Phlebothrombosis is a dangerous vascular disease. It is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the venous lumen of the deep veins. The clot, which is fixed on the vascular wall of the vein, blocks the bloodstream partially (“floating thrombus”) or completely. This entails adverse consequences for the patient, such as a heart attack or stroke (Insultus).
The venous changes that phlebothrombosis causes are localized in the anus (perianal zone), in the vessels of the pelvis and limbs. The reasons are conditionally divided into three groups, which reflect the presence of certain etiological factors:
- Violation of the integrity of the veins.
- Post-traumatic phlebothrombosis occurs due to exposure to a microbial factor, chemical and mechanical damage to venous vessels (trauma, catheterization, frequent injections, etc.);
Violation of the speed of blood movement, stagnation – can become the causes of phlebothrombosis
- Violation of the rheological properties of blood and its viscosity.
- These changes occur due to a hereditary predisposition, during hormone therapy, the use of steroids, etc .;
- Decreased blood speed and stagnation.
The nature of blood flow is very important for vascular health. Thus, a low or vice versa high speed of blood movement initiates the formation of blood clots.
The above etiological factors are paramount. At the same time, secondary factors can be distinguished. Their presence in the patient means an increased likelihood of a disease. Phlebothrombosis often develops during pregnancy and childbirth (especially after cesarean section), inactive lifestyle, after operations (even dental), overweight, excessive exercise, in old age, cancer patients, patients with severe diseases of the cardiovascular system and diabetes mellitus (Diabetes mellītus) of all types.
Phlebothrombosis of the lower extremities: symptoms
The initial stage of the pathology in 85% of cases does not have any clinical manifestations, or they are minimal. When the disease worsens, the symptoms increase, and the patient notes the following signs of the disease:
- bursting pain on the outside of the leg, with flexion of the foot and in the calf muscles;
- drawing pains on the inside of the thigh;
- feeling of cold in the lower extremities;
- swelling localized in the lower leg and knee joint;
- glossiness and blanching of the skin (over the vein covered by pathology), and then it acquires a bluish tint;
- periodic or constant feeling of heaviness in the lower extremities;
- intestinal obstruction;
- instability and increase in body temperature;
- general weakness.
Diagnosis of phlebothrombosis of the veins of the lower extremities
In order to diagnose phlebothrombosis of the lower extremities, the doctor will examine and collect a medical history. By palpating the limb and specifying the patient’s symptoms, the specialist, using the clinical recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, will select the optimal set of diagnostic procedures for him. A set of laboratory and instrumental examination methods may include ultrasound, ultrasound, radiography, a blood test to assess the condition of the coagulation system, etc. Only with full information about the patient’s health status, the doctor can prescribe adequate treatment.
If ultrasound diagnostic methods turn out to be uninformative, it may be necessary to introduce a contrast medium into the vein cavity for subsequent radiopaque examination.
Phlebothrombosis has an extensive classification. In accordance with it, pathology is distinguished by the nature of localization, the characteristics of the course and degree of development.
At the localization site, thrombosis is distinguished:
- it affects the vessels associated with the inferior vena cava: muscle veins of the lower leg, trunk of the vein, as well as the iliac-femoral (ileofemoral) and cavileofemoral segments phlebothrombosis;
- it affects the vessels associated with the superior vena cava: phlebothrombosis of the veins of the upper limb, nameless veins, the mouth of an unpaired vein, trunk of the vein, subclavian and axillary veins.
Summarizing, we can distinguish ileofemoral and femoral (femoral) phlebothrombosis, popliteal veins and deep veins of the lower leg. The treatment of each of them will depend on:
- on the degree of development: from acute (up to 14 days) or subacute (on average, from 14 to 60 days) phlebothrombosis;
- on the degree of fixation of thrombotic masses: floating (mobile), neocclusal (parietal) and occlusal / occlusal (thrombus extended along the entire vessel) phlebothrombosis.
We will separately consider some of the most common types of phlebothrombosis.
Ileofemoral phlebothrombosis affects vessels in men and women of different ages, even in children. With this form of the disease of the deep veins of the lower extremities, the femoral and iliac sections of the venous blood flow are blocked. Due to the scale of the defeat, it is considered the last. Acute ileofemoral phlebothrombosis (left and right) has 2 forms – the prodromal stage and the stage of pronounced clinical manifestations.
Each of them is characterized by its own characteristics. At the last stage, the symptoms are most pronounced: edema of the limb with ileofemoral phlebothrombosis spreads to the inguinal region, there is intense pain, innervation is disturbed, etc. This form is recognized as the most severe because of the high risk of developing an adverse effect – pulmonary embolism.
As a rule, a blood clot forms and spreads from bottom to top along the deep venous bed. Thus, phlebothrombosis progresses from the sural veins to the ileocaval segment (inferior vena cava, external and common iliac veins), where thrombus is localized in 75% of cases. In the remaining 25% of cases – in the femoral-popliteal segment.
To diagnose phlebothrombosis of this form, X-ray contrast methods are more often used than ultrasound diagnostics (especially in pregnant women and people with overweight).
Acute phlebothrombosis of the right and left lower limbs is a critical extremely dangerous condition of deep veins. Preserved venous blood flow in the affected vein, when thrombotic masses are not yet fixed to the vein wall, creates favorable conditions for pulmonary embolism, which in this case can act as the only and main clinical sign of acute phlebothrombosis. In this regard, all patients are subject to urgent hospitalization.
Regardless of the final localization of thrombotic masses, the site of development of the thrombotic process is the draining muscles of the leg. This type of phlebotrombosis of the deep veins of the lower extremities can be aseptic or stagnant, or septic or infectious. It can also occur in mild, moderate and severe forms.
Treatment of phlebothrombosis of the veins of the lower extremities
Phlebothrombosis of the deep veins of the lower extremities: treatment with folk remedies
All of us know the simple truth that treatment for any disease should be started as early as possible. For patients who are diagnosed with phlebothrombosis of the deep veins of the lower extremities, doctors will provide possible assistance at any stage of the pathology from the formation stage to the stage of recanalization.
How to treat phlebothrombosis? Therapy for this disease is always complex. As mentioned earlier, it depends on the etiology and degree of development of the pathology. The treatment regimen involves conservative therapy and, if necessary, surgical intervention.
Conservative methods are:
- Taking medication. To improve the rheological properties of blood and increase the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels, various groups of medicines are used: phlebotonics, antiplatelet agents, anti-inflammatory drugs and anticoagulants.
- Conducting local therapy. The use of ointments and gels that have anti-inflammatory, venoprotective, decongestant and other effects.
- Wearing medical compression hosiery or performing tight bandaging of the limbs.
- Nutrition. The diet for phlebothrombosis of the lower extremities excludes alcohol, acute and fatty. You should drink at least 2 liters of fluid and eat foods rich in antioxidants.
If it was not possible to achieve a positive result using conservative therapy methods, and also if the patient has purulent or embologic phlebothrombosis, then surgical methods will be applied: vascular resection, partial occlusion, endovascular intervention.
In the event of an acute development of the disease at home, the ambulance team must be called as early as possible.
Prior to the arrival of physicians, it is important to try to fix the limb in a stationary state. This will reduce the risk of a blood clot.
It is impossible to cure phlebothrombosis of the arm, leg and other part of the body using traditional medicine methods. Alternative methods should be considered solely as an addition to the mandatory treatment regimen prescribed by a doctor and only after its approval.
Popular components of folk recipes for improving blood flow, relieving inflammation, pain and swelling are: sage, oak bark, mint, honey, sweet clover. Based on them, infusions and grindings are made, which are used for foot baths, compresses and lotions.
Follow all the recommendations of specialists and rehabilitation, after a disease, will be faster. Fight phlebothrombosis before it occurs – lead a healthy and active lifestyle, adhere to proper eating behavior. Be proactive if you are at risk. Use vascular disease prophylaxis.
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