Thyroid-stimulating hormone is produced by a small gland, which is located on the lower part of the surface of the brain – the pituitary gland. It controls the formation of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) using the “feedback” technology, provides a stable concentration of these substances in the blood. Thyroid hormones are considered the main controllers of the energy expenditure that occurs in the human body. Maintaining their level in the norm is very important for the healthy activity of almost all systems and organs.
- The role of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the human body
- What is the blood test for TSH
- Indications for prescription
- Blood test for TSH hormone – characterization, transcript
- TSH blood test
- What the results say
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone
- How much does TTG analysis cost
- TSH increased
- TSH lowered
- Before analysis on TSH
- How to decipher the results of several tests for the hormone TSH
- In conclusion
- Deciphering the analysis for thyroid hormones
- Where to make tests for TSH hormones
The role of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the human body
The pituitary gland is located in the human brain. This is an organ whose task is to control the work of all the endocrine glands. He is responsible for the synthesis of TSH. This hormone regulates the thyroid gland and controls the flow of the necessary amount of iodine into the cells of the body.
In addition, TSH is involved in the following processes in the body:
- speeds up metabolism;
- supports heat transfer;
- controls the production of red blood cells;
- helps tissues absorb oxygen better;
- provides support to the respiratory system;
- involved in glucose production.
Thyroid stimulating hormone also promotes the synthesis of triiodothyronine and thyroxine (T3 and T4, respectively). The TSH indicator directly depends on the concentration of these substances in the blood. If their level is increased, then the amount of thyrotropin decreases, and vice versa.
When the patient has the first alarming signs, the therapist or endocrinologist prescribes a laboratory study of thyroid hormones. Analysis of TSH allows you to timely identify any pathological process that develops in the body.
The composition of this biologically active substance has two chains:
- α – its structure does not differ from gonadotropins, which are secreted by the placenta and the anterior pituitary gland to regulate the functioning of the gonads. A subclass of tropic hormones includes follitropin, luteotropin, chorionic gonadotropin.
- β – affects only thyroid cells, activating their growth and increasing the synthesis of its hormones.
The impact on the human body of thyrotropin is:
- in the regulation of metabolic processes;
- participation in heat transfer mechanisms;
- control over the production of red blood cells (red blood cells);
- supporting respiratory function;
- prov >
Thyrotropin regulates the production of thyroid hormones: with a decrease in their number, the pituitary gland secretes more thyrotropic hormone (to stimulate the gland), with an increase in the concentration of iodinated tyrosine derivatives – the level of TSH decreases
The synthesis of thyrotropin is controlled by the central nervous system and the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus. The morphofunctional combination of the structures of this endocrine gland, which is the highest vegetative center, and the pituitary gland in the human body supports stable metabolic processes and a constant level of hormones in the circulating blood.
Violation of the interconnections of the hypothalamic-pituitary system provokes a disorder in the functional activity of the endocrine glands – this is the reason for those situations when the level of TSH is increased at high concentrations of thyroid hormones. The biologically active substances produced by the thyroid gland begin their activity at the time of conception and continue until death.
They perform important and numerous functions in the human body:
- Responsible for the speed of thinking.
- Affect the psycho-emotional state, growth, energy resources, the full functioning of the organs of vision and hearing, the cardiac, vascular and nervous systems.
- Regulate the motor activity of the smooth muscles of the intestine and the menstrual cycle.
- They affect metabolism by synthesizing the most important biochemical elements – proteids, complex lipids, polynucleotides, carbohydrates, lipovitamins.
A change in the secretion of thyrotropin, which regulates the production of T3 and T4, indicates a violation of the hormonal background. TSH deficiency provokes the development of hyperthyroidism (or thyrotoxicosis), which is manifested by a decrease in the pituitary gland and an increase in the excretory function of the thyroid gland. With a significant decrease in the indicators of analysis for thyroid-stimulating hormone, the growth of tissues of this organ is observed – hyperplasia, which leads to a persistent increase in its size (goiter).
An increase in TSH is a harbinger of hypothyroidism, which manifests itself in impaired functioning of the thyroid and adrenal glands. This phenomenon can contribute to the development of tumor formations and mental disorders.
What is the blood test for TSH
The biomaterial is taken from a vein located on the elbow. After that, the blood goes to the laboratory, where the serum of the liquid connective tissue is examined by immunochemiluminescent analysis. Its essence is to detect the contact of an antibody with an antigen.
The frequency of the study is set by the attending physician. It also depends on the disease and its severity. Women who have reached the age of 50 are recommended to regularly take a blood test for TSH regularly (preferably every year). In the thyroid gland, as a rule, it is during this period that various disorders are detected. Women are allowed to take biomaterial on any day of the cycle.
The doctor may prescribe the patient a blood test for thyroid stimulating hormone in the following situations.
- The need to check the state of the thyro >
A blood test for TSH hormone can be prescribed by a gynecologist or endocrinologist.
Indications for prescription
As a rule, the doctor recommends that the patient undergo a blood test for TSH hormone with an increase in the size of the thyroid gland, in case of signs of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can be as follows:
- increased anxiety;
- weight loss;
- trembling of hands;
- fatigue, chronic weakness;
- intolerance to bright light;
- dryness, swelling around the eyes, bulging, hyperemia;
- reduction in visual acuity.
Also, an analysis of TSH is necessarily carried out if there is evidence of a patient with hypothyroidism:
- dry skin;
- cold intolerance;
- hair loss;
- fatigue, constant weakness;
- malfunctions of the menstrual cycle (in female patients).
The study of the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the patient’s body is an essential element of control over the effectiveness of the selected treatment of thyroid diseases. TSH indicators can be checked in newborn infants, if they belong to a risk group. A blood test for TSH hormone is not performed for children in the Diana clinic – it must be done in a children’s clinic!
The main indications for prescribing an analysis for thyroid hormones are the following diseases and conditions;
- significant hair loss;
- sleep disturbances (difficulty falling asleep, insomnia, frequent night awakenings);
- decreased mental ability, memory impairment;
- suspected pituitary tumor;
- losing weight or gaining excess weight for no apparent reason;
- an increase in the size of the thyroid gland and / or its pain on palpation;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system (arterial hypertension, arrhythmia);
- non-infectious liver diseases;
- menstrual cycle disorders;
- reduced potency;
- male and female infertility;
- systemic autoimmune diseases (dermatitis, lupus erythematosus, rheumatism);
- delayed psychomotor development in children.
In addition, an analysis of thyroid hormones is sometimes required to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy.
The study is conducted if the doctor suspects that the patient has a thyroid disease.
TSH analysis is prescribed for the following symptoms:
- a sharp jump in weight up or down;
- puffiness and dryness of the skin;
- lack of sensitivity to low temperatures;
- rapid hair loss;
- constant feeling of fatigue;
- failure of the menstrual cycle;
- a sense of anxiety for no apparent reason;
- psycho-emotional instability;
- sleep disorders;
- tremor of the upper extremities;
- irritation, swelling, dryness of the mucous membranes of the eyes, their protrusion and increased fatigue;
- mental retardation in children;
- decreased libido (in both sexes);
In addition, the study is conducted during pregnancy in every expectant mother in order to timely detect various pathologies that pose a threat not only to the health of the fetus, but also to the process of bearing it. Also, a blood test for TSH is prescribed to monitor changes in the condition of patients with hormone replacement treatment.
TSH is an abbreviation for thyroid-stimulating hormone – the pituitary hormone that stimulates the activity of the thyroid gland. It is one of the main homons in the human body and is responsible for the full functioning of a very important organ – the thyroid gland.
A hormone is produced in the brain in the pituitary gland. The substance is a stimulator of the thyroid gland secretion of thyroxine and triidthyronine – hormones that are responsible for the full functioning of the main systems in the body, as well as proper fat metabolism.
For this reason, a violation in the production of these hormones threatens serious health consequences.
In order to detect abnormalities, a TSH blood test is indicated. Such an examination is most often necessary for women who are 10 times more likely than men to suffer from disorders in the pituitary and thyroid glands. In the vast majority of cases, blood for the determination of TSH hormones is donated simultaneously with blood for the detection of thyroid hormones.
The decoding of a TSH blood test is carried out by the endocrinologist. According to its results, he prescribes treatment for the patient with the use of certain drugs. As a rule, with the right therapy, it is possible to normalize the patient’s condition in a short time.
In addition to regulating the thyroid gland, the hormone also affects the whole body. The substance requires that the following processes occur:
- complete protein production;
- maintaining proper heat exchange;
- activation of metabolic processes;
- high-quality synthesis of nucleic ac >
Also, without the action of thyroid-stimulating hormone, full-fledged muscle activity, full-fledged thinking, tissue oxygenation, and egg maturation are impossible.
|Age||TSH μMU / ml|
|First 10 days after birth||From 1,1 17 up|
|Up to 2,5 months after birth||From 0,6 10 up|
|From 2,5 months to 14 months||From 0,4 7 up|
|From 14 months to 5 years||From 0,4 6 up|
|From 5 years to 14 years||From 0,4 5 up|
|From 14 to 50||From 0,4 4 up|
|Age older than 50 years||From 0,27 4,2 up|
|Women during pregnancy||From 0,2 3,5 up|
Sometimes in different laboratories in the analyzes of the same person there may be a difference of 0,2, which is considered the norm. This deviation, as a rule, is associated with reagents that are used to study blood for thyroid stimulating hormone.
There are many reasons for increasing hormones. A blood test for TSH may be elevated in the following cases:
- removal of the thyroid gland;
- treatment of thyroid diseases with radioactive iodine;
- autoimmune diseases in which the destruction of thyroid cells occurs by cells of the body that take healthy tissues as pathological;
- traumatic damage to the thyroid gland;
- especially severe iodine deficiency;
- cancers of the thyroid gland;
- insufficiency in the work of the adrenal glands of congenital nature;
- excessive function of the hypothalamus;
- benign neoplasms of the pituitary gland;
- violation of the sensitivity of body tissues to hormones secreted by the thyroid gland;
- severe viral infections;
- severe stress;
- strong physical overload;
- taking a number of drugs.
In the event that a person is prescribed treatment with drugs that can disrupt the level of hormones, it is indicated to regularly take an analysis for TSH hormones. This will allow timely detection of violations and the necessary adjustment of the condition.
A number of signs indicate that the hormonal background is elevated. An analysis of TSH is necessary in the following cases, when observed:
- weight gain;
- swelling of the lips, eyelids, tongue and limbs;
- frequent chills;
- general muscle weakness;
- depressive conditions;
- frequent insomnia;
- memory impairment;
- slow heart rate below 55 beats per minute;
- increased fragility of nails;
- excessive hair loss;
- excessive pallor of the skin;
- propensity to constipation;
- particular soreness and scarcity of menstruation;
- loss of sexual desire;
This symptomatology is a direct indication for visiting a doctor, who will give a referral for a blood test for TSH. All symptoms at once appear only if the level of hormones is disturbed very much. With mild violations, only a part of the symptoms is manifested in insignificant intensity. Despite the fact that the state does not cause severe discomfort at this moment, it should not be ignored.
It is easy to guess that the pituitary gland by increasing the synthesis of TSH is trying to “force” to produce T3 and T4, which are clearly not enough. Therefore, first of all, a high level of TSH speaks of a decrease in thyroid function – hypothyroidism, or myxedema.
The causes of lowered hormones can be different. Pathology is much less common than the previous one, but still you should not forget about it. Most often, decreased TSH is noted with a significant increase in the level of thyroid hormones. A blood test in this case gives up on thyroid gland TSH and many more hormones. Pathology is most often caused by the following factors:
- bazedova disease and hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis);
- thyroid tumors;
- brain tumors;
- cancer metastasis to the pituitary gland;
- traumatic brain damage;
- inflammation of the brain;
- traumatic conditions in which acute pain is present;
- diseases accompanied by acute pain;
- taking a number of drugs.
There are not rare cases when TSH deficiency is caused by taking medications – analogues of thyroid hormones. For this reason, quite often a patient is prescribed a blood test for TSH hormones during the treatment period.
An analysis of TSH is also necessary for symptoms of its low level. The main ones are:
- decreased body weight;
- goiter formation;
- increased body temperature up to a maximum of 37,5;
- increased appetite;
- rapid stool;
- heart failure;
- increased bone fragility;
- neurasthenic disturbances in the work of the psyche;
- panic attacks;
- severe muscle weakness;
- insufficiently frequent blinking;
- wide-open eyes;
- sensation of a foreign body in the eyes, eyebrows;
- increased dryness of the mucous membranes of the eye;
- increased dryness of the skin.
All these symptoms indicate hyperthyroidism. An excess of thyroid hormones leads to the fact that there is no need to stimulate it, and the secretion of TSH simply stops. These symptoms are an indication for taking a blood test for thyroid hormones and TSH (tsh).
Refusal from blood tests for hormones in this state should not be, as this can lead to the fact that the beginning of the development of a serious pathology in a severe form, the treatment of which will be extremely difficult and difficult, will be missed.
When the level of TSH in the body rises, we can talk about the poor functioning of the thyroid gland, hyperthyroidism. The main reasons for this failure are the result of a dysfunction of the pituitary gland, as well as the adrenal glands, which can also be observed in cancer. Decreased TSH values indicate not only iodine deficiency, weakened thyroid function, but also hyperthyroidism.
Blood test for TSH hormone – characterization, transcript
In order for the results of the laboratory study to be as accurate and correct as possible, it is important to follow the rules:
- give blood in the morning on an empty stomach;
- 24 hours before blood sampling, it is necessary to stop smoking, drinking alcohol and significant physical exertion;
- hormonal drugs are canceled a month before the study;
- 72 hours before the analysis, it is necessary to stop taking iodine-containing drugs.
The patient should come to the laboratory 20-30 minutes before the appointed time and sit quietly in the lobby. Only after such a short rest, the laboratory assistant begins the procedure of blood sampling from the ulnar vein for analysis.
A blood test for TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) is of great importance in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, therefore it is prescribed by an endocrinologist in almost any complaints.
External symptoms of thyroid pathologies are overly shiny eyes, trembling hands and rapid weight loss with good appetite, people with similar manifestations should think about their health and consult a specialist.
In this article, we will find out how and where to take a blood test for TSH and what the results indicate. However, even if you know the norm indicators, you should not draw independent conclusions, only a specialist can make a final diagnosis.
TSH, or thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland, is one of the most important hormones that affect the functioning of the human body. The main function of TSH is the regulation of the thyroid gland. It stimulates the synthesis of hormones T3 – triiodothyronine and T4 – thyroxine.
T3 and T4, in turn, affect the functioning of the organs of the reproductive system and gastrointestinal tract, mental processes, the cardiovascular system and much more.
The hormone itself is produced in the pituitary gland, however, as we have already said, it affects the thyroid gland, and therefore is prescribed for the diagnosis of its diseases, as well as for infertility, regularly lowering body temperature, depression, impotence, and delayed sexual and mental development in children.
As a rule, TSH is given in combination with triiodothyronine and thyroxine assays. Hormone values are measured in µU / ml or honey / l. In the test form it is sometimes called not TSH, but TSH (from the Latin name “thyroid stimulating hormone”).
There is nothing complicated in the process of taking an analysis for TSH, however, many factors can affect its result, so you need to check with your doctor in advance how to prepare for the examination.
A blood test for TSH is performed in the morning, on an empty stomach. The day before the blood donation, you must refrain from physical activity and the use of alcoholic beverages, as well as from smoking.
In addition, within a month before the procedure, you should refuse to take hormonal drugs, and a few days before the study – iodine-containing drugs. Experts also advise sitting quietly for 20-30 minutes just before taking the test.
Therefore, if you are running late, run to the clinic out of breath and sweat, it’s better to wait a bit in the hallway and catch your breath – for the reliability of the analysis. And then proceed directly to donate blood.
In global practice, it is recommended that women after 50 years of age have a TTG test every year, as they are at risk for thyroid disease. Women of childbearing age can donate blood on any day of the menstrual cycle.
The norms of the thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland in people of different sex and age are different, therefore, only a specialist should decipher the result.
Normal TSH levels in the blood depend on the gender, age of the patient and the laboratory method, therefore, when decoding the result of the analysis, the endocrinologist takes into account the values indicated in the form of the laboratory or center as reference.
The concentration of the hormone is especially important in the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, for the differentiation of true thyrotoxicosis during gestation, in monitoring the use of drugs with T3 content, in identifying intrauterine pathologies and in other cases.
“Lower gray zone” refers to a situation where the level of TSH is 0,1-0,4 mU / l. In this case, an additional study is prescribed – a blood test for the level of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine). The “upper gray zone” corresponds to indicators from 5 to 10 mU / l, and in such cases it is necessary to pass the TRG test (using thyrotropin-releasing hormone).
The norms of the level of the thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland depend, as we have said, on gender, age, and analysis technique. Therefore, if it is necessary to donate blood at some intervals, it is better to do this in the same clinic.
The generally accepted blood TSH levels are as follows:
- in newborns – from 1,1 to 17 mU / l;
- in infants aged 2,5 months, from 0,6 to 10 mU / l;
- in children 2,5-14 months – from 0,4 to 7 mU / l;
- in children from 14 months to 15 years old, from 0,4 to 6 mU / l;
- in men – from 0,4 to 4 mU / l;
- in women – from 0,4 to 4 mU / l;
- in pregnant women, from 0,2 to 3,5 mU / l.
During pregnancy, an analysis of TSH is given several times, since it is a necessary method for identifying diseases that can seriously harm the health of the mother and child.
Particularly careful control should be carried out in the first trimester, when the vital organs and systems of the future organism are laid.
Since the thyroid gland of the fetus does not function at this time, the hormonal background of the mother becomes the key to a healthy future for her child.
The level of thyroid stimulating hormone can be affected by physical and emotional stress, acute infectious diseases, prolonged adherence to low-calorie diets and other indicators.
Dry skin, cold intolerance, hair loss, increased fatigue, menstrual irregularities in women indicate an increased concentration of the hormone in the blood (hypothyroidism).
The reason for the overestimated indicators may be:
- thyroid inflammation;
- pituitary tumors;
- primary adrenal insufficiency;
- lead intoxication;
- mental disorder;
- recent surgery – removal of the gallbladder or hemodialysis.
A decrease in the level of TSH (hyperthyroidism) occurs against the background of a high concentration of thyroid hormones. Indicators of low TSH hormone in the blood: palpitations, nervousness, trembling hands, loose stools, weight loss due to good appetite.
The causes of hyperthyroidism can be:
- diffuse toxic goiter;
- monodose or polynodous goiter;
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in the stage of thyrotoxicosis (inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by autoimmune causes);
- pituitary injury;
- mental illness;
- taking levothyroxine (uncontrolled).
Usually, after a while, the doctor sends the patient for re-examination to confirm the diagnosis.
The cost of analysis for TSH depends on the location of the procedure, the qualifications of specialists, as well as the reagents used in the study. So, for example, one of the medical centers in Naberezhnye Chelny offers a service for 200 rubles. A little more expensive is a blood test for TSH in Kazan, the average price in the capital of Tatarstan is 250 rubles.
In St. Petersburg, the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland for 450 rubles will be revealed. The most expensive blood test for TSH will cost in Moscow. The cost in the capital ranges from 500 to 2000 rubles. The price depends on the level of service and the technical condition of the laboratories, as well as on the location of the clinics.
It is necessary to take an analysis for TSH if there is a suspicion of a violation of the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland, to identify the causes of infertility, the threat of hypothyroidism during pregnancy (with it there is dementia in a child). It is also recommended for evaluating treatment results, as the most sensitive and reliable test.
With an increase (from 4 μMU / ml), hypothyroidism and pituitary adenoma should be excluded, and at low rates (up to 0,4 μMU / ml) – thyrotoxicosis, pituitary insufficiency. It is important that both the excess and the lack of TSH (depending on the affected organ) occur with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, and subclinical options are completely asymptomatic.
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TSH blood test
If the norm is determined in a blood test for TSH (0,4-4 μMU / ml), then this indicates the absence of thyroid dysfunction. With deviations, thyroid-stimulating hormone causes a malfunction of the menstrual cycle, infertility, and a change in the timing of sexual development. An error in the results is possible with improper preparation, stress, infection, and the use of medications.
A blood test for the concentration of the hormone TSH in the body is an obligatory part of a comprehensive examination, which is prescribed by a doctor if you suspect that the patient has thyroid diseases. A blood test for the hormone TSH is the most important study in endocrinology.
Exceeding the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone beyond the norm (lowering or increasing), which will be shown in the results of the study, will allow the specialist to confirm the putative diagnosis or put it.
- in newborn babies, from 0,5 to 10,5 mU / l;
- up to 2 months – from 0,8 to 10,3;
- up to 1 year – from 0,6 to 8,1;
- up to 5 years – from 0,4 to 7,2;
- up to 15 years – from 0,4 to 5,1;
- in men, from 0,3 to 4,9;
- in women, from 0,3 to 4,4.
Practitioners always prescribe a comprehensive blood test for the hormones TSH, T3, T4 and the amount of sugar. That is why it is also important to note the normal indicators of these substances:
- triiodothyronine – from 1,1 to 3,15 nmol / l;
- total thyroxine – 62 to 150 nmol / l, free – from 7,7 to 14,2 pmol / l;
- glucose – from 2,72 to 6,11 mmol / l.
Depending on the periodic changes in the body occurring in women of reproductive age, deviations from normal values may be observed in her blood. A significant change in parameters indicates a latent course of various pathological processes. The amount of thyrotropin changes during the period of gestation – in the first trimester, its amount decreases, and from the second it gradually increases.
- Blood for any hormonal analysis, including TSH, is highly advisable to donate in the morning, always on an empty stomach. If it is not possible to donate biological material for examination in the morning, this must be done at least 5 hours after a meal.
- Physical and psycho-emotional comfort is recommended to establish a day before blood sampling. You can not play sports (even light), nervous.
- Doctors do not recommend, in preparation for the analysis of thyroid-stimulating hormone, visiting a bathhouse and sauna, taking a hot bath, overheating can distort the results of the study. Also under the ban, hypothermia of the body is therefore not allowed actions such as visiting winter fishing, swimming in the hole.
- 48 hours before the analysis, the intake of alcoholic beverages is excluded. Ideally, you should refrain from smoking during the day before the test, if it is difficult, you should not smoke for 2-3 hours before taking the blood.
- Blood donation is not recommended for laboratory analysis immediately after an instrumental examination, physiotherapeutic procedures, ultrasound and x-ray examinations, massage and other medical procedures.
What the results say
When interpreting the results of TSH analysis, it is important to consider the gender and age of the patient, as well as the method of the study.
The following standards of thyrotropin in the blood (expressed in mU / l) are generally accepted:
- Newborns – 1,1-17.
- Children under 10 weeks – 0,6 – 10.
- 2,5-14 months – 0,4-7.
- From 14 months to 15 years – 0,4-6.
- Men – 0,4-4.
- Women – 0,4-4.
- Pregnant women – 0,2-3,5.
When decoding the TSH analysis, the doctor takes into account not only the patient’s age, gender, emotional and physical stress, but also the presence of infectious diseases, his diet and other factors that have a significant impact on the result.
Immediately after birth, the concentration of thyrotropin in the blood increases sharply in a healthy baby. Over the course of 7 days, it begins to gradually decline.
Typically, in women, the TSH is higher by about 20% than in men. With age, there is a slight increase in the concentration of thyrotropin, while at night the amount of its emissions decreases. In older people, TSH levels are usually reduced.
During the period of gestation, the concentration of the hormone increases. In women, the menstrual cycle does not affect the level of TSH. Taking oral contraceptives also does not affect the dynamics.
For thyrotropin, daily fluctuations are characteristic: its indicator is maximum at 6-8 a.m. and 00-04 a.m. Its minimum level is detected at 15-18 hours. If you stay awake at night, the hormone production process is disrupted.
The normal concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the body of the expectant mother prevents the threat of premature termination of pregnancy
Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland provokes a decrease in the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The clinical signs of its deficiency coincide with the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis:
- a decrease in body weight with regular nutrition and normal physical activity – this is due to an accelerated metabolism;
- the appearance of a bulge on the front of the neck – goiter;
- sensation of heat, low-grade fever, excessive sweating in the absence of infectious and inflammatory processes;
- frequent stools;
- arterial hypertension;
- heart rate increase;
- brittleness and fragility of bones associated with calcium loss due to a violation of the balance of mineral substances in the human body;
- increased fatigue;
- neurasthenic conditions – irritability, bouts of sudden intense anxiety and obsessive fear, fussiness, outbursts of rage;
- muscle tissue atrophy;
- eye symptoms of Delrimple (wide opening of the palpebral fissures) and Gref (lag of the upper eyelid with the movement of the eyeball);
- thinning of the skin;
- slow growth of nails and hair.
The values of the norm depend on what indicators are used in a particular laboratory, therefore, only a doctor can interpret the results of analyzes. An analysis may show an abnormal decrease or increase in TSH in a patient.
Indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH analyzes may fall below normal in the following situations:
- hyperthyroidism of pregnant women;
- mental illness, deviations;
- autoimmune thyroiditis with signs of thyrotoxicosis;
- Plummer’s disease (thyrotoxic adenoma);
- TTG-independent thyrotoxicosis;
- diffuse toxic goiter.
Also, TSH indicators can increase, exceeding the norm. The increased results of the TSH analysis may indicate the presence of the following problems in the patient:
- mental illnesses;
- lead poisoning;
- adrenal insufficiency;
- lung tumors (thyrotropin-secreting);
- secondary or primary hypothyroidism;
- unregulated thyrotropic hormone secretion syndrome;
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis;
- pituitary tumor (basophilic adenoma, thyrotropinoma).
An increase and decrease in thyroid stimulating hormone indicates a malfunction in the functioning of the thyroid gland in a patient. Nevertheless, it is often not possible to accurately and correctly determine the cause of deviations using only one analysis of the degree of concentration of TSH in the body. Therefore, together with this study, doctors often recommend that patients undergo triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) tests.
As part of the correct preparation for the blood test for TSH, the patient is obliged to exclude factors that can distort the results, lead to their incorrect interpretation.
- The concentration level of TSH in the body reflects the picture in the thyroid gland – pituitary gland system on average over the past 5-6 weeks. Therefore, the control diagnosis of indicators in the blood of thyroid-stimulating hormone should be carried out 2 months after the dose adjustment of drugs that can change the level of hormones is made. Of course, such an adjustment is made in conjunction with the attending physician.
- The following medications can lead to an increase in the concentration of TSH in the body, exceeding the norm in the analysis results: atenolol, motilium, phenytoin, valproic acid, amiodarone, propanolol, prednisolone, as well as methimazole, lovastatin, rifampicin, metoclopramide, iodides and so on. The feasibility of refusing them is necessarily discussed with the doctor.
- The level of TSH hormone concentration in the body can change if the patient experiences emotional shock, experiences severe stress. Also, indicators may be distorted due to severe physical exertion.
- Infectious diseases that the patient has suffered recently can change the indicators of this substance. This must be notified to the attending physician.
- The concentration in the body of TSH can be different during the day. Therefore, if thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration is monitored, it is important to be tested for TSH hormone at the same time of day.
- If the purpose of the analysis is to control the effectiveness of the therapy, the administration of drugs prescribed by the doctor is stopped immediately on the day of the study.
- TSH levels can increase in women in the third trimester of pregnancy.
If the indicators obtained as a result of taking a blood test for TSH are higher than normal, this may indicate that the patient has serious diseases. The concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone may increase in the following cases:
- pituitary tumor (for example, basophilic adenoma, thyrotropinoma);
- primary, secondary hypothyroidism;
- TSH hormone unregulated secretion;
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis;
- adrenal insufficiency;
- lead poisoning;
- thyrotropin-secreting lung tumors
- mental disorders, diseases.
It should also be remembered that the concentration of TSH in the body can increase in the analysis if the patient takes the following drugs as part of the treatment: rifampicin, diphenin, methimazole, iodides, furosemides, metoclopramides, aminoglutethimide, benserazide, phenothiazine derivatives, morphine, prednisolone, calciton as well as amiodarone, propranolone, valproic acid, metoprolol, motilium, clomiphene, atenolol and phenytoin.
If the interpretation of the results of tests for the hormone TSH shows results that are below normal, the patient may assume the existence of the following problems and diseases:
- hyperthyroidism of pregnant women;
- thyrotoxic adenoma (also called Plummer’s disease);
- diffuse toxic goiter;
- autoimmune thyroiditis with signs of thyrotoxicosis;
- TTG-independent thyrotoxicosis;
- mental illnesses, disorders.
Deviations in the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration in the patient’s body from the norm in one direction or another directly indicate only malfunctions in the functioning of the thyroid gland. To determine the exact cause of such failures, the doctor in most cases, together with an analysis of TSH, assigns the patient studies at level T3, T4.
- Primary hypotheriosis is determined with normal or low T3 and T4, high TSH.
- Secondary hypothyroidism is diagnosed with reduced T3, T4, TSH.
- Hyperthyroidism is determined with increased T3, T4, low TSH.
For accurate diagnosis of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, tests for AT-TPO, AT-TG may also be required, excess of the norm indicates subacute or autoimmune thyroiditis.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone is secreted by the cells of the pituitary gland – a small gland located in the thickness of the substance of the brain. The function of thyroid-stimulating hormone is to regulate the secretory activity of the thyroid gland, that is, the production of thyroid hormones by its cells. The normal limits of this hormone depend on the age of the patient, and in pregnant women, and on the trimester of pregnancy.
Norm TSH depending on age
Limit values of TSH level in pregnant women:
- I trimester – from 0,1 to 2,5 mU / L;
- II trimester – from 0,2 to 3 mU / l;
- III trimester – from 0,3 to 3 mU / l.
An increase in the level of TSH in the blood is observed in the following cases:
- primary hypothyroidism of various origins (hypoplasia or surgical removal of the thyroid gland, iodine deficiency, hereditary impaired synthesis of thyroid hormones, autoimmune thyroiditis);
- some breast or lung tumors;
- pituitary adenoma;
- tissue resistance to thyroid hormones;
- difficult somatic diseases in the recovery phase;
- thyroid cancer.
Normal reference thyrotropin values in women and men differ. In a child, they are also different. Why?
The norm of this hormone is different for many people, so only a doctor can deal with it. At the same time, we can talk about the average TSH norms, ranging from 0,4 to 4 μIU / ml (reference values, units). It is advisable to prepare for the test: blood is given on an empty stomach, it is possible with menstruation.
The causes of changes in thyrotropin values are different: thyroid gland malfunction with hyperthyroidism, a change in T3 and T4 levels, deficiency or oversupply of such a trace element as iodine, high prolactin.
The result and indicator of thyrotropin may change when taking certain drugs containing iodine. Prolactin in lactating women also affects the outcome and the level of TSH, T3, T4.
How much does TTG analysis cost
|91||Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)||400 rubles.|
The cost of tests for other hormones can be found in the price list HERE. In the “Blood Hormones” section.
ADDITIONAL SERVICES AND ANALYSIS TO ANALYSIS ON TSH HORMONE
Thyrotropin is responsible for a number of tasks in the body. Since hormone levels are interdependent, with an increase in TSH levels, T3 and T4 decrease. A natural result is a deterioration in the patient’s health.
If the analysis for TSH hormone showed the deviation of the latter from the norm to a greater extent, this indicates a malfunction of the thyroid gland. At the initial stage, the development of the pathological process is asymptomatic.
Over time, the following alarm signs begin to bother the patient:
- impaired memory and concentration;
- depressive conditions;
- persistent drowsiness;
- low blood pressure;
- appetite disturbance;
- failure of the menstrual cycle;
- lack of sexual attraction to a partner;
- hair loss;
- change of voice timbre;
- non-correctable obesity;
- muscle pain and cramps.
If the thyrotropin in the blood remains elevated for a very long time, the following symptoms are added:
- slowing down the speed of speech;
- the skin in the neck becomes cyanotic or red, its deformation is noted.
An increase in TSH in a blood test may indicate the presence of the following serious diseases:
- adrenal insufficiency;
- neoplasms of both malignant and benign nature;
- somatic pathologies (heart, blood vessels, liver, respiratory system organs);
- thyroid hormone insensitivity syndrome;
- mental disorders.
In addition, the concentration of thyrotropin increases with lead poisoning, an excess of iodine in the body, gestosis (complication of pregnancy), and also after removal of the gallbladder.
In order to reduce the level of TSH in the blood, the doctor needs to identify the exact cause of its increase. If this happened against the background of the development of tumors, a long-term complex treatment is ahead.
With a slight increase in the concentration of the hormone, preparations containing iodine are indicated. The duration of treatment in this case is usually six months. After completion of therapy, it is necessary to undergo an ultrasound examination and re-take a blood test for TSH.
If hyperthyroidism is detected individually, a treatment regimen is drawn up, including the administration of hormonal agents.
A few years ago, the thyroid gland of animals in powdered form was used to normalize the level of thyrotropin. Currently, this method is also used in practice, but extremely rarely, due to the presence of a variety of synthetic medicines in the pharmaceutical market.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone is very sensitive and primarily responds to thyroid disorders. As a rule, changes in indicators are already observed in diseases that have not yet manifested themselves, including infertility, high prolactin. At the same time, free T4 and free T3 are still normal. Sometimes women also have increased prolactin.
After taking an analysis for thyrotropin, a specialist can judge about thyroid disorders, which can be as a result of:
- mental problems;
- organ dysfunctions;
- Hashimoto’s disease;
- body resistance to thyroid hormones;
- violations in the adrenal glands;
The result may increase after exercise, prolonged periods, as well as after taking medications containing iodine, if the analysis was not taken on an empty stomach. If pregnancy is high prolactin, sometimes there is an increase in TSH. Values may be above normal after various operations or removal of bile.
Deviations upward of thyrotropin, T3 indicators sometimes occur due to dysfunction of the adrenal glands or inflammation of the thyroid gland. In order to prevent the development of problems such as hypothyroidism, infertility, lack of periods, high sugar, it is possible and necessary to carry out treatment, including thyroxine and iodine.
Causes of low thyrotropin levels:
- mental problems;
- neoplasms in the thyroid gland;
- dysfunction in the pituitary gland;
- hormonal drugs.
According to statistics, thyroid-stimulating hormone usually decreases due to improper intake of hormones and with thyrotoxicosis, with a removed thyroid gland.
The value also decreases with prolonged depression, severe stress and monthly diets. Other reasons for the drop in indicators: thyroid cancer, pituitary cancer, high blood sugar.
This condition is diagnosed much less often. As a rule, the level of TSH drops below normal with thyrotoxicosis. This is a pathology characterized by an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in the body.
In this case, the patient is concerned about the following symptoms:
- excessive sweating;
- high blood pressure;
- sharp weight loss;
- sense of anxiety;
- a sensation of a foreign body in the eyes.
It also happens that the TSH index decreases with damage to the pituitary or hypothalamus. This is due to impaired hormone secretion. In this case, the thyroid gland in the patient is functioning normally.
Most often, a similar condition develops against the background of:
- neoplasms of the pituitary or hypothalamus;
- brain tumors;
- serious injuries of the skull;
- pituitary gland;
- surgical intervention in the field of regulatory organs.
In this case, the following symptoms appear:
- hair loss;
- dry skin;
- a sharp increase in body weight;
- low blood pressure;
- depressive conditions;
In order to identify the cause and make the most effective treatment regimen, the doctor analyzes the hormones T3 and T4. If their level is reduced, the reception of their artificial substitutes is shown. If their indicators are deviated from the norm to a greater extent, the doctor prescribes drugs whose active substances inhibit the thyroid gland.
Before analysis on TSH
It is advisable to come to the laboratory about an hour or at least half an hour before taking the blood. The patient should sit, relax, relax. It may be necessary to simultaneously take tests for the hormones T4, T3 together with TSH to get a complete picture of the disease by the doctor, the rules for preparing for these studies are almost the same.
Women can donate blood for TSH, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle, unless otherwise indicated by the attending physician. You can find out how soon hormone analysis is done in a particular laboratory.
How to decipher the results of several tests for the hormone TSH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone is known as the main regulator of the thyroid gland, if a patient is suspected of a related disease, an analysis is prescribed for it. Interpretation of the results of the analysis should be done by a specialist, however, knowledge of the basic values of the norm will allow the patient to independently get an idea about his problem.
- The norm of thyro >
The biological material for assessing the level of TSH is a venous blood sample, to perform the study using the immunochemical method, the waiting period for the final data is 1 day
The results of the study allow the attending physician to choose a rational tactics of therapeutic measures and the optimal course of hormonal therapy. Properly and reasonably performed by the patient preparation for analysis allows you to get a reliable result and to avoid repeated tests. Read more about how to prepare for the analysis of TSH, you can read in this article.
Only a qualified endocrinologist can interpret the results of the study! It is he who will conduct a competent assessment of the final test data, which may indicate normal activity of the endocrine system or indicate serious violations of their function.
The patient should not understand on his own, which shows the result of the test – most often these attempts lead to incorrect conclusions and unnecessary anxiety. If a blood test for hormones was performed in accordance with all the rules and its results contain a change in normal parameters, this is evidence of the presence of pathological processes in the patient’s body.
An increase in the concentration of TSH in the blood is observed:
with autoimmune thyro >
A decrease in the level of TSH is characteristic of:
- states of increased emotional stress;
- food restriction;
- toxic nodular goiter;
- severe depletion of the body;
- postpartum pituitary necrosis – the death of its cells as a result of complicated delivery;
- uncontrolled use of hormonal, anticonvulsant and antihypertensive drugs;
- tumor formation in the thyroid gland;
- physiological hyperthyroidism during pregnancy;
- pituitary hypofunction.
In conclusion of the above information, I would like to once again draw the attention of readers to the fact that for any deterioration in well-being, you should seek qualified medical help – this will prevent many serious consequences! The initial stages of hormonal disorders can be easily corrected thanks to the methods of traditional medicine, simple drug therapy and good nutrition. Launched forms of hormonal imbalance are much more difficult to treat!
The pituitary gland located in the brain is responsible for the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The hormone TSH is involved in many processes in the body, and therefore, when a person deviates from the norm in one direction or another, the person’s health significantly worsens.
If the first alarming signs occur, you need to contact a therapist or endocrinologist. The doctor will draw up a referral for a laboratory test, according to the results of which he will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis and determine the treatment tactics. It is important to understand that in order to get the most reliable results, you need to be responsible for the preparation for the analysis. It is best to take biomaterial in the morning.
Deciphering the analysis for thyroid hormones
Only the endocrinologist can correctly interpret the results of laboratory tests on thyroid hormones. At the same time, it takes into account all indicators, the degree of their deviation from the norm, as well as the clinical signs of a disease existing in a particular patient.
Changes in the level of T3, T4 and TSH and its relationship with impaired thyroid function
However, only a specialist can establish which disease underlies the development of a hypothyroid or hyperthyroid state.
The concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the female body may change due to pregnancy, which must be taken into account when interpreting the results of a blood test for TSH.
- Normal TSH values before 12 weeks of gestation are 0.35 – 2.5 μIU / ml.
- The level of this substance in the blood of a pregnant woman at 12-24 weeks of pregnancy is in the range of 0.35 – 3 μMU / ml.
- At 24-42 weeks of pregnancy, indicators are similar – 0.35 – 3 μMU / ml. During this period, some excess of normal results is also possible.
Where to make tests for TSH hormones
You can take tests for TSH without waiting in a private St. Petersburg clinic Diana. Our endocrinologists will decrypt the analysis and prescribe competent treatment.
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