Lipid profile (lipid spectrum, profile) what is it, decoding, normal in adults

Triglycerides are present in serum in a small amount.

  • Accumulate in fatty tissues as a bundle of fatty acid ester and glycerol. Carry an energy function.
  • Triglycerides are presented as part of bad LDL cholesterol or VLDL, so any deviation from the norm will indicate the development of pathologies.
  • Deviations in any direction from the norm will lead to violations of a different nature, starting from excess weight and respiratory diseases, ending with chronic and acute diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
  • When examining the lipid spectrum, the normal level of triglycerides should be less than 2 mmol / L.

In order for the results of the analysis to be reliable, it is important for the patient to observe simple preparation requirements. These include:

  1. a study is conducted in the morning, on an empty stomach;
  2. dinner (last meal) should be 10-14 hours before blood sampling;
  3. give up alcohol 24-48 hours before going to the laboratory;
  4. exclude tobacco in 12 hours (with an insurmountable craving – at least an hour);
  5. Avoid physical overwork and emotional / stressful situations the day before analysis.

After receiving the results, the attending physician may prescribe additional studies based on them.

  • If there are deviations, you will need to undergo a course of treatment, the complexity of which depends on the degree of development of pathologies.

For people who already have lipid metabolism disorders, the target is 1,8 mmol / L. It is achieved as a result of changes in the diet, the introduction of physical activity, drug therapy. A cardiologist or therapist prescribes the right treatment. If the decoding of the blood lipid profile shows cholesterol from 5,2 to 6,2, this is a moderate risk of developing atherosclerosis, with a figure of 6,2 and above, the level is high. We will deal with other indicators of the lipid profile.

  • LDL This complex delivers cholesterol to tissues. The indicator that determines atherogenicity. In everyday life called “bad” cholesterol. It quickly attaches to the walls of blood vessels that are altered by any pathologies.
  • VLDL. Lipoproteins related to “bad” cholesterol. However, they do not play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. They have only transport significance, being synthesized in the liver.
  • HDL In another way – “good” cholesterol. Its concentration to a high degree reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis.
  • Triglycerides. Lipids with structural and energetic functions. They are found in the blood of all people.

Atherogenic coefficient, norm

The results, which show the analysis on the lipid spectrum of the blood, are used by specialists to determine the coefficient of atherogenicity.

  • This is an indicator demonstrating the degree of exposure of the body to atherosclerosis and the consequences of its effects on organs and systems due to the deposition of “bad cholesterol.”

Vegetables, fruits, berries

The study of the lipid spectrum of the blood gives, as a result, information about the fatty acids contained in the blood serum:

  1. total cholesterol;
  2. triglycerides;
  3. high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL);
  4. low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL).
  • Each of the indicators has a norm criterion, the excess or shortage of which will indicate pathologies.
  • And their ratio will just become the basis for calculating the atherogenic coefficient.
  1. The atherogenic coefficient in a healthy person should not exceed 3 units.
  2. If the indicator is in the range of 3-4 units, then the threat of developing atherosclerosis is great and urgent revision of lifestyle and diet is necessary.
  3. When the atherogenic coefficient exceeds 5 units, you can not talk about the threat – this patient already develops atherosclerosis.
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A typical lipid profile includes the following indicators:

    Total cholesterol (OX) – the total content of sterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like alcohol that does not dissolve in water. For its transportation through the vessels, the sterol molecule is packaged in a protein cover. So the lipoprotein is formed. There are 4 >

Separate laboratories, instead of the atherogenic coefficient, include the ratio between total cholesterol and HDL in the lipid profile. To determine the risk of cardiovascular complications, it is considered more accurate. If the result of the analysis of your lipid spectrum does not contain this indicator, it can be calculated independently by the formula: OH / HDL.

The norms of lipidogram study values ​​largely depend on the patient’s age, but with the onset of the transition period, the norms are divided by gender.

AgeNorm in mmol / L
Babies under 1 month oldFrom 1,3 4,4 up
2 to 12 monthsFrom 1,6 4,9 up
From 1 year to 14 yearsFrom 2,8 5,2 up
From 14 to 65From 2,8 5,9 up
Older 65 yearsFrom 3,6 7,1 up
Normal performanceFrom 1,5 2,5 up
Low risk of atherosclerosisFrom 2,5 3 up
Moderate riskFrom 3 4 up
High risk of diseaseMore 4
Under 14 years oldFrom 0,9 1,9 upFrom 0,9 1,9 up
From 14 to 20 years oldFrom 0,78 1,63 upFrom 0,91 1,91 up
From 20 to 25 years oldFrom 0,78 1,36 upFrom 0,85 2,04 up
From 25 to 30 years oldFrom 0,80 1,63 upFrom 0,96 2,15 up
From 30 to 35 years oldFrom 0,72 1,63 upFrom 0,93 1,99 up
From 35 to 40 years oldFrom 0,75 1,60 upFrom 0,88 2,12 up
From 40 to 45 years oldFrom 0,70 1,73 upFrom 0,88 2,28 up
From 45 to 50 years oldFrom 0,78 1,66 upFrom 0,88 2,25 up
From 50 to 55 years oldFrom 0,72 1,63 upFrom 0,96 2,38 up
From 55 to 60 years oldFrom 0,72 1,84 upFrom 0,96 2,35 up
From 60 to 65 years oldFrom 0,78 1,91 upFrom 0,98 2,38 up
From 65 to 70 years oldFrom 0,78 1,94 upFrom 0,91 2,48 up
70 years and olderFrom 0,8 1,94 upFrom 0,85 2,38 up
Under 14 years oldFrom 1,60 3,60 upFrom 1,60 3,60 up
From 14 to 20 years oldFrom 1,61 3,37 upFrom 1,53 3,55 up
From 20 to 25 years oldFrom 1,71 3,81 upFrom 1,48 4,12 up
From 25 to 30 years oldFrom 1,81 4,27 upFrom 1,84 4,25 up
From 30 to 35 years oldFrom 2,02 4,79 upFrom 1,81 4,04 up
From 35 to 40 years oldFrom 2,10 4,90 upFrom 1,94 4,45 up
From 40 to 45 years oldFrom 2,25 4,82 upFrom 1,92 4,51 up
From 45 to 50 years oldFrom 2,51 5,23 upFrom 2,05 4,82 up
From 50 to 55 years oldFrom 2,31 5,10 upFrom 2,28 5,21 up
From 55 to 60 years oldFrom 2,28 5,26 upFrom 2,31 5,44 up
From 60 to 65 years oldFrom 2,15 5,44 upFrom 2,59 5,80 up
From 65 to 70 years oldFrom 2,54 5,44 upFrom 2,38 5,72 up
70 years and olderFrom 2,49 5,34 upFrom 2,49 5,34 up
Under 14 years oldFrom 0,30 1,40 upFrom 0,30 1,40 up
From 14 to 20 years oldFrom 0,45 1,81 upFrom 0,42 1,48 up
From 20 to 25 years oldFrom 0,50 2,27 upFrom 0,40 1,53 up
From 25 to 30 years oldFrom 0,52 2,81 upFrom 0,40 1,48 up
From 30 to 35 years oldFrom 0,56 3,01 upFrom 0,42 1,63 up
From 35 to 40 years oldFrom 0,61 3,62 upFrom 0,44 1,70 up
From 40 to 45 years oldFrom 0,62 3,61 upFrom 0,45 1,91 up
From 45 to 50 years oldFrom 0,65 3,80 upFrom 0,51 2,16 up
From 50 to 55 years oldFrom 0,65 3,61 upFrom 0,52 2,42 up
From 55 to 60 years oldFrom 0,65 3,23 upFrom 0,59 2,63 up
From 60 to 65 years oldFrom 0,65 3,29 upFrom 0,62 2,96 up
From 65 to 70 years oldFrom 0,62 2,94 upFrom 0,63 2,70 up
70 years and olderFrom 0,60 2,90 upFrom 0,60 2,70 up

The ratio of “good” to “bad” cholesterol also includes a lipid profile. Decoding in adults (the norm is indicated below) gives an idea of ​​the degrees of risk of developing atherosclerosis. The atherogenic coefficient is calculated as follows: the difference between cholesterol and LDL is taken and divided by HDL.

• Less than 3 is a minimal risk of developing atherosclerosis, as well as its further unpleasant consequences.

• From 3 to 4 – unfavorable prognosis. The risk is moderate. You need to adjust your lifestyle and diet.

• 4 and above. Violations of lipid metabolism were detected, and the process is already chronic, which requires treatment. High risk of stroke, heart attack.

No need to look for spells and magic potions to normalize your lipid profile. The price of the right food and a visit to the sports complex will be significantly lower than if you have to treat your “bad” cholesterol and its negative consequences. The old phrase “We are what we eat” comes to mind.

Limit primarily the use of fried foods, pastries, animal fats, sweets, salty foods. Include in your diet more fiber (legumes, vegetables, cereals, fruits), these products take away excess bile from the intestine, and prevent it from entering the bloodstream. As you know, bile is the “daughter of cholesterol.” Eat more often, but in small portions. So the correct metabolism starts in the body, excess weight will go away, cholesterol level will decrease.

Analysis for (LDL), bad cholesterol, normal

  • The atherogenic group includes:
  • lipophilic alcohols, provoking the development of atherosclerosis in the body.
  • These compounds are called bad cholesterol. The group includes:
  1. triglycerides;
  2. low density lipoproteins (LDL);
  3. very low density lipoproteins (VLDL).

The accumulation of these components leads to an increase in deposits on the walls of blood vessels and clogging with cholesterol plaques of arteries and veins.

Bad cholesterol in a vessel

  • The normal LDL index in the analysis for the lipid spectrum will range from 1,6 mmol / L to 5,34 mmol / L.
  • More precise range boundaries are determined by the physical age of the patient.

Preparing for blood donation for cholesterol

Before the study, you need to properly prepare. Before analysis for a lipid profile in three days, it is necessary to exclude animal fats, alcohol from the diet, to avoid emotional stress and physical exertion. Before research, dinner should be as light as possible. The next morning, do not drink anything (except water), do not eat, do not use toothpaste, chewing gum, and in no case do not smoke. It is very important to remain completely calm. Deciphering the results of the lipid profile depends on age and gender. In children, the indicators are different.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.