growth of the body.
The nature of the violation can be permanent or paroxysmal. The condition requires correction. Children have several peak periods in which arrhythmia can occur:
- from 4 to 8 months
- from 4 to 5 years
- from 6 to 8 years
Sinus arrhythmia in children can be of two types. Breathing It is associated with respiratory movements: the heart rate increases with inhalation, and decreases with exhalation. The reason for this is often an imbalance of the nervous autonomic system.
Fortunately, this type of disease is not particularly affected by well-being, so no specific treatment is required. Arrhythmia, not associated with breathing. It is not common, and its causes are usually heart disease, thyroid gland, as well as infectious diseases.
Sinus arrhythmia can be divided according to severity. There are two of them.
Severe arrhythmia in a child.
It occurs in older people. The clinical manifestations of this degree are quite obvious. It is also combined with other heart diseases, such as cardiosclerosis and rheumatism.
If severe arrhythmia is combined with bradycardia, special attention should be paid to this. Often this happens with neurosis. Special treatment should be applied.
Children are exposed to it, including the age threshold of 6 years, and adolescents. It manifests itself weakly or has no signs at all. Treatment is usually not applied, but herbal sedatives may be prescribed if desired.
In addition to all this, arrhythmia can be divided into other types.
This increases the contractions that appear in the sinus node. It occurs due to the reaction caused by myocarditis, although the reasons can be very different. In children, it can be intoxication of the body, rheumatic heart disease, infection or oxygen deficiency.
Pediatric thyrotoxicosis is also associated with tachycardia. The connection is manifested in hormonal changes. The causes of arrhythmias can be found in fever, intoxication, and emotional or psychological arousal.
In this case, the number of contractions of the heart decreases. Bradycardia in children is more pronounced if psycho-emotional arousal has been transferred.
It occurs in twenty percent of healthy children. The origin of this type is usually benign and does not require serious treatment. However, there are types of extrasystoles that can be a threat to the life of the child. In any case, you need to see a doctor.
The violation of the automatism of the heart muscle includes the following nosologies: sinus arrhythmia, pediatric sinus bradycardia or tachycardia. This also includes slow sliding rhythms, as well as the migration of a pacemaker.
The type of arrhythmia in which there is an increase (tachycardia) or decrease (bradycardia) in the heart rate by no more than 30 beats per minute from the child’s age norm.
Arrhythmia is characteristic of children of any age, but occurs mainly in schoolchildren and proceeds mainly as a respiratory arrhythmia. Characteristic for this type of arrhythmia is a different duration of cardiac complexes on the ECG, as well as a decrease in respiratory arrhythmia during exercise.
Arrhythmia, which occurs due to the fact that the main “pacemaker” in arrhythmia is not the sinus node, but another part of the conduction system of the heart. On an ECG, this type of arrhythmia is characterized by a different configuration of the P wave in different leads.
Myocardial excitability disorders include the following arrhythmias: extrasystole, non-paroxysmal and paroxysmal tachycardia. Atrial fibrillation can also include atrial fibrillation: flickering and flutter of the atria or ventricles of the heart.
It is characterized by the appearance of extrasystole, which on the ECG is defined as an extraordinary cardiac contraction. At the place of occurrence of an extraordinary impulse to reduce the heart muscle, they are divided into ventricular and atrial. Extrasystoles are asymptomatic, rarely patients feel single moments of discomfort in the heart.
Attacks of a sharp significant increase in heart rate, over 160 beats per minute. Symptomatically, the child feels restlessness, anxiety, pain and a “squeezing sensation” behind the sternum.
In medical jargon, it sounds like “flicker” – a rather severe arrhythmia associated with a violation of the coordinated contraction of the heart chambers. Usually, atrial fibrillation occurs against a background of serious organic heart damage.
Violations of the conduction function in the heart will include the phenomena of sinoatrial blockade, atrial and intraventricular blockade, as well as blockade of the atrioventricular node.
By the type of blockade, they are usually determined by ECG results. In most cases, blockade is manifested by a violation of the correct contraction of the heart muscle due to problems with the spread of excitation in its departments. This significantly reduces the tolerance of physical activity, so weakness and poor health during exercise and in patients with blockades are quite common.
There is also a separate classification of arrhythmias according to their degree of clinical significance:
- Arrhythmias that do not have clinical significance include rare, baking asymptomatic and not affecting the normal growth and development of the child arrhythmias, such as rare single extrasystoles, sinus bradycardia or tachycardia.
- Clinically significant arrhythmias include rhythm disturbances of a persistent nature, with an obvious clinic and significantly and strongly affecting the patient’s well-being. For example, arrhythmias such as extrasystoles that are recorded quite often, paroxysmal arrhythmias, as well as ERW syndrome and, like some other types of arrhythmias, are clinically significant.
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart in a child, as a rule, is accompanied by characteristic symptoms:
- frequent syncope;
- pain in the heart;
- shortness of breath;
- cyanosis in the nasolabial triangle;
- gag reflex, nausea;
- temperature changes (fluctuations within insignificant limits);
- interruptions in the work of the heart (reduction or increase in heart rate) are observed;
- poor health even with little physical exertion;
- dizziness, etc.
Sinus arrhythmia is not always expressed in unpleasant symptoms. However, it can be suspected in a child with complaints of pain in the region of the heart, constant fatigue and depression, dizziness, poor physical exercise tolerance.
Arrhythmia can be detected by the number of strokes, placing a palm on the left side of the chest of the child, or by feeling the pulse on the wrist. It is especially important to capture the frequency and depth of heart contractions – this is most indicative of sinus arrhythmia.
As for babies, they, of course, have no opportunity to complain about feeling unwell, but you can suspect arrhythmia in a baby by a very small increase in weight, shortness of breath, blue skin, paleness, unreasonable anxiety and poor sleep and appetite.
Of course, these are indirect signs, but an ECG for crumbs with similar manifestations will be very helpful. In a child in the first year of his life, sinus arrhythmia can have the following symptoms:
- very restless state of the baby;
- often the skin has a pale appearance with a hint of blue;
- the child eats poorly and often completely refuses food;
- trouble sleeping in a child.
In children 1-10 years old and in adolescence, signs of sinus arrhythmia have some differences from those symptoms that appear in a child in the first year of his life:
- fatigue from performing even minor physical exertion;
- loss of consciousness;
- sensation of interruptions in cardiac activity.
Severe sinus arrhythmia in adolescents 15-17 years old has additional signs:
- paroxysmal tachycardia. This is a short-term increase in heart rate. The figure in 1-2 minutes reaches 180 strokes;
- dizziness. Disruption of the heart affects the saturation of blood with oxygen. Due to the drop in the indicator, dizziness occurs. Severe sinus arrhythmia in adolescents may be accompanied by loss of consciousness;
- a sharp drop in blood pressure;
- periodic cramps;
- slowing heart rate to 30 per minute or cardiac arrest;
- pallor or sharp redness of the skin on the face with tachycardia.
It is almost impossible to independently diagnose changes in heart rate in children. According to doctors, in most cases, the disease is detected randomly when parents complain of sleep disturbance or pale skin color of the baby.
– constant nervous excitement; – insomnia and frequent night crying; – refusal to eat; – shortness of breath attacks; – blanching or turning blue of the skin.
Such signs are most often observed in children under 4 years of age. At an older age, increased fatigue and intolerance to stress are added to the above symptoms, in rare cases, fainting.
Symptoms of arrhythmia are usually nonspecific and are often detected by chance during treatment of another disease. In infants, instability of heart contractions can be manifested by paroxysmal shortness of breath, discoloration of the skin towards pallor or cyanosis, restless behavior, poor sleep, poor weight gain, refusal to eat, pulsation of the vessels of the neck.
At an older age, arrhythmia in a child can cause the following symptoms:
- heart discomfort
- low blood pressure
- fainting and dizziness
- weakness during exercise
The causes of such discomfort are impaired blood circulation, due to which the tissues of the skin and internal organs are poorly supplied with oxygen, experience hypoxia and function worse. Arrhythmias, in which there is an extension of the QT interval or ventricular tachycardia, are considered hazardous to health and can lead to sudden death of the baby.
Diagnosis of arrhythmia should be carried out very carefully with the definition of the type of violation, its cause and severity, as treatment tactics and prognosis depend on this. Dangerous arrhythmias are also considered those that are accompanied by cerebral hypoxia, myocardial ischemia, heart failure.
By severity, moderate and severe arrhythmia is distinguished. With moderate arrhythmia, the symptoms are nonspecific and mild. In most cases, this type of disorder goes away as the child grows up and is not found in adults. Treatment is usually not required, and the doctor can prescribe only mild sedatives and adjust the lifestyle.
To determine the severity of failures in the heart rhythm can only be a specialist after conducting instrumental studies. It is categorically impossible to diagnose yourself on the basis of your well-being or the advice of friends.
With severe arrhythmia, the problem is transferred to adulthood, although it is detected early enough. Symptoms of such a sinus disorder are usually pronounced. Pathology is often diagnosed during examination during complaints of heart pain, fainting, or other cardiovascular disease. It is very important for the patient not to refuse a full comprehensive examination, if such was prescribed by the doctor. Often the cause of the pathology is found completely not where it was supposed to be found at the beginning.
Young children often cannot correctly formulate what is bothering them.
Parents in this case should carefully monitor the well-being of the child and beware when the following symptoms appear:
- repeated loss of consciousness or dizziness
- increased sweating
- blue nasolabial triangle or general pallor of the skin
- irritability, anxiety, lethargy
- shortness of breath during physical activity even with light loads
- restless and shallow sleep
- heart palpitations
Clinically insignificant arrhythmias (which do not affect the quality of life of the child) and clinically significant (in which persistent cardiac abnormalities are diagnosed) are also distinguished.
The diagnosis of arrhythmias in infants is especially difficult. One can suspect heart problems in babies of the first year of life by a sudden change in skin color (the skin turns wholly or in separate areas, such as the nasolabial triangle), the appearance of a child’s shortness of breath, breast abandonment, as well as general anxiety and poor sleep.
Do not neglect the planned medical examination even if your child is in good condition, and in case of problems do not postpone going to the doctor as if you were busy.
Nevertheless, as part of the acquaintance, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the classic clinical pictures of certain types of arrhythmias.
An incompletely formed nervous system and emotional lability are the primary factors that affect malfunctions in the heart rhythm.
Arrhythmia in children develops due to structural features of the heart or diseases of the conduction system. What does the definition of sinus arrhythmia mean, and what help does the child need?
Sinus arrhythmia is a violation of the heart rhythm, in which different time intervals pass between the heart contractions, but at the same time their total number remains normal within 60 seconds. With this violation, the sequence of contraction of the heart chambers remains correct. With arrhythmia, the heart contracts too quickly or, conversely, very slowly.
In medical practice, some periods of children’s life are distinguished when the likelihood of sinus arrhythmia is highest. At this time, you must not disregard the baby’s complaints about chest discomfort. Diagnosed with a cardiogram. The following categories of children are at risk:
- newborn babies;
- half a year;
- 4-6 years;
- 7-10 years;
- adolescents (14-15 years old).
There are 2 types of arrhythmias in children:
- moderate (manifested in preschool children and adolescents);
- severe (rare form due to the presence of rheumatism).
Depending on the cause of the occurrence, malfunctions in the heart rhythm are classified into:
- Respiratory They are characterized by rapid heart contraction during inhalation and a slower exhalation. Such violations are characteristic of premature infants and children up to a year. Respiratory arrhythmia is a satellite of the IRR.
- Organic arrhythmias. In this case, an immediate examination of the baby by specialists and a long course of treatment is required. Such failures indicate serious abnormalities in the work of the heart.
- Functional – are quite rare. As well as respiratory arrhythmias, this variety does not pose a direct threat to the baby’s health. Basically, the disorder appears after an infectious or viral disease.
Arrhythmias in the work of the heart appear due to 3 common causes:
- congenital or acquired underdevelopment of the heart muscle, due to which it is not fully reduced;
- problematic functioning of the conducting cardiac system, which is accompanied by the appearance and transmission of an electrical impulse;
- deviation in the work of the ANS, regulating the rhythm of the heart.
Other factors can also be causes of sinus arrhythmia:
- heart tumors;
- genetic factor;
- VVD associated with the active growth of the child;
- heart defects;
- increased intracranial pressure;
- infectious diseases, accompanied by water-electrolyte imbalance and intoxication;
- inflammatory processes in various parts of the heart;
- hormonal failure (in adolescents);
- diseases of the nervous system against stress and psychological stress.
Symptoms in children
Sinus arrhythmia in a child – possible consequences of the disease
More often, arrhythmias are diagnosed in premature infants.
Violation can be observed in several ways:
- bradycardia – heart contractions occur less than 100 times per minute. The causes are usually problems of fetal development. Mom may suspect a violation of an insufficiently strong act of sucking a child, pale skin and poor sleep.
- Tachycardia – the number of contractions exceeds 200 beats per minute.
Despite the fact that some types of arrhythmias can be physiological or non-dangerous, the complete absence of such disorders in a child is considered the norm. In the hospital, usually all newborns undergo an ultrasound and a cardiogram, which allows you to identify existing pathologies in time.
It is also important to understand that the amount and rhythm of heart contractions in a child is affected by their psychoemotional state. Increased frequency can be caused by physical activity, crying, irritability during the disease, and slowdown – by sleep, calmness. The conduction system of the heart in children is imperfect, therefore, in the absence of organic disorders, the problem is likely to disappear in adulthood.
This arrhythmia is observed in various conditions of the body, both physiological and pathological:
- Physiological conditions most often are physical activity, stressful situations.
- If this arrhythmia occurs at rest of the patient, then you should think about the presence of any pathological condition of the body.
This may be a disease of the cardiovascular system, namely:
- coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction), arterial hypertension, bacterial endocarditis,
- myocarditis, pericarditis,
- malformations of the heart (stenosis and insufficiency of the valvular apparatus of the heart),
- endocrine system diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, adrenal gland tumor, hyperthyroidism,
hyperparathyroidism, blood diseases such as anemia, diseases of the nervous system (neurosis),
Sinus arrhythmia in a child – possible consequences of the disease
Sinus arrhythmia occurs in healthy people and is considered a variant of the norm, if not accompanied by clinical manifestations. In a child, it can be observed after overeating, during sleep; as a result of physical stress – in athletes after training.
- Cardiac – trophic disturbance and inflammation affecting the pacemaker (myocardial dystrophy, congenital heart abnormalities, myocarditis of various etiologies, circulatory failure).
- Extracardial – bronchopulmonary and endocrine pathologies, the negative effects of certain drugs, micronutrient deficiencies.
- Combined – if cardiological causes are combined with other factors.
I propose to discuss the causes of arrhythmia in adolescents. Metamorphoses of an organism during puberty are figuratively called by children’s endocrinologists a “hormonal explosion”, and psychologists and neurologists working with teenagers note the lability of their nervous system.
In this age period, arrhythmia is detected most often:
- it is in adolescents that autonomic dysfunctions are usually diagnosed, accompanied by a violation of the interaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system;
- we must not forget about coronary disease, which, unfortunately, has “rejuvenated” in recent decades;
- wanting to seem older, a teenager is easily influenced by peers, can secretly try alcohol or drugs, pick up a cigarette;
- young people tend to neglect sleep and rest, spend long hours at the computer.
If you start the disease, then in the future it will acquire a chronic form, which cannot be cured. Sinus arrhythmia of the heart can lead to organic damage to the valves, complications to other internal organs, weakening of the immune system, and an increase in hemodynamic disorders. Also, the disease often affects the future offspring of the child.
Experts note that babies who have had sinus arrhythmia can become hypertensive even in their teens. The chances of this increase significantly if a similar disease was actively developing in the mother of the child before birth.
If arrhythmia is not determined and treated in time, then heart failure may subsequently appear. Especially quickly, this ailment develops in people with atrial problems. A fatal outcome is also possible if the disease is aggravated by asystole.
Usually, a non-dangerous arrhythmia occurs in children, which later disappears due to the improvement of the structure and work of the cardiac conduction system. In such cases, there are no consequences from past violations. If arrhythmia is transferred to adulthood or is associated with organic abnormalities, it can lead to heart failure and even disability of the child.
Dangerous complications are:
- asystole – when heart contractions temporarily stop
- fibrillation – heart palpitations, in which contraction occurs in different parts of the heart fibers.
Very often, such complications lead to the death of the patient. Moderate arrhythmia may not threaten the life of the child, but it will necessarily negatively affect the circulatory system. In the future, this will cause cardiovascular failure and the appearance of concomitant diseases.
Violation of the rhythm of contraction of the heart muscle leads to a deterioration in the blood supply to the brain. Insufficient blood supply to the brain causes oxygen starvation, which is dangerous by sudden dizziness, loss of consciousness. Not only the brain suffers, the formation of the circulatory system is disrupted.
Sport and sinus arrhythmia
- Non-hazardous types of failure are not a contraindication to sports. It is enough for parents to show the baby to a cardiologist and conduct an electrocardiographic study several times a year. The purpose of diagnosis is to monitor the development of arrhythmia. If it begins to move into more dangerous varieties, then the process must be stopped in a timely manner.
- Dangerous forms of malfunction should be treated immediately when they occur. Permissible physical activity is determined by the attending physician, focusing on the causative factor and the condition of the baby.
In most cases, arrhythmia manifests itself upon receipt of physical activity due to a hereditary predisposition. Children who play sports professionally should periodically consult a doctor and do an ECG every 3-4 months. If respiratory arrhythmias are detected, the child can be allowed to compete, but if her form is more severe, then the issue of ending the athlete’s career and reducing the resulting physical activity will be decided.
Diagnosis and treatment
To draw up a full course of therapy, the child should be shown to a cardiologist. The doctor will conduct an examination and prescribe the necessary examinations. The main among them is electrocardiography. Perform it in a standing and lying position, as well as with load and during the day (daily monitoring).
An important indicator that is indicated on the electrocardiogram is the electrical axis of the heart (EOS). With its help, you can determine the location of the body and evaluate its size and performance. The position is normal, horizontal, vertical or shifted to the side. Various factors influence this nuance:
- With hypertension, a shift to the left or a horizontal position is observed.
- Congenital lung diseases cause the heart to move to the right.
- Thin people tend to vertical EOS, and full – horizontal.
During the examination, it is important to identify the presence of a sharp change in the EOS, which may indicate the development of serious malfunctions in the body. To obtain more accurate data, other diagnostic methods can be used:
- heart ultrasound;
- X-ray of the thoracic and cervical spine.
Based on the results obtained, a therapy scheme is drawn up. Functional and respiratory arrhythmias are not eliminated medically. Doctors give advice on lifestyle correction. The main emphasis will be on such moments:
Moderate arrhythmia is stopped not only by lifestyle correction, but also by sedatives (Corvalol, tinctures of hawthorn, mint, glod) and tranquilizers (Oxazepam, Diazepam). The drugs and their dosages are selected exclusively by the attending physician.
The expressed variety is eliminated by the correction of nutrition, rest and physical activity in combination with drug therapy. In advanced cases, as well as in the absence of the result of treatment with pills, surgical intervention is used.
First, the specialist will have to stop the negative influence of the factor that causes arrhythmia. The following measures will help in this:
- elimination of the main pathological process;
- treatment of a chronic infection;
- the abolition of medications that provoke a malfunction in the rhythm of the heart.
They supplement treatment regimens with folk remedies and physiotherapeutic procedures. They are selected depending on the characteristics of the child’s body and the presence of other pathologies.
With sinus arrhythmia, the following drugs are prescribed to stabilize heart rate:
- Arrhythmic drugs (Digoxin, Adenosine, Bretilium) dilate blood vessels and normalize heart rate.
- Pills to improve metabolic processes (“Inosine”, “Riboxin”) protect the myocardium from oxygen starvation, thereby eliminating arrhythmia.
- Preparations based on magnesium and potassium (Panangin, Orokamag) normalize electrolyte balance, regulate blood pressure and stimulate neuromuscular transmission.
If drug treatment did not help to eliminate severe arrhythmia, then the following types of minimally invasive surgery are used:
- Radiofrequency ablation, the purpose of which is to cauterize the focus of the ectopic signal in the heart by conducting a catheter through the femoral artery.
- Installation of an artificial pacemaker (pacemaker, defibrillator).
Physiotherapeutic procedures complement the treatment regimen well. Their list is below:
- healing baths
- laser or magnetic therapy.
Traditional medicine is prepared from plants with healing properties and have a minimum number of contraindications. Before using them, you need to consult your doctor to avoid undesirable consequences. The most popular recipes are:
- 300 g of dried apricots, 130 g of raisins and walnuts must be thoroughly ground and mixed with 150 ml of honey and lemon. This slurry helps to cleanse the blood and improve the functioning of the heart muscle. Use it in an amount of 1 to 2 tbsp. l., depending on age (up to 3 years of 15-20 ml, older than four 45-60 ml).
- The daily diet must be saturated with fruits. They can be cut into cereals, desserts and other dishes. Instead of a regular drink, it is recommended to drink fresh juice (apple, grape).
- 30 g of dry lemon balm pour a glass of boiling water and let it brew for half an hour. It is advisable to drink such tea with a sedative effect for at least 2 weeks.
- Valerian broth is prepared from the roots of the plant. They must be cleaned and filled with boiling water in a ratio of 30 g to 250 ml. Then put on fire. After 10 minutes, remove from heat and let cool. Take a decoction with a pronounced sedative effect of 0,5 tbsp. l It can also be added to the bathroom.
- 30 g of rose hips pour 1 cup boiling water and add 20 ml of honey. The finished drink tones the nervous system well and improves heart function.
- Adding celery and greens to salads will saturate the body with useful substances, which will beneficially affect the work of the heart and nervous system.
It is not possible to identify the disease without medical assistance. Sinus cardiac arrhythmia in children can be established on the basis of a general examination of the patient, during which the pulse is felt and the frequency of contractions is measured.
To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor must analyze the history and complaints of the child and parents. Arrhythmia is determined by typical symptoms and based on biochemical parameters. In addition, the doctor should check the hormonal status of the body and examine the data of electrocardiography.
In difficult cases, daily ECG monitoring is allowed, when the patient carries a portable measuring device on the heart for 24 hours. In parallel, a diary is kept, where all the actions of the child are recorded in time. Subsequently, data from the device is verified with the records, on the basis of which it is revealed
Some cardiologists practice echocardiography, i.e. an ultrasound scan. It allows you to identify the causes of arrhythmia and its appearance.
Treatment should only be prescribed by the attending physician.
Sinus arrhythmia is diagnosed based on the data of an electrocardiogram (ECG) and patient complaints. Additionally, ultrasound of the heart is used – echocardiography, hormone analysis is done.
A small device for removing ECG is attached to the patient’s belt, and the electrodes are attached with a band-aid on the skin of the chest at certain points. During the day, the child carries the device with him, without changing his usual lifestyle.
All changes are reflected on the ECG, after computer decryption, the doctor makes a conclusion, makes it into the medical history, prescribes treatment. Monitoring allows you to catch changes in the rhythm of the heartbeat that occur only during exercise. Similar changes can occur in the patient 1-2 times a day and are not detected when the ECG is removed in the usual way.
In the diagnosis of sinus arrhythmia in children, the following studies are performed:
- Electrocardiography, the gold standard in determining rhythm disturbance. This study is performed for all children every year, as well as if the baby plans to play sports.
- Ultrasound of the heart also allows you to judge the state of this organ. This diagnostic method is included when children are enrolled in the sports section.
- Daily ECG monitoring is not often performed and only if serious sinus arrhythmia is suspected.
If this condition is physiological and fits within 10% of the average frequency of contractions, then there are no contraindications to professional sports. Otherwise, certain restrictions are imposed on sports, the severity of which depends on the particular case:
- with serious congenital heart defects, sports are not recommended;
- with functional disorders associated with a disorder of the autonomic nervous system, moderate physical activity, sports and hardening can improve the condition of the heart and strengthen the body as a whole.
- general clinical analysis of blood, urine;
- thyroid hormones;
- biochemical blood test (blood sugar, total cholesterol, antistreptolysin);
- Ultrasound of the kidneys, adrenal glands;
- Ultrasound of the heart;
- throat swab on the flora.
An integral step in the diagnosis of heart problems is the conduct of an electrocardiogram. This instrumental study provides complete information on the nature of heart contractions, the intervals between them, the frequency and duration. In addition to the ECG, the doctor can prescribe daily monitoring of the rhythm of the heart, which is performed with suspected severe pathologies. Decoding of the cardiogram is carried out only by a specialist.
As additional diagnostic methods, the following can be prescribed:
- general examination of blood and urine, which will show the presence of inflammatory and infectious processes
- thyroid examination
- blood chemistry
- ultrasound examination of internal organs, especially the heart and kidneys
- Stress test – recording a cardiogram during exercise
You can measure your heart rate yourself, but at the same time, you should remember the following normal heart rates in children of various age groups, namely: up to the first year of life 140 beats per minute, in a year heart rate (heart rate) reaches 120. In 5 years, heart rate it’s already 100 contractions per minute, by the age of 10 years, and in adolescents it is gradually equalizing with the indicators of a healthy person, that is 90–60 heart beats per minute.
Auscultation of the heart is also a fairly simple procedure that can be performed at the first appointment. Auscultation, a procedure when, with the help of a phonendoscope, a doctor hears violations in the work of the heart. Directly for the diagnosis of pediatric arrhythmia, this is not so informative, but on the other hand it allows to identify other disorders in the heart, which in turn can lead to arrhythmias.
Non-dangerous forms of arrhythmias pass practically without the participation of a doctor and do not provoke the development of complications. Organic types of malfunction often lead to heart failure, asystole, atrial fibrillation, and other dangerous consequences. Because of them, the child may become disabled or die. The prognosis will depend on the severity of the underlying pathological process and the effectiveness of the course of therapy. In advanced cases, surgical intervention is used.
A sinus form of arrhythmia occurs in every second baby. It rarely leads to complications and is virtually invisible. In most cases, a similar malfunction is detected using an ECG. If it was caused by pathologies of the heart or other organs, then the course of therapy will be aimed at eliminating them. The treatment regimen will include medication, physiotherapy and lifestyle correction.
Therefore, the most important aspects of the prevention of heart disease are, first of all, timely medical examination and treatment of any chronic diseases affecting the functioning of the heart, such as rheumatism or thyroid disease.
In this case, the following recommendations will be useful:
- Compliance with diet and body weight control. The child’s nutrition should be balanced in quantity and quality, you should avoid overeating, plentiful meals before bedtime, as well as a large number of sweets and fatty foods. But foods rich in magnesium and potassium, such as dried fruits, nuts, fresh vegetables, such as squash or pumpkin, should always be present in the diet.
- Physical exercise. The physical activity of the child should be sufficient. It should be cautious about extreme loads in children and youth sports, and avoid physical inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle of the child.
- Emotional state control. Children are very susceptible to stress and react hard to it, with excessive excitability, it is worth taking sedative drugs, such as valerian or motherwort infusions, and it is also worth helping the child solve his psychological problems. In the case, if you can’t manage to cope with the emotional problems of the child yourself, you should immediately contact a child psychologist.
- Compliance with the regime. The child needs at least 8 hours of sleep per day, ideally, the end time should be at 9-10 o’clock in the evening, so that the child could fully sleep before the upcoming school.
- Glucose and cholesterol control. In children prone to obesity or patients with diabetes, constant monitoring of these two indicators is extremely important.
Follow your child’s health and do not delay going to the doctor if you think your child is sick. Remember that timely access to an accredited specialist is the key to successful treatment.
The prognosis of the disease depends on the cause of the disease and the severity of its course. Organic disorders are often accompanied by an unfavorable prognosis, leading to disability and death. Temporary mild disorders in children usually pass with age, have a favorable prognosis and do not leave negative consequences.
What are the causes of arrhythmia in children and its prevention?
Prevention of a moderate sinus form of arrhythmia in children is compliance with sleep patterns, physical activity, nutrition. The child should often walk, do exercises. The load should be dosed, hiking, running, skiing, swimming are useful. To prevent complications, an ECG is done 4 times a year for a child to prevent an unfavorable outcome of the disease.
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To prevent the onset of symptoms of the disease, it is important to strictly adhere to the correct regimen of the day.
It is also recommended to monitor a balanced diet, eliminate stressful situations and abandon bad habits.
If you follow these simple tips, then the sinus arrhythmia of the heart will recede forever.
It is easier to rule out the causes and engage in preventive actions than to miss a disease or treat it for a long time. Therefore it follows:
- monitor diet: increase the amount of food on a plant basis, do not feed the baby at night, cook in small portions;
- Do not overwork, but do not exclude physical activity: monitor the performance of light charging, drive to swimming;
- recommended fresh air;
- try to remove the causes of arrhythmias: poisoning, viral diseases and so on;
- Avoid any stress and anxiety.
Of course, the child does not always understand the danger of the disease, therefore, it is in the parents’ power to monitor compliance with all recommendations in order to cure the disease.
Statistics show that cases of arrhythmias in children have recently become more frequent, have a more complex form of the course of the disease and a long rehabilitation period. What is the cause of arrhythmia? What are the symptoms of the disease and treatment options you need to know?
Arrhythmia is a disease in which the regularity of the contraction of the heart muscle is disturbed. There are cardiac (cardiac) and mixed (extracardiac) causes of arrhythmia in children:
- Cardiac arrhythmia develops in the presence of congenital or acquired heart disease, through dysfunction of the interatrial hymen, in the case of heart injuries and operations performed on the heart and other organs. There are cases of congenital heart rhythm disturbances.
- Extracardial arrhythmia in a child occurs during the development of the fetus during pregnancy. This is due to intrauterine infections, maternal stress during pregnancy, premature birth.
The causes of arrhythmias include an overweight child exceeding 7 kg, a violation of the baby’s nervous system and conduction of nerve impulses, frequent cases of intracranial pressure, rickets.
In the process of changes in the structure of the body, the growth and development of organs, the body, in particular the heart, has a heavy load, due to this, the sinus rhythm changes and the heartbeat increases, arrhythmia occurs.
According to statistics, every third teenager is sick with arrhythmia or has phantom (periodic) manifestations and only 3% of adolescents are diagnosed, the rest do not go to the hospital, and the number of cases of heart attacks and death is increasing.
The basic rules that will help to avoid problems with the structure of the heart tissue or the functioning of nerve conduction are as follows:
- Healthy lifestyle. It should be adhered to by the mother during the period of gestation, during breastfeeding, as well as in the child after birth. The correct regimen of the day, a good rest, a balanced diet with a sufficient amount of necessary substances, the absence of feelings and conflicts will positively affect the baby’s health.
- Long walks. An influx of fresh air will ensure sufficient oxygen supply and prevent tissue hypoxia not only in the heart, but also in other organs.
- A vegetable-milk diet is shown, which should be rich in nuts, vegetables, dried fruits, yogurts.
- If there are cardiac problems in the parents, the child should undergo preventive examinations by a cardiologist twice a year.
- To stabilize the psychoemotional state during periods of school stress or puberty, the child can be given sedatives.
If the violations are caused by problems in other organs, it is necessary to undergo comprehensive treatment and eliminate the identified cause.
If there is a suspicion of a violation of cardiac activity or a child’s complaints of chest discomfort, parents should immediately take the baby to the doctor. Symptoms such as fainting and discoloration of the skin can be a sign of heart problems. It is important to find out in time how dangerous the existing problem is in order to prevent serious complications, and in some cases to save the life of the child.
More often in childhood, mild forms of arrhythmias are detected, which appear as a result of the imperfection of the conductive system of the heart. Such disorders pass with age, but the problem cannot be ignored, therefore, the child is shown a comprehensive examination with a mandatory ECG. It is extremely important for a favorable prognosis to lead a healthy lifestyle and walk a lot in the fresh air.
How should the doctor and parents act
Often, parents came to me with complaints that the pediatrician had been asking them for a very long time, prescribed numerous examinations, and then said that sinus arrhythmia in a baby or teenager should not be treated. How so? After all, a child has a sick heart. I absolutely agree in this matter with the attending physician.
Sinus arrhythmia does not require special therapy. In some cases, we focus on eliminating its causes – we treat the underlying disease. But this pathology sometimes “masks” other disorders. It is important not to miss them.
An examination plan for a child with sinus arrhythmia includes:
- Careful collection by the doctor of an anamnesis of life and illness. Do not be surprised if some specialist questions seem strange to you. It is necessary to clarify the genetic predisposition, risk factors, the presence of concomitant pathological processes.
- Electrocardiographic examination. It is important to conduct it at least three times – when the patient is lying, standing, and then after exercise.
- Stress tests These include bicycle ergometry and treadmill. Thanks to them, you can determine how the work of the heart changes during physical activity, as well as identify hidden rhythm disturbances.
- Medicinal electrocardiographic tests. The action of some drugs (in children’s practice, atropine or a combination of potassium chloride and Obzidan is usually used) causes a decrease in the number of heart contractions, which confirms vegetative dysfunction.
- Holter monitoring. Your son or daughter live with a portable ECG recorder for at least a day. The examination will determine the circadian index – the ratio of the average number of heart beats during the day to the same night indicator. From the age of two, 1,24 – 1,45 are considered normal values. If the index is less than 1,2 – this indicates a decrease in vagosympathetic regulation, and with an increase of more than 1,5 – an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve. This coefficient is important for the differential diagnosis of sinus arrhythmia.
- Electroencephalography allows you to associate a change in the number of heart beats with bioelectrical activity of the brain.
- An echocardiographic examination diagnoses the structural causes of sinus arrhythmia.
Perhaps the doctor will direct the patient to a biochemical blood test, echocardiography, radiography of the cervical spine, rheoencephalography.
Sometimes viruses provoke a factor in the development of sinus arrhythmia. Scientists have proven that herpes activates myocardial degeneration. Herpes virus testing may be required. Our main task is to clarify the cause of sinus arrhythmia and exclude other changes in heart rhythm.
How to treat
It turned out that the child whose mother called me recently had bronchitis, after a sports training, had a tight lunch and went for an examination at the medical center. Functional tests and Holter monitoring of other cardiac arrhythmias, except for sinus arrhythmia, were not detected in the boy. At the family council, it was decided that classes in the football section should not be stopped. As a pediatrician, I was given a promise in six months to come for an appointment for a follow-up examination.
Sinus arrhythmia in pediatric practice usually does not require the appointment of special drugs. Try for your child:
- organize a sufficient stay in the fresh air;
- exclude a hearty dinner before bedtime;
- provide a comfortable family environment;
- restrict watching TV and working at a computer;
- stimulate the fight against physical inactivity;
- immunize according to the vaccination schedule;
- teach you how to deal with stressful situations in school and in the yard;
- warn against smoking, drugs, alcohol.
Some mothers and especially grandmothers buy vitamins or dietary supplements “for the heart” in order to strengthen the child’s body. I categorically do not advise doing this without first consulting a doctor.
Parents of my patients sometimes ask if it makes sense to use alternative methods of treating arrhythmias, in particular with herbs.
Infusions and decoctions are considered as non-dose pharmaceutical forms. When brewing tea, it is impossible to accurately measure the dose of the active substance that enters the body. In addition, medicinal plants are often allergens, have contraindications, and have side effects.
You have the right to use herbs, dietary supplements or vitamins to improve the functioning of the heart of your child, but is there any certainty that you will not harm the health of a growing organism?
Parents should remember that respiratory sinus arrhythmia is not a disease and does not require treatment. This is a functional condition associated with an imbalance of the ANS, a predominance of vagus tone or hormonal changes in the teenage period, as the child grows older, the heart rate normalizes.
If the baby’s ECG has any signs of rhythm disturbance, parents should definitely visit a cardiologist, go through their prescribed examination, find out the cause of sinus arrhythmia, and if the doctor recommends treatment, then follow all the doctor’s recommendations.
Timely examination and treatment of pathological sinus arrhythmia will prevent heart failure and other problems from the heart and blood vessels that develops with age.
Pathology on the ECG in children
Detected sinus arrhythmia in children according to the results of an ECG study. And this happens relatively rarely. This violation as such does not pose a threat to the life or health of the child, but still requires correction. Distinguish respiratory arrhythmia and not associated with breathing.
To eliminate trouble, it is necessary to carry out the procedure again, in comfortable conditions. With sinus arrhythmia, in contrast to the usual, the number of heart beats per minute remains within the normal range, only the intervals between strokes change – they can be shortened or lengthened. Sinus arrhythmia in children can be different in severity and, accordingly, in species.
Young children who have been diagnosed with sinus arrhythmia should eat properly. Parents should monitor compliance with the general recommendations of specialists. It is necessary to exclude from the daily diet those products that can provoke a metabolic disorder, as a result of which rapid weight gain will occur.
This category of patients shows a diet in which the emphasis is on products with a high content of vitamins and minerals, in particular magnesium and potassium:
Servings for babies should be made small (the amount of food will be offset by the frequency of meals increased to 6), and the last feeding should be no later than 2 hours before bedtime.
Nontraditional methods of treatment
In traditional healers, sinus arrhythmia in a child has never caused concern. It is believed that from a mild form of the disease, a two-day tincture of hawthorn, motherwort and valerian helps well.
It is also worth highlighting the recipe for the mixture, which includes 0,5 kg of finely chopped lemon, a spoon of honey and 50 g of apricot kernels. Use it should be one spoon 2 times a day.
Boiled berries of hawthorn are recommended to be insisted for 15 minutes. Drink a glass of broth daily.
Numerous reviews note the effectiveness of another recipe: brew 50 g of horsetail in 600 ml of water. Drink a spoon 4-6 times a day.
Normalize the heart rate and allows a number of drugs created on the basis of plant materials. Most of these products can be easily prepared at home or bought at a pharmacy. It should only be noted: before using this or that drug, it is imperative to consult with your doctor.
For a child with arrhythmia, such a treat will be useful:
- 2 parts dried apricots;
- one part of walnuts and raisins;
It should be noted that such a tool as inhalation is quite effective. For her, prepare a mixture of the following oils:
It will be useful to give your child tea from lemon balm for two weeks. If the rhythm is broken due to problems with the nerves, use a water-based infusion of valerian. Rosehip broth also helps. Very young children are recommended to bathe in a bath with the addition of tincture of valerian root.
Specialists recommend the following measures for children with sinus arrhythmia:
- long walks in the fresh air;
- good sleep (the child should not go to bed late);
- morning exercises (do exercises after waking up constantly);
- visit to the pool;
- lack of stress and other nervous conditions;
- healthy balanced nutrition (emphasis should be placed on vegetables, fruits, low-fat meats, fish);
- yoga, breathing exercises (under the supervision of experienced instructors), etc.
Every young patient should understand that this pathology may not go away with age, so it is extremely important to constantly monitor your condition. To do this, it will be enough to visit a cardiologist with regular intervals and undergo hardware diagnostics.