Mitral valve prolapse in children and adolescents 1st degree treatment

With prolapse of the mitral valve of the 1st degree, they are taken into the army. At this stage, the state of health is close to normal. The disease does not cause inconvenience and does not cause subjective complaints.

At the first stage, patients lead a full life. They do not need to limit physical activity (the exception is only professional sports), make adjustments to the usual diet or take medications. The only requirement for maintaining health is periodic monitoring by a cardiologist. For these reasons, draft-age men with valve prolapse are not exempt from the army.

Ekaterina Mikheeva, Head of the Legal Department of the Assistance Service for Draftees

katya - Mitral valve prolapse in children and adolescents 1st degree treatment

MVP may be accompanied by some complications. The main possible development of the disease may be the failure of MK. It is characterized by incomplete closure of the valves during contraction of the heart, this leads to mitral regurgitation. With obvious changes in the function of the mitral valve, heart failure can develop.

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In pregnancy

During the bearing of a child with mitral valve prolapse without complications in the form of regurgitation, the development of pathologies in the fetus is not observed. In the presence of MVP, before planning pregnancy it is necessary to notify the attending physician about the presence of the disease in order to get the advice of a specialist (cardiologist).

Doctor’s observation is associated with another possible complication of MVP of the 1st degree – gestosis. With its development, there is an insufficient supply of oxygen to the fetus, which causes growth retardation, increases the likelihood of a woman having premature birth. Specialists recommend that with this option for the development of the course of the disease, a cesarean section be performed. This will result in minimal risk during childbirth.

Children

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This heart disease is more often manifested in a child, less often in adults. Girls are most susceptible to the disease. This is a congenital pathology that is provoked by the imperfect structure of the connective tissue. Because of this, there is a change in the base of the chord, mitral valve cusps, which provide structural rigidity. In children, signs of MVP of the 1st degree are manifested in different ways. Someone does not feel symptoms at all, while others they are pronounced.

Almost 30% of adolescents, if MVP is found, report having chest pain. However, in reality, various reasons can provoke it, the more common include:

  • emotional stress;
  • overstretched chords;
  • oxygen starvation.
  • The same number of children complain of heart palpitations. In many cases, adolescents who are sitting at a computer monitor, avoiding playing sports, feel fatigue. Often these children develop shortness of breath during physical work or in physical education classes. Children with MVP of the first degree have symptoms of a neuropsychological nature. Their mood often changes, nervous breakdowns, aggressiveness are observed. With strong emotional experiences, short-term fainting is possible.

    symptomatology

    A similar heart defect, which is present in a child from birth, often occurs in conjunction with vegetovascular dystonia. Symptoms are more specifically associated with this disorder than with prolapse itself.

    • Pain in the head, often disturbing in the morning and at night.
    • Problems with breathing, a feeling of lack of air, the baby has a desire to take a breath as deep as possible.
    • Sleep disorder.
    • The child quickly gets tired, even after minor physical and emotional stress.
    • Pain in the sternum on the left.
    • Dizziness.
    • Impaired consciousness or fainting.

    When a baby experiences pain in the chest or hypochondrium, they are not related to prolapse, but are a consequence of disorders of the nervous system. Often there is the appearance of such symptoms after the child is nervous, but there are cases of the appearance of such signs for no reason. Pain can usually last several hours, less often – 2-3 days.

    There is another important sign of such an ailment – a malfunction of the heart rhythm, namely, an acceleration of the beating of the organ with a feeling of its fading. Attacks of tachycardia with prolapse differ in their course, they occur sharply and also end unexpectedly, without manifestations of nausea or fainting. Additionally, symptoms may occur in the form of discomfort in the intestine or subfebrile body temperature in the evenings.

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    The appearance of children with such a diagnosis is different. These patients are somewhat similar to each other. Usually this child has an asthenic physique, his legs and arms are thin, and his joints are mobile. Connective tissue is located in the skin, tendons, as well as the muscles of patients. Such causes usually enable doctors to combine these disorders of the mitral valve and other diseases, such as decreased visual function, strabismus.

    In rare cases, babies with this diagnosis have more serious symptoms: multiple hernias that form in the groin, navel, or scrotum, a funnel-shaped chest shape. The emotional sphere of the baby’s life is also subject to change.

    The mood of such children can change quickly, depression often develops.

    How to cure mitral valve prolapse

    With MVP, specific treatment is not always necessary, with such a disease they can be taken into the army. This applies to children who have no symptoms of the disease when they detect prolapse by ultrasound. They are capable of doing everything that healthy children do, and the disease will become a contraindication only for professional sports.

    For each patient, the doctor should prescribe an individual course of therapy, suitable remedies, among which the following are popular:

    Beta blockers. Help with the manifestation of extrasystole, tachycardia;

  • Soothing (sedative). They help to cope with the problems of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Anticoagulants. It is rarely prescribed: they are needed only in the presence of thrombosis.
  • Medications that improve myocardial nutrition. These include Magnerot, Panangin, Riboxin, preparations contain electrolytes that improve heart function.
  • To avoid dangerous complications in MVP, you should optimize your lifestyle, exclude nervous strain, chronic fatigue. It will be useful:

    maintain an active lifestyle at an acceptable level;

  • observe the regime of work, rest, go to bed on time;
  • visit specialized sanatoriums for general strengthening procedures, acupuncture, massage;
  • conduct herbal medicine with folk remedies: infusions of sage, motherwort, St. John’s wort and hawthorn are especially recommended.
  • Classification

    In addition to the primary and secondary forms of the disease, doctors divide mitral valve prolapse into degrees. Depending on how the pathological process is started, the prognosis of the disease and its treatment is determined.

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    PowerThe amount of prolapse
    FirstSash deflection is 3-6 millimeters
    The secondThe shutter can bend by 6-9 millimeters
    The thirdThere is a protrusion of more than 9 millimeters

    If the child has a mitral valve prolapse of 1 degree, then the cusp bulge is small. However, this definition does not affect the amount of blood that is thrown back into the heart. Therefore, it is not so important what degree of illness the child has, the main thing in her diagnosis is to identify the level of valve insufficiency and the amount of blood thrown back.

    • Regurgitation in the zone of the mitral valve.
    • Regurgitation is observed in 1/3 of the left atrium.
    • Regurgitation has spread to half or ½ of the left atrium.
    • Regurgitation is observed in more than half of the entire cavity of the left atrium.

    In children, this pathology often occurs in conjunction with small heart abnormalities, which indicates violations and insufficient development of connective tissue. An isolated type prolapse is subdivided into an auscultatory form when, when listening to an organ by an auscultation method, the doctor hears noise and clicks, as well as a mute form, when it is impossible to determine the presence of extraneous sounds in the heart.

    Diagnostics

    A pediatrician or cardiologist can detect mitral valve prolapse in a baby while listening to the work of the heart. If during this examination the doctor heard characteristic sounds, chordal squeaks, clicks or noises, then he will refer the small patient to additional diagnostic measures.

    1. Phonocardiography. The method allows to find out the origin of noise in the organ.
    2. Ultrasound of the heart. Shows the structure of the organ and the violations in its structure from the inside.
    3. An ECG (electrocardiogram) is used to detect organ conduction disorders and its rhythm.
    4. X-ray examination of the heart, which is necessary to assess the condition, size and other features of the organ.
    5. Holter monitoring is also used to detect electrocardiographic disorders.
    6. Doppler echocardiography helps the doctor to identify changes in the tissues of the valve and the entire valve system, allows you to assess the degree of deflection of the valves, how pronounced regurgitation, as well as the extent of violations of the hemodynamics of the body.
    7. Psychological tests and an examination of the functioning of the central nervous system make it possible to determine the presence of autonomic disorders.

    In addition to these diagnostic methods, doctors can prescribe laboratory tests, blood tests to detect the inflammatory process in the baby’s body.

    Therapy

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    The treatment of mitral valve prolapse in children is always individual. To prescribe drugs to the baby, the doctor examines the data from the examinations, draws attention to the sex of the child, his age and the intensity of the symptoms. If a small patient has a congenital form of the disease, then there is no need to treat it, since such a condition does not pose a threat to health and life. Sports are not contraindicated for these children, but it is better to engage in professional activities under the supervision of a doctor.

    In cases of the appearance of symptoms of this ailment (sleep disorder or increased heartbeat), it is necessary to take sedatives based on herbs. These drugs will help to improve the functioning of the nervous system. When stronger symptoms occur: shortness of breath, chest pain, weakness – the treating doctor will prescribe more serious medicines.

    If secondary prolapse is diagnosed, which has developed as a result of other diseases, then the baby is hospitalized. The inflammatory process in the valves of the body is treated with antibacterial agents.

    What medications are usually prescribed:

    • “Magnesium and potassium asparaginate”;
    • “Inosine”;
    • Propanolol;
    • “Atenolol”;
    • “L-carnitine”;
    • Riboxin;
    • “Coenzyme Q10.”

    Often it is adolescence that is the cause of this ailment, when a child begins to play sports, he has shortness of breath and other signs of the disease. Sometimes, it is enough for such patients to undergo a course of exercise therapy and establish a daily regimen, as the symptoms disappear.

    1. electrophoresis;
    2. therapeutic massages;
    3. galvanization;
    4. darsonvalization.

    The regimen of the day of patients should be correct, sleep should be full, and the diet is saturated with useful elements, then the prognosis of the disease will be favorable.

    In severe cases of prolapse, surgical treatment is necessary when cardiac surgeons perform surgery to replace the valve or plastic correction of the heart.

    Prophylaxis and prognosis

    The course of the disease is usually benign, severe consequences are rare. It is important to regularly visit the attending physician and undergo a timely examination. Proper treatment will help to avoid complications. Modern medicine is able to eliminate this ailment, so children with mitral valve prolapse have the opportunity to live fully.

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    Preventive measures include compliance with all the recommendations of the attending doctor and taking the prescribed medications. The daily routine and the right lifestyle will help to improve the well-being of the patient and get rid of unpleasant sensations. If a woman has planned a baby, then you need to prepare for pregnancy. In order to protect the future child as much as possible, it is necessary to protect oneself from stresses, colds, and completely abandon bad habits.

    Mitral valve prolapse has already been studied enough, so doctors can cure the disease or save the baby from its manifestations and serious consequences. Regular visits to the doctor will reveal the pathology at an early stage and begin treatment on time, then the forecasts will be comforting.

    Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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