How to measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer step by step algorithm

It is recommended to determine the pressure twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, or when an atypical situation occurs (intense headache, dizziness, flickering of luminous points in front of the eyes, ringing in the ears, instability when walking, etc.).

According to modern concepts, the optimal blood pressure is considered to be less than 120 (systolic) and 80 (diastolic) mmHg. Art. If the pressure numbers are often or constantly fixed at 90 and 60 mmHg. Art. and below – this phenomenon is called hypotension and requires the consultation of a cardiologist.

Pressure in the range of 120–129 and 80–84 mm Hg. Art. regarded as normal, but in the range of 130–139 / 85–89 mm Hg. Art. – like normal high or prehypertension.

If normal high pressure is regularly recorded during measurements, this is an occasion to consult a specialist. In this case, the risk of developing hypertension is high. The therapist or cardiologist will tell you how to protect yourself from the development of the disease.

Pressure over 140 and 90 mm Hg. Art. is a manifestation of arterial hypertension – a serious cardiovascular disease. If such figures are systematically recorded in the morning after a night’s sleep or at rest against the background of psycho-emotional well-being, you should contact a cardiologist. Also, an expert consultation is an abrupt increase in blood pressure during stress, neuropsychic overstrain, and physical exertion.

  • Types of blood pressure monitors
  • Measurement Rules
  • Conclusion

Diseases of the cardiovascular system are extremely common among middle-aged and elderly people. Often, patients suffer from manifestations of hypertension (high blood pressure), hypotension (low blood pressure), one or another type of arrhythmia.

Persons who have been diagnosed with a pathological change in blood pressure should obtain a blood pressure monitor and regularly monitor the value of blood pressure.

In addition, tonometry allows you to control the effectiveness of the treatment proposed by the doctor (the therapist may advise recording daily tonometer readings).

The most common pressure gauge is mechanical. So, how to measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer?

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Types of blood pressure monitors

Tonometer – a device for measuring blood pressure. There are mechanical, semi-automatic and automatic tonometers. Semi-automatic and automatic devices are easier to use, however, it is believed that the data obtained with their help have a large error in comparison with the data obtained using a mechanical analog.

Measuring pressure with a mechanical blood pressure monitor requires a certain skill and a number of rules. Such a device is still in demand, as it is resistant to wear and functions without the use of batteries.

  1. A manometer is a device showing the level of air pressure in a pneumatic chamber.
  2. Cuff – An adjustable fabric sleeve that fits over your wrist, shoulder, or thigh. A hollow chamber is sewn inside the sleeve, which is pumped with air. The length of the pneumatic chamber should be at least 80% of the girth of the limb on which measurements are made.
  3. Two or one hoses with which the pressure gauge connects to the cuff. The design of a mechanical device implies the presence of 1 or 2 hoses; the carpal automatic device does not have hoses at all.
  4. Rubber bulb, supplemented by an adjustable valve and used to pump air into the pneumatic chamber.

In order to measure blood pressure, you need a tonometer itself, as well as a phonendoscope (stethoscope). A phonendoscope is required to listen to heart sounds according to the Korotkov method.

How to measure pressure? Do not neglect the preparation for visiting a physician: for one to two hours before measuring the pressure with a mechanical tonometer, you should refrain from smoking, drinking tonic drinks (tea, coffee) and alcohol-containing products, emotional or physical stress, using drugs that affect the sympathetic nervous system (such medications include, among others, drops for the eyes and nose).

A comfortable temperature should be maintained in the room or doctor’s office. Compression clothing should be removed. You can not roll up the sleeve, forming a roller (tissue can press on the brachial artery).

  1. Sit on a chair, place your hand on the table so that the forearm, elbow joint and lower part of the shoulder are at the level of the heart muscle. The muscles of the arms are relaxed. The limb is motionless, slightly bent at the elbow joint. Typically, the measurement is carried out on a non-working hand (right-handed on the left). The lower limbs are located freely, not crossed. The back is pressed to the back of the chair.
  2. Put on the cuff: its lower edge should be 20-25 mm above the level of the ulnar fossa. Fix the cuff with Velcro so that it fits tightly on the shoulder, but does not press down (you can place your finger under the buttoned cuff). It should be noted that the mechanical device is equipped with cuffs of different sizes, varying in length and w >

Repeat the procedure with the opposite side according to the described procedure. If it is necessary to repeat the procedure on the hand on which the measurement was made, an interval of about 5 minutes is maintained. If the numbers obtained differ by 5 mm Hg. Art., the average value is calculated.

To obtain adequate information, you need to know how to properly measure blood pressure, and adhere to these rules.

Possible measurement errors may occur for the following reasons:

  • the use of an apparatus whose cuff is not suitable for the patient;
  • the cuff is fastened too tight;
  • ignoring the need to adapt the patient to the situation of the doctor’s office;
  • excessively high speed of pressure reduction inside the pneumatic chamber;
  • the limb is located incorrectly in relation to the heart muscle;
  • measurements are made only on one limb;
  • the presence of age-related changes in arteries (typical for people from 65 years old) or pathological conditions that affect the state of blood vessels (diabetes mellitus).

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Types of blood pressure monitors

How to measure pressure with a hand tonometer to yourself: video

A tonometer is a daily necessity in every home. It doesn’t matter if you suffer from hypotension or hypertension, or if your blood pressure drops do not bother you. Blood pressure is one of the first reactions of our body to changes in the functioning of its organs and systems or to external stimuli. Let’s consider in more detail how to measure pressure correctly.

Pressure Measurement Rules

In pharmacies and stores with medical equipment, you can find a variety of measuring devices.

Consider the main types of tonometers depending on their automation and configuration:

  1. Mechanical (manual). The cuff (sleeve) in devices of this type is superimposed on the shoulder, pumped with a rubber bulb. Tones are heard by a phonendoscope. The result is determined by the gauge needle.
  2. Auto. The cuff may have a different fixation position. For example, there are models where it should be fixed on the wrist or even the finger. But in most cases, the cuff is placed on the shoulder. Air is pumped by a pneumatic compressor. Data is displayed on the screen. In addition to pressure indicators, the device also calculates the heart rate. This type of tonometers is most convenient to use.
  3. Semi-automatic. It differs from automatic models in that the air in the cuff is pumped with a pear. Data is also displayed on the screen.

Device selection

Mechanical tonometer selection

All types of pressure measuring devices have their pros and cons:

  1. Mechanical devices are used mainly by specialists – we see them in polyclinics and hospitals. Despite the fact that many doctors trust them, such tonometers can still distort readings when some parts wear out. Mechanical devices are easily repairable and inexpensive compared to automatic and semi-automatic. The difficulty can be that the accuracy of the result directly depends on the skills of working with the device. Before doing the manipulation, make sure that you know how to correctly measure the pressure with a mechanical tonometer.
  2. Semi-automatic blood pressure monitors virtually eliminate the human factor, and therefore are considered more accurate. But such devices require skills of use. One of the advantages is the electronic display, which facilitates the work with the tonometer for people with visual impairments. It is convenient to use such a device even without outside assistance.
  3. Automatic blood pressure monitors have a high cost. They also exclude errors that can be made by a person who does not know how to use the device, and are convenient for independent use. Despite this, many do not trust automation, believing that a compressor malfunction or a dead battery can distort the result.

Complete set of mechanical blood pressure monitor

We can conclude that any tonometer is able to work well. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the device itself and change the batteries in time or make repairs. Of course, practical experience with the device is also important.

To get the most accurate result, you need to know how to correctly measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer. Blood pressure using a mechanical device is always measured on the brachial artery.

Blood pressure measurement has the following algorithm of actions:

  1. Prepare the patient. To do this, the hand is freed from clothes and positioned so that the palm is at heart level.
  2. The cuff is fixed at a distance of 2-4 cm from the elbow. She should sit tight, but should not be too tight.
  3. A pulse is felt on the ulnar artery. Then apply a phonendoscope, fixing it under the cuff.
  4. Pear pump air into the cuff. A phonendoscope helps to monitor the pulse. It is necessary to pump up air to indicators on a scale of 40-50 units higher than the expected systolic pressure.

Procedure for measuring blood pressure

  • The sleeve is deflated. To do this, turn the shutter release valve on the pear. The cuff must be deflated gradually and slowly.
  • While bleeding, monitor the pressure gauge and listen to the occurrence of ripple. The first tone is “upper”, systolic pressure. The mark at which the pulsation ceases is “lower” or diastolic pressure.
  • All tonometer models have one function – blood pressure measurement. Each model copes with it perfectly, while having its own advantages and disadvantages.

    When choosing a device that is right for you, consider some points:

    • the presence of cardiovascular pathologies (in this case, an automatic device is suitable, because it gives more information);
    • the patient’s ability to measure blood pressure independently;
    • patient age (with age, the vessels lose their elasticity, this requires greater accuracy of the device);
    • estimated frequency of use;
    • the cost.

    When measuring pressure, it is important to follow the instructions

    Measurement Blood pressure in young children should be carried out using a cuff of the appropriate size – its length should be ¾ the distance from the armpit to the elbow. The sleeve should be fixed on the forearm. A phonendoscope is applied to the inside of the elbow. Further actions completely repeat the algorithm for measuring blood pressure in an adult.

    Using a regular cuff in this case will lead to a distortion of the results. Most devices will easily allow you to disconnect the sleeve and temporarily connect another, smaller size.

    But still, it is recommended that children, and especially toddlers of the first years of life, measure pressure in children’s outpatient clinics.

    Previously, you can determine blood pressure using an “adult” tonometer at home and report the result to the doctor, specifying that no suitable device was found.

    Pressure indicators vary depending on age, health status and other factors affecting the human body.

    Human pressure: age indicators

    In an adult healthy person, the following indicators are considered normal:

    • up to 40 years – 125-130 / 80 in men, 120-125 / 80 in women;
    • up to 50 years – 130-135 / 85 in men, 130-135 / 85 in women;
    • up to 60 years old – 139/85 for men, 139/85 for women;
    • 70 years and older – 140/89 for men, 140/89 for women.

    For children, the systolic pressure norm can be calculated in this way:

    • children under one year – 76 2 x N (where N is the child’s age in months);
    • children over one year old – 90 2 x N (N in this case, the number of full years).

    Diastolic pressure is calculated as follows:

    • children up to a year – 2 / 3-1 / 2 from the upper limit of the systolic pressure norm;
    • children over one year old – 60 N.

    In turn, the upper limit of the norm is defined as follows:

    • systolic – 105 N;
    • diastolic – 75 N.

    Mechanical blood pressure monitor for blood pressure measurement

    • systolic – 75 2 x N;
    • diastolic – 45 N.

    Although there are accepted norms of blood pressure, it is recommended that we proceed from our individual normal indicators, the so-called “working” pressure. To know your pressure, you need to measure it at rest.

    Regular pressure measurement with a tonometer is necessary not only for patients with hyper- and hypotension, but also for older people. The body of adolescents during puberty undergoes hormonal changes, which in most cases affects blood pressure.

    Measurement of pressure is necessary in case of deterioration of well-being, in particular, the occurrence of such symptoms:

    • dizziness;
    • Strong headache;
    • darkening of the eyes;
    • flashing flies before the eyes;
    • nausea;
    • noise in ears;
    • pain in the heart.

    If there is no tonometer, but you feel problems with pressure, you can make an approximate assessment of it by subjective signs:

    • a pale complexion may indicate low pressure, and its redness – high;
    • weakness and drowsiness indicate low blood pressure, and excitement and anxiety about high;
    • epistaxis is also most often a sign of high blood pressure.

    There are methods that supposedly allow you to measure pressure using improvised means, but their accuracy is questioned. If you feel unwell, you should find a blood pressure monitor as soon as possible. You can borrow it from your neighbors or measure your blood pressure in the clinic, some pharmacies also offer the opportunity to use the device.

    Hypertension is the scourge of a civilized society – every third person suffers from it after 40 years. Therefore, in order to independently regulate blood pressure, learning how to measure it for yourself and your loved ones will be useful to everyone.

    Now medical equipment stores have a wide arsenal of pressure measuring devices. For this purpose, you can use both electronic or semi-automatic, as well as a mechanical tonometer. The first two, of course, allow you to carry out the procedure faster, however, in medical institutions, doctors prefer to measure people’s pressure in a second way tested and time-tested.

    Therefore, both the general practitioner and the ambulance paramedic with a high probability are likely to use a mechanical device.

    The advantages of such an apparatus:

    • has a simple design;
    • allows you to measure pressure with maximum accuracy;
    • rarely fails;
    • does not require battery replacement;
    • suitable for hands of any completeness, including for children;
    • lasts longer electronic;
    • affordable.

    A manual tonometer for measuring pressure is an air-filled Velcro cuff connected by hoses to a rubber supercharger – a bulb and a meter (manometer). The cuff wraps around the patient’s shoulder and fastens. The bulb is equipped with a screw valve. Through several of its compressions, air is injected into the cuff.

    The most frequent breakdown of a mechanical tonometer is a violation of the integrity of the pear: the latter bursts, or an invisible crack appears on it over time, which requires replacement of this part of the device.

    In addition to some devices, a phonendoscope is attached to listen to tremors of blood in the arteries. These tonometers are certainly more convenient.

    Manual mechanical tonometers are produced by various manufacturing companies. The variety of models allows a person to choose a device in accordance with their wishes and material capabilities. The following table provides examples of the most popular mechanical devices.

    Model Microlife BP AG1-10B.Well WM-62S Little Doctor LD-70NRRiester Sanaphon
    ManufacturerMicrolife, SwitzerlandB.Well, UKLittle Doctor, SingaporeRudolf Riester, Germany
    The presence of a phonendoscope in the kitNoThere isNoThere is
    Measurement error, mmHg Art.± 2± 3± 3± 3
    Cuff sizes, cmX 14,5 5325-40X 14 53X 54,5 14,5
    Weight, g360385237390

    How to properly measure blood pressure with a mechanical blood pressure monitor

    Many people with pressure problems are interested in the question – how to correctly measure blood pressure with a tonometer? We will consider in detail how this can be done at home so that you do not have to go to the doctor every time. Timely identification of deviations in the tonometer indices will allow you to protect yourself from the complications of hypertension, especially from serious ones like heart attack and stroke.

    Basic conditions

    The tonometer is a special device designed to measure blood pressure. The device includes a cuff, a device for supplying air to it and a manometer. The mechanical tonometer is equipped with a stethoscope, due to which air pulsation is noted, the automatic tonometer has a special electronic device for these purposes.

    Of course, the easiest way to measure pressure is with modern automatic or semi-automatic instruments. However, a mechanical device is still very popular, despite the fact that using it is a little more difficult.

    To obtain the most accurate result, you must adhere to some simple conditions:

    • nothing should bother you in the process of measuring pressure;
    • for more accurate results, it is necessary to give up cigarettes, coffee and alcohol one hour before measuring the pressure;
    • go to the toilet in advance, because when the bladder is full, the readings will be incorrect;
    • measurement should take place at room temperature, in the most comfortable conditions;
    • the measurement should be carried out in a sitting position, it is desirable that the back rests against the back of a chair or other place, contributing to a comfortable sitting position;
    • the hand should be placed on the table in a relaxed state, or in another place, at chest level;
    • during the pressure measurement procedure, it is not allowed to talk, move, even tapping with a foot or free hand can distort the tonometer reading;
    • it is advisable to take two pressure measurements at once, after a five-minute pause between the procedures, to ensure the accuracy of the result.

    If you measure the pressure for the first time, then doctors advise you to measure the pressure on both hands at once, in the future, measure the pressure on the hand, the indicators on which were higher. If the difference was no more than 10 units, then in the future it is recommended to take measurements on the left hand.

    Doctors also recommend keeping a measurement diary in which to indicate the measurement results with the date and time, so that in the future they can analyze the data. This will help the doctor make a more accurate diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment.

    A mechanical device is not as convenient and easy to use as an automatic one, but it is more accurate when observing the technology. Consider how to properly measure blood pressure with a mechanical tonometer.

    So, after preparing for the procedure, you can begin to measure pressure:

    • put the cuff on the arm, at the level of the heart, slightly above the elbow joint;
    • a stethoscope must be applied to a pulsating place in the center of the elbow, or under the cuff;
    • relax your hand;
    • put on a stethoscope;
    • with a pear, pump air into the cuff. If you assume that the pressure is very high, inflate the air to readings of 220 mmHg and above;
    • start to bleed very slowly in the cuff, using a special valve and listen carefully to the blows;
    • at the first stroke, it is necessary to remember the readings of the tonometer, this number indicates systolic pressure;
    • the value at the last stroke, after which you no longer hear any ripple, will mean diastolic pressure.

    Take a measurement two, or even three times. The most accurate result will be the average value.

    Currently, about thirty models of automatic devices are presented in pharmacies. The measurement process is very simple, a technician will do everything for a person. At the same time, some nuances still exist.

    Electronic devices are automatic and semi-automatic. Their difference is that in automatic models, air is pumped into the cuff in automatic mode, when the button is pressed.

    Electronic devices are also good because they can store in memory the results of at least the last ten measurements, and also determine the pulse and can determine arrhythmia.

    There are also devices that measure pressure on the wrist.

    Consider how to properly measure blood pressure with an electronic blood pressure monitor:

    • before the procedure, rest for at least five minutes and relax;
    • Do not be distracted by either watching TV, or talking, or listening to the radio;
    • comply with the operating requirements of the device described in the instructions that came with the device;
    • Do not place the device near sources of electromagnetic research;
    • fasten the cuff on the arm and lay it at the level of the heart;
    • if the device is semi-automatic, inflate the air in the cuff with a pear-shaped pump;
    • bleed air slowly and record the results displayed on the display;
    • if the device is automatic, just press the button to start measuring pressure;
    • the device will independently pump air, it will lower it and give indications;
    • follow the procedure 2-3 times to get more accurate results.

    Many are interested in the need to make several measurements. The fact is that during the first measurement, because of the squeezing of the arm, the cuff rises in vascular tone, and the indicators are higher than in reality.

    Now let’s see how to correctly measure blood pressure with an automatic carpal tonometer.

    It should be noted that carpal-type devices are not recommended for use by people whose vessels are in very poor condition, which is observed with sclerosis of vessels of the 3rd degree and diabetes. The recommendations for measurement are as follows:

    • the hand should be relaxed, the watch must be removed;
    • check that the position of the tonometer body relative to the wrist is correct and corresponds to the description in the instructions;
    • put on the cuff on the left wrist;
    • position the arm so that the apparatus is at the level of the heart;
    • press the button to start measuring pressure;
    • the tonometer itself will measure and display the result.

    Which is better?

    Using an automatic or semi-automatic device is very convenient. For home use, you can purchase a semi-automatic blood pressure monitor with a cuff worn on the shoulder, because the wrist devices have a rather large error, and fully automatic models have a high cost.

    Also, one should not forget that with age, the pulse of a person becomes weaker, therefore, in older people, electronic devices give a large error.

    At the same time, mechanical devices remain the most accurate and reliable. In addition, they are cheaper, it is rather difficult to break it, and the battery will not run out at the wrong time.

    Tonometer reviews

    Recently, my daughter gave me a semi-automatic blood pressure monitor. I was immediately very confused, because I had no idea how to correctly measure blood pressure with an electronic blood pressure monitor. After my daughter helped me figure it out, it turned out to be very simple.

    My hearing decreased slightly, so when measuring with a hand-held device, I had to measure several times to hear weak beats. Now it is very simple – the numbers are immediately displayed on the screen, and I know what dosage of the medicine I need to take.

    Valentina Sergeevna, 69 years old

    I bought myself an automatic device, because I could not understand how to correctly measure blood pressure with a mechanical tonometer, which my wife and I had. I like that the device performs all operations on its own, I do not need to do anything. But I still learned how to use a hand-held device, and now sometimes I measure pressure with the help of it to control it.

    Victor Sergeevich, 60 years old

    Not everyone knows how to correctly measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer. And if with an electronic analogue, as a rule, even a child does not have difficulties, then in the case of mechanical equipment it is worth having certain skills.

    Nevertheless, a mechanical tonometer (sphygmomanometer) is a very simple device and you can deal with it almost immediately. Moreover, it is believed that such a device for measuring blood pressure shows more accurate numbers and does not require maintenance.

    Electronic blood pressure monitors are simple, but more expensive, and often break – this is a fact. In addition, they periodically need to replace batteries.

    In any case, measuring blood pressure is necessary for people suffering from cardiac arrhythmias, hyper- and hypotension. Any cardiovascular pathology requires constant attention, including at home. A certain control over blood pressure allows you to provide a tonometer.

    A mechanical pressure tonometer detects vibrations of the membrane, which are transmitted to the dial with an arrow. When pumping a pear, air enters the cuffs and blocks the flow of blood into the arteries.

    In this case, the measurement of pressure by a mechanical tonometer is accompanied by listening to the so-called Korotkov tones through a stethoscope. They are detected after the start of air descent from the cuff and completely disappear as the artery opens. Indicators are read from the values ​​of the arrows on the dial.

    Interestingly, the arrow itself does not show the value of blood pressure, but only the air pressure in the cuff. When pumping a pear, the arrow creeps to large values, while lowering the air, it tends to zero.

    It is precisely with a stethoscope that accurately and correctly measures the pressure, which catches these very Korotkov tones – dull noises that appear as a result of a turbulent blood flow due to squeezing by the cuff.

    These noises begin to be heard when the air pressure in the cuff coincides with that inside the artery. The readings of the device at the time of the appearance of the first tones indicate the level of systolic pressure (upper digit), and at the time of the disappearance of noise mean the value of diastolic (lower digit).

    It is important that measuring pressure in this way is extremely difficult for oneself. Even if this succeeds, it is unlikely that the figures obtained will be reliable.

    How to measure blood pressure with a tonometer?

    Statistics show that every third person in the world has problems with pressure. Cardiovascular disorders often cause death.

    Therefore, you need to monitor your health. For control, you should buy a home blood pressure monitor, learn how to use it.

    How to correctly measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer, what mistakes can be made, the article will tell.

    A mechanical blood pressure monitor is the most commonly used apparatus for measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) values.

    It consists of a manometer, a rubber bulb, a cuff and tubes that connect all the elements. Pear inflates and blows air. The cuff compresses the arteries. There is also a phonendoscope that allows you to hear the pulse.

    Mechanical blood pressure monitor

    The peculiarity of the device is that blood pressure is measured manually by pumping a pear, listening to pulsation in the ulnar artery and tracking the dial arrow. This is the most accurate type of tonometer. But to get the right data, you need to know how to use it correctly. It is difficult to measure yourself with a mechanical device.

    There are different subspecies of such devices. There are models with a stethoscope head sewn into the cuff, with a combined bulb and pressure gauge. Thanks to this modification, it is much simpler and faster to measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure for oneself.

    But some people cannot use the appliance.

    For example, if a person has poor eyesight, there are problems with hearing and fine motor skills. Then it is better to purchase an electronic device.

    Measuring Blood pressure with a mechanical device is not difficult, even a child can handle it. But there are certain nuances that can distort the results. Therefore, it is necessary to properly prepare, observe a number of conditions.

    • one hour before the procedure, refuse to drink alcohol;
    • go to the toilet if there is a urge;
    • create a calm and quiet atmosphere in the room;
    • do not smoke 30 minutes before the procedure;
    • do not drink tea, coffee or eat chocolate an hour before using the tonometer;
    • do not take medications that affect the functioning of the heart muscle a couple of hours before measurement;
    • if there was physical activity, you should rest for a couple of hours and only then measure the pressure.

    If you follow these rules, the tonometer will show true values.

    The temperature in the room can greatly affect the measurement result of the tonometer.

    If a person is cold, the vessels begin to narrow. As a result, the device will show higher numbers.

    In a hot climate, vessels, on the contrary, expand. Which leads to a decrease in blood pressure.

    The optimum temperature in the room should be in the range of 22 to 24 degrees.

    Before starting the procedure, a person should take the correct body position. You can’t cross your legs. It is forbidden to talk. Pressure is allowed to measure, sitting and standing. You can lie down during the procedure. The main thing is that the pose does not cause discomfort.

    Experts recommend this position:

    • sit in a chair or chair. Lean on the back;
    • put your feet on the floor;
    • put your hand on a hill. The elbow should be at the level of the heart.

    In this position, it is recommended to sit for about 10 minutes. This is enough for the body to enter the stage of calm, all muscles relax. No need to talk, listen or watch TV, move.

    The slightest tension leads to reflex spasm of blood vessels and a slight increase in systolic, diastolic blood pressure. Therefore, such a position is considered correct when all the muscles of the body are relaxed.

    Before measuring pressure in a standing or lying position, the above requirements must also be fulfilled.

    Most often, a semi-automatic or mechanical device is used for measurement. The latter is more difficult to use.

    To correctly measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure, you must follow this instruction:

    • sit on a chair, take the right position;
    • put the cuff on the left hand. Between the forearm and the cuff should be maintained such a distance in which the finger would freely pass. The cuff should be positioned 2,5 cm above the ulnar fossa;
    • put the dial in front of your eyes. The numbers and arrow should be clearly visible;
    • insert a phonendoscope into the ears;
    • place the head of the stethoscope on the elbow bend;
    • tighten the valve on the pear;
    • pump rhythmically the air with a hand bulb to the level of 200 mm Hg;
    • open the valve, releasing air slowly;
    • closely watch the arrow on the dial and listen until a tone appears. This is systolic pressure. The figure at which the stroke stops will indicate a diastolic value;
    • the same thing should be repeated with the right hand. But you need to maintain an interval of 5 minutes.

    You can quickly measure blood pressure with a semi-automatic device. To do this, use the following algorithm:

    • prepare for the procedure;
    • put on the cuff correctly;
    • turn on the device by pressing the start button;
    • pump air into the cuff with your free hand;
    • wait for a while until the device takes a measurement;
    • look at the result on the scoreboard;
    • release air from the cuff;
    • repeat the same algorithm with the other hand;
    • turn off the tonometer.

    Experts recommend using high-quality meters to measure blood pressure. The most accurate data is provided by Swiss mechanical devices of the Microlife brand, Japanese Omron. From semiautomatic devices it is better to choose the Japanese tonometers AND UA-704 compact.

    The magnitude of the normal pressure depends on the physiological characteristics of the human body, its age, occupation, lifestyle. There are two types of blood pressure: diastolic and systolic. The first shows the level of blood pressure at the time of maximum relaxation of the heart muscle, the second – at the time of maximum contraction.

    Also, pressure is classified into:

    • optimal – the tonometer shows 120/80 mm Hg;
    • normal – 130/85 mm Hg;
    • increased – from 135 to 139 by 85 (89) mmHg;
    • high – exceeds the mark of 140/90 mm Hg.

    With movement, physical activity, blood pressure indicators increase by about 25 mm Hg. This is explained by the needs of the body and speaks of an adequate reaction of the cardiovascular system. Blood pressure changes with age.

    AgeNorm Blood pressure for the weaker sex, mmHgNorm Blood pressure for males, mmHg
    Children up to 10 years old95/6696/66
    Teens 10 to 19 years old103/70103/69
    Young people 20-29 years old116/72123/76
    30-39 years120/75126/79
    40-49 years127/80129/81
    50-59 years137/84135/83
    60-69 years144/85142/85
    70-79 years159/85145/82
    80-89 years157/83147/82
    From 90 years150/79145/78

    Elevated tonometer numbers indicate a serious pathology. There is a risk of circulatory disorders in the brain, the development of myocardial infarction.

    Chronic hypertension 4 times increases the risk of heart attack, 7 times – stroke, 3 times – peripheral vascular disease and 6 times the likelihood of chronic heart failure.

    Hypertensive crisis is especially dangerous, in which arterial pressure rises sharply to 200-220. If you do not take appropriate measures and do not call an ambulance, a heart attack, stroke, and fatal outcome are possible.

    If a person is prone to drops in blood pressure, he is advised to regularly measure the pressure with a tonometer and correlate the results with the standard value.

    Common mistakes

    Using a tonometer is simple. But with the independent determination of blood pressure, with ignorance of the rules for using the device, the result may turn out to be false.

    Most often, people make such mistakes:

    • roll up a sleeve. Put on a cuff over thick clothes;
    • ignore preparation for the procedure;
    • use an improperly sized cuff. Selecting the cuff is required depending on the circumference of the shoulder. In an adult, this figure is 23-32 centimeters. Too short, narrow cuff leads to overestimation of results, and too large – to understatement;
    • the cuff is incorrectly placed: above or below 2,5 centimeters from the bend of the elbow;
    • tighten the cuff too tight;
    • Measure blood pressure several times in a row without interruption. Between the procedures you need to withstand at least five minutes. During compression, the blood in the arteries stagnates, and the tonometer shows incorrect data. Figures may differ by 30 mm Hg from the true result;
    • too quickly release air from the pear when listening to the sound of a heartbeat;
    • take the wrong position. Throwing legs to legs, crossing the limbs contributes to the overstatement of systolic blood pressure by 3-8 mm Hg;
    • position the arm incorrectly in relation to the heart muscle;
    • do not calibrate the device;
    • measure pressure on only one hand. According to statistics, every fifth person has a difference in blood pressure on the right and left limbs of 10 mm Hg or more. Therefore, it is necessary to measure on two hands and make a choice in favor of a larger indicator;
    • physiological changes in the body are not taken into account. In people over the age of 65, in pathological conditions in which vessels are affected, changes in the arteries occur. This affects the reliability of the result.

    It is better to ask someone to measure the pressure, since it is difficult to make an independent measurement, and there is a risk of accidentally making a mistake.

    If you know and follow the rules for using a mechanical meter, these errors are easily avoided.

    Thus, a tonometer should be at every home. Indeed, no one is safe from drops in blood pressure. It is better to choose mechanical devices. They are more difficult to use, but give the most accurate result. Before you start using the device, you should read the instructions, familiarize yourself with the rules of use.

    Basic conditions

    For most people, measuring blood pressure (BP) is not such a necessary thing, but with heart disease, doctors advise you to check up regularly. This will make sure that there are no vascular diseases, detect latent hypertension. Learn how to use a blood pressure monitor to measure blood pressure.

    A relatively constant value is considered to be arterial movement, which shows how much blood presses on the arteries and their walls. For indicators, there are norms that determine the health of the body.

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    Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.