If a microinfarction is diagnosed within 2-10 days, an acute or acute phase is determined. The patient is placed in a cardiology hospital.
Typically, the diagnosis is made at the appointment of a cardiologist, but sometimes the condition reaches a critical point unexpectedly, so you need to immediately call an ambulance.
In a hospital, treatment of small focal lesions of the heart muscle is aimed at eliminating the symptoms and the root cause of the disease.
So, the treatment methods are as follows:
- Elimination of pain,
- Resumption of coronary blood supply,
- Improving blood characteristics (prevention of blood clots),
- Prevention of complications
- Heart rate normalization,
- Monitoring blood pressure, blood sugar.
After hospitalization, the cardiologist proceeds to immediately provide assistance, it includes:
If drug therapy does not bring the proper result, the question of conducting surgical procedures is resolved.
With a microinfarction, two types of surgical intervention are permissible:
- Stenting – installation of a special device in the form of a ring in a vessel to prevent overlap of the lumen,
- Bypass surgery is the installation of an artificial pathway for blood flow, and the affected vessel is cauterized.
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First Aid Measures
If a microinfarction can pass unnoticed, then an extensive lesion of the heart muscle is always obvious.
If someone close to you suspects a heart attack, you must immediately call an ambulance and provide first aid measures:
- Put the patient on his back, rid of tight or narrow clothes and shoes, provide an influx of fresh air to the respiratory tract,
- Give an aspirin tablet or put 1-2 tablets of nitroglycerin under the tongue. Before this, it is necessary to measure blood pressure: at low pressure, nitroglycerin should not be used.
Microinfarction is the death of a small area of tissue of the heart muscle.
According to its characteristics and the process of origin, it is no different from extensive myocardial damage, but it proceeds a little easier.
If the lesion is very small, then clinical signs do not always appear. However, this condition poses a threat to human health, and therefore requires timely treatment.
People who know what a microinfarction is, do not take this concept lightly. It is important to realize that the prefix “micro-” refers only to the extent of damage to the tissues of the heart muscle. However, this violation does not always indicate a facilitated condition of the patient, since any heart attack is dangerous.
The only thing that distinguishes extensive cell death from microinfarction is a more favorable prognosis for life. With timely and effective treatment, this pathology is completely eliminated, and a person can return to an active lifestyle if he follows the recommendations of a cardiologist.
The main factor provoking a microinfarction is the insufficient supply of blood to the cells of the heart muscle. While the ischemic process itself can develop for various reasons, among which:
- partial or complete closure of arteries with cholesterol plaques or a blood clot;
- acute narrowing of the coronary arteries;
- persistent increase in blood pressure;
- angina pectoris;
- previous heart attacks of a heart muscle;
- excess weight;
- chronic diseases that violate the walls of blood vessels;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- psycho-emotional stress;
- strong physical exertion;
- excessive use of alcohol or cigarettes.
According to statistics, males after 50 years have a greater risk of heart attack than women of this age. Also, women after menopause, in whom estrogen levels fall, are also at risk. This leads to increased blood coagulation and an increased risk of blood clots.
In the initial stages of the disease, the pathology may not give any obvious symptoms, especially if the lesion area is small. A person practically does not feel any violations and leads a familiar lifestyle.
However, everyone needs to know about the first signs of a microinfarction in order to seek specialized help in a timely manner. Initial symptoms are as follows:
- pain of varying intensity (sudden piercing pains characterize not only extensive, but also microinfarction). By their nature, they can be: burning, squeezing, cutting, giving to the shoulder blade, abdominal cavity, neck or lower jaw;
- pains do not stop with Nitroglycerin;
- feeling of weakness;
- cold sweat;
- anxiety and fear of death, which resemble a panic attack.
In both women and men, the first symptoms of a microinfarction may not differ from the extensive one. It is possible to determine the extent of the lesion only during diagnostic procedures.
However, symptomatology is not always manifested in a characteristic pathology form. In the atypical form of a microinfarction, the symptoms listed below can be recorded (Table 1).
Table 1 – Symptoms of a microinfarction
|Arrhythmic||Mild pain behind the chest appears, and sometimes they are completely absent. According to the results of the examination, there is a violation of the rhythm of heart contractions. Most often, arrhythmia is initially suspected, but this is a false diagnosis.|
|Asthmatic||Inherent in elderly patients with cardiac ischemia, high blood pressure or signs of heart failure. Most often, with this form, pain is not noted, but shortness of breath, signs of pulmonary edema are inherent. The main symptom of an asthmatic form of a microinfarction is asphyxiation.|
|Abdominal||It is characterized by severe pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting. With this form, it is necessary to correctly diagnose in order to prevent the development of complications and unnecessary gastroenterological treatment.|
|Cerebral||Symptoms are similar to symptoms of dynamic disturbances in blood circulation in the brain or cerebral ischemia. The main symptoms are headache, dizziness, disorientation in space and sensitivity|
Every person who does not even have a medical education is advised to study the symptoms of a heart attack and to know the actions that must be performed before the ambulance arrives in order to save the life of the victim.
If the victim has the symptoms of a heart attack, then before the arrival of the ambulance it is necessary to take the following actions:
- to lay or seat the patient with maximum comfort;
- protect from physical exertion and stressful situations;
- open the window, providing an influx of fresh air;
- give nitroglycerin.
After the ambulance arrives, the patient should be hospitalized in the hospital, where he will be provided with the necessary emergency assistance, followed by a full examination.
It is important to quickly and accurately establish a diagnosis in order to timely apply an effective course of treatment or to perform an operation. It is recommended to treat a victim of a microinfarction with a typical symptom in a hospital unit where there is round-the-clock patient care.
Outpatient treatment involves the use of drugs, depending on the individual situation of the patient. Doctors may prescribe the following medicines:
- painkillers (morphine, droperidol);
- nitrates (nitroglycerin);
- anticoagulants (Heparin, Streptokinase);
- statins (Atorvastatin, Simvastatin) for antisclerotic therapy;
- antiarrhythmic drugs (Amiodoron, Propafenone) to restore heart rate;
- antihypertensive drugs (Anaprilin) and diuretics (Veroshpiron, Furasemide).
To get rid of the consequences of a microinfarction, you will need to undergo a course of rehabilitation therapy, which is individually developed by the attending physician. Patients are advised to strictly adhere to the prescribed actions, which will help prevent the development of complications or new heart diseases.
The rehabilitation course includes:
- the continuation of drug treatment aimed at eliminating the pathology that led to the microinfarction. Also, drugs are used to help prevent complications (Aspirin, Nitroglycerin, etc.);
- gradual increase in activity with the help of physiotherapy exercises, special massage, physiotherapy;
- A healthy diet rich in vitamins, vegetable fats, fiber, and beneficial micronutrients. It is recommended to minimize or completely limit the consumption of animal fats (lard, fatty meat, vegetable oil, etc.);
- normalization of the day, giving the body a good rest;
- the exception of psycho-emotional stress.
With timely diagnosis and the use of effective treatment, microinfarction has a favorable prognosis. The tissue of the heart, which underwent death, cannot be restored. However, with proper nutrition, regular use of medications and moderate power loads, the patient quickly returns to an everyday lifestyle.
Microinfarction is as dangerous a disease as extensive cardiac death. The only difference is that the victim suffers the acute phase a little easier. With untimely treatment, it can turn into extensive, which is a direct threat to the life of the victim.
If assistance is not provided on time, the consequences can be critical, up to disability or death. Therefore, at the first signs of a microinfarction, you need to contact a cardiologist.
According to doctors, often people who first consulted a cardiologist, according to diagnostic studies, have signs of a microinfarction in the past.
This is due to the fact that the alarming symptoms of the disease were mistaken for weakness, overwork or any other kind of malaise that does not require medical attention.
The signs of a microinfarction are often:
- A slight increase in temperature to a subfebrile mark,
- Constant feeling of fatigue, weakness,
- Joint aches,
- Discomfort and discomfort in the left side of the chest.
In old age, these symptoms in most cases remain ignored, especially if there are impaired glucose metabolism.
What to do if signs of a microinfarction are detected
Acute myocardial malnutrition or myocardial infarction requires an immediate emergency call. Only a specialist can tell exactly what happened after at least a minimal diagnosis.
What you need to do before the doctors arrive:
- Open a window to provide adequate ventilation to improve gas exchange in the body.
- Calm down, pull yourself together and do not panic. Emotions lead to the release of stress hormones, which constrict blood vessels and entail even more aggravation of the pathological process, ischemia.
- Remove body jewelry, loosen the collar, if any. Pressure on the neck will affect heart rate and cardiac output.
- Take a sitting position. You can’t lie down, as this is fraught with asphyxiation. And with loss of consciousness – vomiting, aspiration of gastric contents and death.
- You can not drink drugs. Even nitroglycerin. Because it is not known whether microinfarction really developed.
- Measure blood pressure and heart rate. When using an automatic tonometer, both indicators are recorded immediately.
Upon arrival of the doctors, tell them about their health. Briefly and to the point. Do not hide anything. It is recommended that you agree to hospitalization.
If the team decides to help on the spot, you need to find the opportunity to contact a cardiologist for advice in the near future.
Our life in most cases does not contribute to the health of the cardiovascular system. The reason for this is constant stress, and unhealthy diet, and a sedentary lifestyle. But the greatest influence on the development of coronary heart disease and an increased risk of heart attack is caused by bad habits: smoking and excessive drinking.
What else contributes to the occurrence of a heart attack:
- high blood cholesterol,
- arterial hypertension,
- hormonal disorders (in particular, a lack of thyroid hormones),
- excess weight,
- staphylococcal and streptococcal infections,
- second hand smoke,
- heart rheumatism
- excessive exercise
- stress, depression and neurosis.
What signs may indicate heart failure that can lead to a heart attack:
- snoring, apnea;
- swelling of the legs, feet, and hands;
- bleeding gums, periodontal disease;
- pain in the left shoulder;
- shortness of breath, especially after physical exertion;
- frequent headaches;
- frequent nightly urination.
All these signs can be evidence of a pre-infarction state of the body.
If the patient felt the symptoms described above, then he should immediately call an emergency! The sooner the help with a heart attack will be provided, the greater the likelihood that the outcome of the disease will not be fatal, and that the heart attack will leave less consequences.
Immediately take a lying or recumbent position. Walking or doing some business during a heart attack is unacceptable. Not only does this create a big burden on the heart, it also increases the likelihood that a person will fall and cause injury to himself if he faints. It is also necessary to take three tablets of nitroglycerin 0,5 mg (even if this does not help relieve pain) with an interval of 15 minutes. However, pressure should be measured before this. If systolic (upper) pressure is too low, below 100 mm, then nitroglycerin should not be taken.
It is also recommended to take sedatives – validol or corvalol. An aspirin tablet should also be taken (unless the patient has a severe form of peptic ulcer). Aspirin must be chewed, but nitroglycerin and validol cannot be swallowed – they should be kept under the tongue until completely resorbed.
If the patient is not alone, then the other person should help him in everything – give medicine, calm him down, lay him on the bed, if necessary, open the window to ensure fresh air to the room. And it should be remembered that it is imperative to wait until the doctor arrives, even if the patient suddenly felt better. It should be remembered that his life and further recovery depend on how faithful and quick the first aid provided to the patient was.
Contrary to popular belief, the symptoms of microinfarction in women do not differ from those in men. This is a serious condition, despite the prefix “micro-“, which does not detract from the importance of this disease in the structure of cardiac pathology, but indicates that thrombosis occurred in the final branch of the coronary vessel.
Microinfarction in its pathogenesis does not differ from ordinary myocardial infarction, only the first vessel of small caliber is thrombosed and the lesion is much smaller. Very often, MI occurs against a background of a combination of arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease.
Coronary artery thrombosis is a consequence of atherosclerosis, since the contents of the plaque are an aggressive activator of the blood coagulation system.
Despite the alleged “harmlessness” of a microinfarction, it is no less dangerous than a large-focal myocardial infarction, because against the background of the primary lesion, a recurrent as well as a repeated focus of necrosis can occur. This significantly increases the risk of developing serious complications, such as aneurysm of the left ventricle and rupture of the heart, as well as rhythm disturbances due to extensive scarring.
Risk factors for myocardial infarction:
- Smoking, both active and passive
- High blood lip >
Typical manifestations of cardialgic, the most common form of myocardial infarction are:
- Pain in the heart area – intense, burning, compressive, compressive in its characteristics
- Rapid and arrhythmic heartbeat
- Irradiation of pain in the left arm and shoulder blade, teeth of the lower jaw
- Nausea and vomiting
- Dizziness, weakness and shortness of breath
With a microinfarction, as was said before, pain can be relatively mild, more reminiscent of an attack of angina pectoris. This is the main reason for the rare detection of the disease, since the patient is unaware of the severity of his condition.
Gender differences do not affect the symptoms of myocardial infarction. It is worth noting that, statistically, MI is more likely to occur in men, as they are more susceptible to risk factors and predisposing diseases.
In a woman, estrogens and sex hormones play a well-known protective role; therefore, the peak of MI in them falls during the menopause, however, if there are background pathological processes, then a heart attack may develop earlier.
Microinfarction is determined by recording changes in conductivity on a cardiogram and is confirmed by laboratory analysis of blood.
With necrosis of muscle fibers, albeit in small quantities, their enzymes and breakdown products are released into the blood. It is they that make it possible to distinguish myocardial infarction from an attack of angina pectoris, which are similar in symptoms and pathogenesis.
If you feel intense chest pain that has arisen for the first time, or with angina pectoris nitroglycerin does not give the usual effect, immediately call emergency medical attention.
At this time, while you are waiting for her arrival, the dispatcher will most likely give you instructions on how to behave and what actions to take regarding his condition.
You should lie down, provide access to fresh air and take 2 tablets of nitroglycerin under the tongue, without swallowing them if the attack occurs for the first time. If you have already used your usual dose, and it did not work, drink 2 tablets of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
After the ambulance arrives, an ECG will be recorded, providing effective pain relief and oxygen supply, and the next hospitalization in a cardiology hospital.
During the rehabilitation period, it is important to remember that a microinfarction carries the same risk of recurrence as a large focal myocardial infarction, so recovery should be gradual, gentle, eliminating external negative factors.
It often happens that patients suffer a microinfarction, like a cold, “on their feet.”
Often this is found in control examinations, when a person is told that he has cicatricial changes due to a heart attack, and he cannot remember when this happened to him. In this case, it is important to prevent the aggravation of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and hypertension, which may occur in the future.
It makes sense to contact a cardiological hospital for diagnosis, and possibly rehabilitation treatment.
After forty years, both men and women should start taking aspirin daily. This drug is an inexpensive but effective means of preventing cardiac disasters. Contraindication is a violation of blood coagulation and individual tolerance – these features should be agreed with your doctor to select another medicine.
When a microinfarction first arises, the prognosis for life and health is usually positive. However, it should be understood that the presence of a scar in the muscle tissue of the atrium or ventricle creates a favorable background for the development of subsequent heart attacks, as well as cardiac arrhythmias.
By following the methods of prevention and passing regular medical examinations, you can reduce personal risks in cardiac pathology to a minimum and live healthy.
Symptoms of small focal lesions of the heart muscle sometimes do not differ from a typical heart attack. In some cases, the disease may be asymptomatic or differ in unusual signs characteristic of other diseases.
In total, 4 forms of the course of a microinfarction are distinguished:
- Typical (painful) form. The symptomatology is similar to a heart attack: acute pains in the left thoracic region, which give to the left shoulder, arm, under the scapula, neck, are disturbing. Taking painkillers does not bring relief. Low blood pressure can be determined. The patient shows a cold sweat.
- Asthmatic form. Symptoms resemble an attack of bronchial asthma. The patient feels a lack of oxygen, shortness of breath.
- Abdominal form. Syndrome is noted amp; # 171, acute abdomenamp; # 187 ,: sharp acute pain appears in the peritoneum, accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
- Arrhythmic form. In this case, the patient feels a malfunction in the heart, premature contractions, cardiac conduction disturbances.
No doctor can diagnose a heart attack only on the basis of the patient’s story about his symptoms and sensations. Therefore, various diagnostic methods are used to determine the disease, the main of which is a cardiogram. On the ECG, in most cases, pathological phenomena that occur in the heart muscle are visible, reflected in the form of changes in the teeth and intervals.
Heart attack treatment is carried out only in a hospital. After treatment is completed, the patient is rehabilitated to prevent the recurrence of heart attacks and stabilize his condition.
The further condition of the patient depends on the timeliness and quality of treatment, and therapy is prescribed based on the results of the diagnosis.
The main method of diagnosis is ECG (electrocardiography).
- biochemical blood test for markers of damage to the heart muscle (troponin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase),
- Ultrasound of the heart to determine the location and size of the affected area,
- cardiogram and daily monitoring,
- MRI of the brain
- potassium sample.
Symptoms of leg disease
Microinfarction transferred on the legs is found in patients of any age.
During the diagnosis, serious pathologies are determined, which are the result of a disease that is not resolved on time.
- Fluid accumulation in the lungs,
- Heart rhythm disturbance
- Extensive myocardial tissue damage.
Other serious consequences of a microinfarction carried on legs are:
- Severe arrhythmias, controlled by lifelong medication,
- Significant depletion of heart tissue,
- Decreased heart rate and decreased intensity of contractions,
- Blockage of blood vessels by blood clots,
- Cardiosclerosis and deformity of the heart valves.
In addition, a microinfarction transferred on the legs increases the course of other pathologies (inflammation of the pericardium, heart failure), causes other complications and reduces the chances of a favorable outcome for the patient.
If the cardiologist has confirmed the diagnosis, transferred without medical intervention, a certain treatment is prescribed.
It includes a number of events:
- Methods of therapy aimed at restoring blood flow and improving the condition of blood vessels. This is the so-called thrombolytic therapy. In advanced cases, surgery or stenting may be required.
- Comprehensive drug treatment aimed at restoring heart rate, stabilizing blood pressure, eliminating pain, preventing blood clots, restoring electrolyte balance. Groups of therapeutic drugs prescribed in this case: anticoagulants, antiarrhythmic, sedatives and antihypertensives, anesthetics.
Typically, a patient who has had a microinfarction on his legs is forced to control his blood pressure and pulse for life.
Complications and prognosis
In case of ineffective, untimely therapy or the absence of such in general, serious complications can arise that impede normal life and even can cause death.
Most often, the consequences of a microinfarction are:
- Extensive heart attack with damage to a large area of the myocardium,
- Heart failure development,
- Vascular obstruction, including pulmonary artery,
- Changes in heart rhythm and decreased impulse conduction.
A heart attack is dangerous, first of all, cardiac arrest and clinical death. Of course, if this happens not within the walls of a medical institution, but at home, then a person has practically no chance to survive. There are other complications that can lead to a heart attack. It:
- pulmonary edema,
- persistent heart rhythm disturbance,
- brain damage
- stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
- heart aneurysm
- cardiogenic shock,
- psychical deviations.
On average, about one in ten patients dies of a heart attack. But here it should be borne in mind that most of the dead did not receive adequate medical care. In general, 80% of people who have had a heart attack return to normal. This indicates how important it is to be able to recognize the symptoms and signs of this disease in time.
The diagnosis of microinfarction sounds more encouraging than a normal myocardial infarction. However, it’s too early to calm down: a microinfarction transferred on the legs, in which the patient does not receive the necessary treatment, is often complicated by extensive necrosis of the heart muscle.
In this case, it is impossible to predict the onset of large-focal, deep myocardial damage, and the critical situation in the vast majority of cases is fatal.
To avoid a catastrophe, you should know the first signs of a microinfarction, the symptoms after myocardial necrosis and urgent measures for suspected severe heart damage.
Microinfarction is a type of acute myocardial ischemia (heart attack), characterized by the formation of fairly small necrotic foci in the heart muscle. It often happens at a young age, up to 30 years. At the same time, women often learn about the disease much later: on a routine examination, the ECG indicates the presence of scars in the heart muscle.
The true cause of microinfarction is a violation of blood supply in a small area of the heart muscle. Developing, sometimes quite rapidly, myocardial ischemia occurs in the following situations:
- Psycho-emotional instability – constant stress, nervous breakdowns, anxiety attacks and panic attacks (often with neurasthenia and vegetovascular dystonia), a violent emotional reaction to events in life;
- Smoking – even estrogen “protection” of the heart cannot compensate for the negative effect of nicotine on the female body;
- Poor nutrition – the use of trans fats (an essential component of baking and sweets) and, as a result, obesity, abuse of alcohol and energy drinks, a poor diet, leading primarily to magnesium deficiency (a trace element necessary for normal heart function);
- Cardiovascular pathologies – hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmia and atherosclerosis of coronary vessels, including hereditary diseases (previous heart attack or maternal hypertension) are especially dangerous;
- Blood disorders – high cholesterol, increased blood coagulation and high blood sugar (diabetes mellitus);
- Physical overstrain and, equivalently, low physical activity.
In the development of a microinfarction in women, it is not age that matters most, but the presence of atherosclerosis, bad habits and emotional imbalance.
Microinfarction rarely proceeds violently, like a large-focal myocardial infarction. Small focal necrosis of the heart muscle can be interpreted as a prolonged attack of angina pectoris or a common cold.
Often, especially in elderly patients and patients with diabetes mellitus, microinfarction is asymptomatic. Therefore, micro-focal necrosis in most cases is diagnosed much later.
The following symptoms of microinfarction in women will help to suspect the development of a necrotic process in the heart muscle:
- Acute, pressing, or burning pain on the left side of the chest
Pain and heart palpitations last longer than an attack of angina pectoris. Micronecrosis of the heart muscle occurs on average in the period of 40-60 minutes. After this, the pain subsides somewhat.
The following option is also possible – a woman fixes numbness and coldness of the fingers of her left hand, drawing pain in the arm, shoulder, lower jaw, under the shoulder blade or in the upper abdomen on the left (with low necrosis).
Difficulty with breathing and a feeling of lack of air (asthmatic form) occurs even with minimal physical exertion or after stress. In this case, a feeling of anxiety arises, the nasolabial triangle turns blue, and the body is covered with cold sweat. Women with asthma or asthmatic bronchitis often miss the onset of a microinfarction.
Important! Microinfarction can develop suddenly or against the background of pre-existing symptoms of cardiac ischemia.
The above symptoms demonstrate that a woman with a microinfarction can hide behind many “masks”. How to distinguish microinfarction from other diseases?
- An increase in temperature is often seen as the onset of ARI or flu. However, a microinfarction is characterized by a sense of unwarranted anxiety and a panic state, and there are no catarrhal phenomena (redness of the throat, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough). In this case, a cold rarely provokes such significant chest pain.
- Angina pectoris lasts only 10-15 minutes. Microinfarction pain lasts up to 1 hour. At the same time, taking Nitroglycerin either does not bring relief at all, or slightly reduces the intensity of pain.
- Simulating an exacerbation of gastritis or a stomach ulcer, an attack of an acute microinfarction is not stopped by taking acid-lowering drugs (Maalox, Renny, Omeprazole). However, self-abating pain after 60 minutes. can be perceived as the effect of the drug taken. It is difficult to differentiate completely different diseases from the first minutes of the onset of pain.
- The drugs prescribed by the doctor for bronchial asthma (especially those used as sprays or IV injections) act in the first minutes of an attack of shortness of breath. However, with a microinfarction, they do not bring relief.
More than 1 hour lasting severe pain in the region of the heart precisely indicates the further spread of necrosis and the development of large-focal myocardial infarction. The spread of necrosis in the myocardium occurs in 30% of cases.
Since the expressed symptoms of a microinfarction pass relatively quickly, women often calm down and postpone an ambulance call or a visit to the doctor. However, an attack rarely goes unnoticed.
Signs of a microinfarction in women carried on legs:
- Pressure reduction in the first days after an acute condition (even in patients with hypertension);
- A constant feeling of cold in the arms and legs – indicates a failure of the heart and a violation of peripheral blood supply;
- Constant headache or increased habitual pain in the head, as well as blue lips – indicate impaired heart function and insufficient oxygen supply to the brain;
- Heavy sweat at night and swelling of the feet and hands in the morning;
- Shortness of breath and attacks of palpitations (arrhythmia) with minimal physical exertion;
- Irresistible fatigue due to muscle weakness, joint pain.
Important! If two or more of the above symptoms are found, you should contact a cardiologist and go through an ECG.
Like a regular heart attack, a microinfarction requires immediate treatment. If you suspect necrosis of the heart muscle, you must:
- Lay the patient, raise his head at high pressure, unfasten the upper buttons on the clothes;
- Call an emergency team reporting a heart attack;
- Give a woman nitroglycerin (for example, taking 3 tablets with an interval of 5 minutes, at low pressure only 1 tablet), it is better in the form of a spray;
- Be sure to give 1/2 or a whole chew. Aspirin
Important! An ambulance call is required for heart pain lasting more than 20 minutes.
Microinfarction almost never ends catastrophically, however this does not mean at all that the patient does not have to be treated. Often the consequences are sudden and much more serious than the complications of large focal myocardial necrosis. Microinfarction is dangerous by the development of the following diseases:
- Sudden relapse of the necrotic process in the heart (in the first 1-2 weeks.) With extensive myocardial damage and, as a result, death;
- Repeated focal or transmural (deep) heart attack – develops 28 days after a microinfarction;
- Blood clots – the risk of blood clots is reduced by taking aspirin in the first hours;
- Arrhythmias – from mild tachycardia to atrial fibrillation;
- Cardiac asthma – chronic heart failure significantly affects the quality of life.
To minimize the risk of serious complications, you must not miss the first symptoms of a developing microinfarction and call an ambulance at the time.
Timely hospitalization and proper treatment – drug therapy, limitation of motor activity and a special diet – will reduce the likelihood of recurring heart attack and the severity of symptoms of chronic heart failure.
The long-term prognosis is more favorable if a woman in the future will control her weight, give up bad habits and adjust her life rhythm – a full sleep, adequate physical activity, compliance with the principles of a healthy diet. An integral part of life after a microinfarction should be regular visits to a cardiologist and an examination.
In more than half the cases, a heart attack is the culmination of a progressively progressive coronary heart disease. This means that the treatment of coronary disease can significantly reduce the likelihood of a heart attack.
In the prevention of heart attacks and other serious diseases of the cardiovascular system, great attention should be paid to nutrition. The diet should contain a large amount of vitamins and fiber. At the same time, the consumption of fatty meat, trans fats should be minimized. Also in the diet should be present fish dishes containing a large amount of omega-3 fats.
The most important methods to help avoid a heart attack include:
- decreased body weight;
- physical activity that allows you to deal with physical inactivity;
- control of cholesterol and blood sugar;
- blood pressure control.
Preventive measures of the disease include:
- Compliance with a normal diet,
- Healthy sleep for at least 8 hours a day,
- Regular preventive examination, especially if there is a risk of a microinfarction (overweight, diabetes mellitus, heart and vascular diseases, age over 50),
- Rejection of bad habits,
- Compliance with all the recommendations of a doctor, if you have previously visited a cardiologist,
- Timely and immediate medical attention when the first signs of general malaise appear
- Moderate exercise
- Avoidance of nervous and mental fatigue, overstrain and stress,
- Refusal of self-medication.