The term “arrhythmias” combines various disorders in the mechanism of occurrence, manifestations and prognosis of the origin and conduct of electrical impulses of the heart. They arise as a result of violations of the conduction system of the heart, which provides consistent and regular contractions of the myocardium – the sinus rhythm. Arrhythmias can cause severe disturbances in the activity of the heart or the functions of other organs, as well as being complications of various serious pathologies themselves. Manifested by a feeling of palpitations, interruptions, sinking hearts, weakness, dizziness, pain or pressure in the chest, shortness of breath, fainting. In the absence of timely treatment of arrhythmias, angina attacks, pulmonary edema, thromboembolism, acute heart failure, cardiac arrest are caused.
According to statistics, violations of conduction and heart rhythm in 10-15% of cases are the cause of death from heart disease. A specialized section of cardiology, arrhythmology, is engaged in the study and diagnosis of arrhythmias. Forms of arrhythmias: tachycardia (heart rate more than 90 beats per minute), bradycardia (heart rate less than 60 beats per minute), extrasystole (extraordinary cardiac contractions), atrial fibrillation (random contractions of individual muscle fibers), blockade of the conduction system and other
A rhythmic sequential contraction of the heart is ensured by special muscle fibers of the myocardium that form the conduction system of the heart. In this system, the first-order pacemaker is the sinus node: it is in it that excitation arises at a frequency of 60-80 times per minute. Through the myocardium of the right atrium, it spreads to the atrioventricular node, but it turns out to be less excitable and gives a delay, so the atria are first reduced and only then, as the excitation spreads through the His bundle and other parts of the conduction system, the ventricle. Thus, the conducting system provides a certain rhythm, frequency and sequence of contractions: first the atria and then the ventricles. Damage to the myocardial conduction system leads to the development of rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias), and its individual links (atrioventricular node, bundle or legs of His) lead to impaired conduction (blockade). In this case, the coordinated work of the atria and ventricles can be severely disrupted.
- Passive orthostatic test as a method for detecting arrhythmia
- Causes of heart rhythm disturbance
- Endogenous factors
- Exogenous factors
- Arrhythmia Treatment at Home – Healthy Lifestyle Site
- Arrhythmia Prevention
- Exogenous factors
- Stress test
- Heart rhythm complications
- Fibrillation treatment ventricles
- Daily Holter Monitoring
- Prognosis for Arrhythmias
- Is it possible to identify a disease without hardware diagnostics?
Passive orthostatic test as a method for detecting arrhythmia
Some patients are wondering how to determine arrhythmia at home. Unfortunately, this can be done if you have a medical education and you suffer from tachycardia. It manifests itself with a rapid heart rate. In case of other rhythm disturbances, finding out that this is exactly arrhythmia will not work at home.
- Daily Holter monitoring.
- Stress test
- Test with passive orthostasis or tilt test.
- EFI (Intracardiac Electrophysiological Study).
The most commonly used type of diagnosis is electrocardiography or ECG. That is what schoolchildren undergo at every medical examination. This type of examination is prescribed to absolutely all patients who complain of a heart. Although the method allows you to determine heart rhythm disturbances, it cannot be used to make predictions about the patient’s condition or to understand what caused the patient’s pathological condition.
A more advanced examination method is echocardiography (EchoCG). With its help, you can not only determine rhythm disturbances, but also understand what structural changes in the heart led to this condition. Daily monitoring is considered a more accurate way to examine patients. It allows you to detect rare varieties of rhythm disturbance that occur only at a certain time of the day or for several minutes a day.
If necessary, with high accuracy, the patient is referred to an EFI to diagnose the cause of arrhythmia. This diagnostic method refers to minimally invasive. Catheters are inserted inside the patient, which will continuously receive information about the state of the heart. Some patients can immediately get rid of the cause of the disease.
The tilt test is most often performed for patients who complain of fainting, muscle weakness, and symptoms of bradycardia. It allows you to identify violations in the autonomic nervous system. This diagnosis is carried out as follows:
- The patient is fixed on the turntable using straps.
- When recording, there is a sharp transition from horizontal to vertical position and vice versa.
- 5-10 minutes the patient is in a standard horizontal position.
- The table with the patient is tilted 60-60 degrees.
- If there is no attack, then carry out drug provocation.
The main goal of the method is to detect changes in blood pressure and heart rate during a gravitational load. The patient should starve before the examination for 4-5 hours. During the test, emergency resuscitation equipment is always at hand. With arterial stenosis, this test is not carried out.
Causes of heart rhythm disturbance
For reasons and the mechanism of occurrence of arrhythmia, they are conditionally divided into two categories: those associated with cardiac pathology (organic) and not related to it (inorganic or functional). Various forms of organic arrhythmias and blockades are frequent companions of cardiac pathologies: coronary heart disease, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, malformations and heart injuries, heart failure, as well as complications of cardiac surgery.
The development of organic arrhythmias is based on damage (ischemic, inflammatory, morphological) of the heart muscle. They impede the normal distribution of an electrical impulse through the conducting system of the heart to its various departments. Sometimes the damage affects the sinus node – the main pacemaker. In the formation of cardiosclerosis, scar tissue interferes with the conductive function of the myocardium, which contributes to the occurrence of arrhythmogenic foci and the development of disturbances in conduction and rhythm.
The group of functional arrhythmias includes neurogenic, dyselectrolyte, iatrogenic, mechanical and ideopathic rhythm disturbances.
The development of sympathetic arrhythmias of neurogenesis is facilitated by excessive activation of the tone of the sympathetic nervous system under the influence of stress, strong emotions, intense mental or physical work, smoking, drinking alcohol, strong tea and coffee, spicy food, neurosis, etc. Activation of sympathetic tone also causes diseases thyroid gland (thyrotoxicosis), intoxication, fever, blood diseases, viral and bacterial toxins, industrial and other intoxications, hypoxia. In women suffering from premenstrual syndrome, sympathetic arrhythmias, heart pain, and choking sensations may occur.
Vaginal-dependent neurogenic arrhythmias are caused by activation of the parasympathetic system, in particular, the vagus nerve. Vaginal-dependent rhythm disturbances usually develop at night and can be caused by diseases of the gallbladder, intestines, peptic ulcer of the duodenum and stomach, and diseases of the bladder, in which the activity of the vagus nerve increases.
Diselectrolyte arrhythmias develop in cases of electrolyte imbalance, especially magnesium, potassium, sodium and calcium in the blood and myocardium. Iatrogenic rhythm disturbances arise as a result of the arrhythmogenic effect of certain drugs (cardiac glycosides, β-blockers, sympathomimetics, diuretics, etc.).
The development of mechanical arrhythmias is facilitated by chest injuries, falls, strokes, electric shocks, etc. Idiopathic arrhythmias are rhythm disturbances without an established cause. In the development of arrhythmias, a hereditary predisposition plays a role.
When heart failure occurs, the main importance is given to the search for the cause. Many arrhythmias are similar. To understand what type of disorder the patient has, you can use a comprehensive examination.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.
Certain diseases pose a danger to the cardiovascular system. These include the following causes of heart rhythm disturbance:
- Chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system. With the onset of symptoms of arrhythmia, the main importance is attached to ischemic processes in the myocardium, myocarditis, heart attack, congenital and acquired defects. In people after 40 years, atherosclerosis has an important role. The deposition of cholesterol in the form of plaques on the walls of blood vessels does not allow them to maintain the properties of elasticity.
- Pathology of the nervous system.
- Violation of metabolic processes in the form of hypokalemia or hyperkalemia.
- Hormonal changes associated with thyro >
In some cases, patients with glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis also complain of interruptions in the work of the heart. For this reason, it is important to remember that pathology from other organ systems can disrupt the normal rhythm.
Some environmental factors (or human activity) negatively affect the body. They cause a violation of the heart rhythm, the symptoms of which may not bother a person for a long time. External factors include:
- Age over 40 years. Most often, people in this category begin to feel unpleasant symptoms in the region of the heart, which are characteristic of arrhythmia.
- Intense physical activity, severe stress.
- Tobacco smoking, alcohol. Toxic substances adversely affect blood vessels and myocardium.
- Traumatic brain injuries damage the central or autonomic nervous system. Any symptom can have a negative effect on the heart.
- Drinking more than 3 cups of coffee is not recommended. Due to the content of a large amount of caffeine, acceleration of contractions is noted, blood pressure rises. A change in the state of the cardiovascular system can lead to arrhythmia.
- Under the influence of anesthetics, the load on the myocardium increases. This becomes one of the reasons for the disruption of his work.
In some cases, the cause cannot be determined. If the factor is not fully understood, then it is idiopathic. Predisposing phenomena consider violation of the regime of work and rest, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle.
Both an adult and a teenager can get sick. The main causes of arrhythmias at an early age are defects, diseases and poor heredity. In pediatrics they give individual recommendations, depending on age.
One of the most common methods in the world for recording cardiac biological potentials. Pulses created by the heart are transmitted to the electrodes fixed on the patient’s limbs and chest. Most often, data is printed on paper. Indications for the ECG are as follows:
- increased blood pressure;
- endocrine and nervous system diseases;
- high levels of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- a lot of excess weight;
- with pain in the heart.
There is no specific preparation for the examination. The doctor must determine if the patient is taking any cardiac medication. The patient should rest calmly during the procedure. Talking is also prohibited. You should also follow the instructions of the medical staff if the need arises.
The main disadvantage of this method of examination is its inaccuracy and the incomplete amount of information received. Inaccuracy may be caused by the patient’s movements during the reading or when the electrodes are loose on the skin. Also, the reason may be hiding in poorly made hardware grounding.
Why does a heart rhythm disturbance occur and what is it? The term “arrhythmia” is understood as changes accompanied by a disorder in the sequence and regularity of myocardial contractions. The frequency of beats per minute will be unstable.
Heart rate becomes unlike sinus. It is observed normally in a healthy person. Any cause that causes arrhythmia can lead to a violation of the vital functions for which the heart is responsible.
The most widespread classification of rhythm disturbances according to Zhuravleva and Kushavsky from 1981. It includes the following pathology of the cardiovascular system:
- Change in automatism in the sinus node (nomotopic arrhythmia):
- sinus bradycardia;
- sinus tachycardia;
- weak conductivity of the sinus node;
- sinus arrhythmia.
- Ectopic rhythm (heterotopic arrhythmia):
- atrial heart rate;
- atrioventricular (nodular) rhythm;
- dissociation of atrioventricular type function;
- idioventricular rhythm (ventricular);
- migration of supraventricular pacemaker;
- Rhythm disturbance associated with a change in myocardial excitability:
- paroxysmal variant of tachycardia;
- Rhythm disturbances by the type of change in conductivity and excitability:
- ventricular fibrillation (fibrillation, flutter);
- atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation);
- atrial flutter;
- Rhythm disturbance associated with a change in conductivity:
- interatrial block
- sinoatrial blockade.
- Atrioventricular form of blockade:
- premature ventricular arousal;
- blockages of the ventricles (branches of the bundle of His).
Each disease from the listed classification has its own causes, treatment. Symptoms of heart rhythm disturbances are expressed depending on the severity of the condition and the therapy.
The etiological, pathogenetic, symptomatic and prognostic heterogeneity of arrhythmias causes discussion about their common classification. According to the anatomical principle, arrhythmias are divided into atrial, ventricular, sinus and atrioventricular. Given the frequency and rhythm of heart contractions, it is proposed to distinguish three groups of rhythm disturbances: bradycardia, tachycardia and arrhythmia.
The most complete classification is based on the electrophysiological parameters of rhythm disturbance, according to which arrhythmias are distinguished:
- I. Caused by impaired formation of an electrical impulse.
This group of arrhythmias includes nomotopic and heterotopic (ectopic) rhythm disturbances.
Nomotopic arrhythmias are caused by a violation of the automatism function of the sinus node and include sinus tachycardia, bradycardia and arrhythmia.
Separately, in this group, sinus node weakness syndrome (SSS) is distinguished.
Heterotopic arrhythmias are characterized by the formation of passive and active ectopic complexes of myocardial excitation located outside the sinus node.
With passive heterotopic arrhythmias, the appearance of an ectopic pulse is due to a slowdown or violation of the main pulse. Passive ectopic complexes and rhythms include atrial, ventricular, disorders of the atrioventricuoyar connection, migration of the supraventricular pacemaker, pop-up contractions.
With active heterotopia, the emerging ectopic pulse excites the myocardium before the pulse formed in the main pacemaker, and ectopic contractions “interrupt” the sinus rhythm of the heart. Active complexes and rhythms include: extrasystole (atrial, ventricular, originating from the atrioventricular connection), paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal tachycardia (originating from the atrioventricular connection, atrial and ventricular forms), flutter and fibrillation (atrial fibrillation).
- II. Arrhythmias caused by impaired intracardiac function.
This group of arrhythmias occurs as a result of a decrease or cessation of the propagation of an impulse through a conducting system. Conduction disorders include: sinoatrial, atrial, atrioventricular (I, II and III degree) block, syndromes of premature ventricular excitation, intraventricular blockade of the legs of the bundle of His (one, two and three bundles).
Arrhythmias combining conduction and rhythm disturbances include ectopic rhythms with exit blockade, parasystole, atrioventricular dissociation.
Arrhythmia Treatment at Home – Healthy Lifestyle Site
Echocardiography refers to progressive methods of examining patients. It is absolutely harmless and allows you to get information not only about the rhythm, but also the condition of the heart tissues. The basis of this technique is the directed use of ultrasound. An attached sensor under the influence of the device begins to emit high-frequency waves that pass through the heart, and then are reflected from it. The computer processes the information and displays it on the screen as an image. Indications for echocardiography are as follows:
- congenital or acquired heart defects;
- complaints of heartache of uncertain etiology;
- suspected presence of fluid in the pericardial region;
- heartbeat complaints.
Thanks to echocardiography, the doctor receives information about the size of the heart, the thickness and structure of the walls, the degree of contractility of the heart muscle, the condition of the outer lining of the heart, the level of pressure in different cardiac and pericardial segments, and the state of the valves. The procedure itself is carried out as follows:
- The patient is placed on his left side.
- The doctor applies a gel-like composition to the sensor, and then fixes it on the patient’s body.
- The image obtained using ultrasound, begins to be projected onto the screen of the equipment.
- The sensor is moved into the jugular fossa, in the area 5 of the intercostal space, then to the left of the sternum.
Despite the relative accuracy of the survey, the results may be distorted. Firstly, echocardiography is undesirable for obese patients, as ultrasound waves just won’t go through the chest. Also, with skeletal deformity, diagnosis can be difficult. The second factor affecting the accuracy of the results is the quality of the equipment.
EFI is used in case of serious cardiac abnormalities, when the patient has significant interruptions in the work of the heart. Before referring the patient to this study, a person must undergo a complete diagnosis, including ECG, echocardiography, stress tests and blood tests. The procedure is carried out without anesthesia and sedatives.
- Puncture of the brachial, femoral or subclavian artery is performed.
- Electrodes are introduced into the chambers of the heart and recording of electrocardiograms begins.
- Be sure to stimulate the atria and ventricles to determine the functional characteristics of the myocardium.
- Proceed to the study of the site of damaged arrhythmias.
At the end of the EFI, doctors select antiarrhythmic drugs. Complications after this procedure are much less common than after stress tests and tilt tests under the influence of medications. Sometimes patients physically feel pain in the heart, but they disappear after the examination.
If the patient suffers from severe rhythm disturbances, but during the examination, the doctor can stop their source. At the same time, any medications that immerse the patient in sleep are also not used. Despite the complexity of the procedures, EFI is considered the safest and most accurate method for diagnosing heart rhythm disturbances, as well as their further elimination.
Manifestations of arrhythmias can be very different and are determined by the frequency and rhythm of heart contractions, their effect on intracardiac, cerebral, renal hemodynamics, as well as left ventricular myocardial function. There are so-called “silent” arrhythmias that do not manifest themselves clinically. They are usually detected by physical examination or electrocardiography.
The main manifestations of arrhythmias are a heartbeat or a feeling of interruptions, fading during the work of the heart. The course of arrhythmias may be accompanied by suffocation, angina pectoris, dizziness, weakness, fainting, and the development of cardiogenic shock. Palpitations are usually associated with sinus tachycardia, dizziness and fainting attacks with sinus bradycardia or sinus node weakness syndrome, cardiac arrest and heart discomfort with sinus arrhythmia.
With extrasystole, patients complain of feelings of fading, jolting and interruptions in the work of the heart. Paroxysmal tachycardia is characterized by suddenly developing and discontinuing heart attacks up to 140-220 beats. in minutes Sensations of frequent, irregular heartbeat are noted with atrial fibrillation.
The course of any arrhythmia can be complicated by fibrillation and ventricular flutter, which is tantamount to circulatory arrest, and lead to the death of the patient. Already in the first seconds dizziness, weakness develop, then – loss of consciousness, involuntary urination and cramps. Blood pressure and pulse are not determined, breathing stops, the pupils dilate – a state of clinical death occurs. In patients with chronic circulatory failure (angina pectoris, mitral stenosis), during paroxysms of tachyarrhythmia, shortness of breath occurs and pulmonary edema may develop.
With complete atrioventricular blockade or asystole, the development of syncopal conditions (attacks of Morgagni-Adems-Stokes, characterized by episodes of loss of consciousness), caused by a sharp decrease in cardiac output and blood pressure and a decrease in blood supply to the brain, is possible. Thromboembolic deposition with atrial fibrillation in every sixth case leads to cerebral stroke.
The initial stage of the diagnosis of arrhythmia can be carried out by a therapist or cardiologist. It includes analysis of patient complaints and determination of peripheral heart rate, characteristic for heart rhythm disturbances. At the next stage, instrumental non-invasive (ECG, ECG monitoring), and invasive (ChPEFI, VEI) research methods are performed:
An electrocardiogram records the heart rate and frequency for several minutes, so only constant, persistent arrhythmias are detected by ECG. Rhythm disorders, which are paroxysmal (temporary) in nature, are diagnosed by the Holter -hour ECG monitoring method, which records the daily heart rate.
To identify the organic causes of arrhythmias, Echo-KG and stress Echo-KG are performed. Invasive diagnostic methods can artificially cause the development of arrhythmia and determine the mechanism of its occurrence. During an intracardiac electrophysiological study, catheter electrodes that record the endocardial electrogram in various parts of the heart are brought to the heart. An endocardial ECG is compared with the result of recording an external electrocardiogram performed simultaneously.
The tilt test is performed on a special orthostatic table and simulates conditions that can cause arrhythmia. The patient is placed on a table in a horizontal position, the pulse and blood pressure are measured, and then after administration of the drug, the table is tilted at an angle of 60-80 ° for 20 – 45 minutes, determining the dependence of blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate on a change in body position.
Using the method of transesophageal electrophysiological research (ChpEFI), electrical stimulation of the heart is performed through the esophagus and a transesophageal electrocardiogram is recorded that records the heart rate and conductivity.
A number of auxiliary diagnostic tests include stress tests (step tests, squats, mid-flight, cold, etc.), pharmacological tests (with isoproterinol, dipyridomole, ATP, etc.) and are performed to diagnose coronary insufficiency and the possibility of judgment about the relationship of the load on the heart with the occurrence of arrhythmias.
The choice of therapy for arrhythmias is determined by the causes, type of rhythm and cardiac conduction disturbance, as well as the patient’s condition. In some cases, treatment of the underlying disease may be sufficient to restore normal sinus rhythm.
Sometimes, the treatment of arrhythmias requires special medication or cardiac surgery. The selection and purpose of antiarrhythmic therapy is carried out under systematic ECG monitoring. According to the mechanism of exposure, 4 classes of antiarrhythmic drugs are distinguished:
- Grade 1 – membrane stabilizing drugs that block sodium channels:
- 1A – increase the time of repolarization (procainamide, quinidine, aymalin, disopyramide)
- 1B – reduce repolarization time (trimecaine, lidocaine, mexiletine)
- 1C – do not have a pronounced effect on repolarization (flecainide, propafenone, encainide, etacizin, morazizin, lappaconitine hydrobromide)
- Grade 2 – β-adrenergic blockers (atenolol, propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, acebutolol, nadolol)
- Grade 3 – prolong repolarization and block potassium channels (sotalol, amiodarone, dofetilide, ibutilide, bBretilia tosylate)
- Grade 4 – block calcium channels (diltiazem, verapamil).
Non-drug treatments for arrhythmias include pacemaker, implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator, radiofrequency ablation, and open heart surgery. They are performed by cardiac surgeons in specialized departments. The implantation of a pacemaker (pacemaker) – an artificial pacemaker is aimed at maintaining a normal rhythm in patients with bradycardia and atrioventricular block. For prophylactic purposes, an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator is sutured to patients who are at high risk of sudden onset of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and automatically perform pacing and defibrillation immediately after its development.
Using radiofrequency ablation (RFA of the heart) through small punctures using a catheter, cauterize a portion of the heart that generates ectopic impulses, which allows you to block impulses and prevent the development of arrhythmia. Open heart surgery is performed for cardiac arrhythmias caused by aneurysm of the left ventricle, valvular heart disease, etc.
In the prognostic plan, arrhythmias are extremely ambiguous. Some of them (supraventricular extrasystoles, rare ventricular extrasystoles), not associated with organic pathology of the heart, do not pose a threat to health and life. Atrial fibrillation, on the contrary, can cause life-threatening complications: ischemic stroke, severe heart failure.
The most severe arrhythmias are flutter and ventricular fibrillation: they pose an immediate threat to life and require resuscitation.
The main direction of prevention of arrhythmias is the treatment of cardiac pathology, which is almost always complicated by a violation of the rhythm and conduction of the heart. It is also necessary to exclude extracardiac causes of arrhythmia (thyrotoxicosis, intoxication and fever, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, stress, etc.). It is recommended to limit the intake of stimulants (caffeine), the exclusion of smoking and alcohol, self-selection of antiarrhythmic and other drugs.
Functional diagnosis of arrhythmia is most often carried out using this type of examination. A stress test can be performed on the basis of an ECG or echocardiography. The most accurate is the last examination method. The essence of the procedure is that the state of the heart is examined before and after exercise. The main advantage of this method of examination is that it allows you to detect coronary heart disease in the early stages. The procedure itself, regardless of the type of initial examination, is carried out as follows:
- Assessment of heart structures and heart rate prior to the test.
- The patient is given certain medications or is asked to exercise on an exercise bike/treadmill.
- Take readings and evaluate the structure of the heart under and after exercise.
The introduction of drugs is more preferable than physical activity, because many patients cannot achieve the desired increase in heart rate. The main drug used in the diagnosis is dobutamine. If not, doctors can use enoximon, chimes, adenosine. If we talk about complications, then pharmacological tests cause them more than tests under physical exertion, because often have to enter beta-blocker.
Heart rhythm complications
- Myocardial infarction. During an attack of arrhythmia, the heart contracts in an accelerated rhythm and sometimes the coronary vessels can not cope with the load.
- Stroke. The formation of blood clots is associated with a violation of the myocardium. Over time, clots form that can enter the vessels of the brain and lead to circulatory disorders in it.
- Ventricular fibrillation. A complication develops with tachycardia, which goes into flicker. The myocardium loses its ability to contract, and blood does not enter the organs through the vessels. After a couple of minutes, cardiac activity ceases and clinical death occurs. If timely assistance is not provided, then it goes into biological.
In some cases, there are patients with rhythm disturbance, which has a fulminant course. The indicated consequences of the disease are developing rapidly, and it is impossible to help in the prehospital phase. This developmental variant refers to sudden cardiac death.
In the absence of effect, the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias is carried out by cardiac surgeons.
To choose the right tool, a comprehensive examination is carried out. Under the control of electrocardiography, the results of treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs are evaluated. The following classes of drugs are prescribed (depending on the indications):
- Preparations stabilizing cell membranes (Grade 1) – Lidocaine, Quinidine, Propafenone.
- Beta-blockers (Grade 2) – Metoprolol, Atenolol.
- Potassium channel blockers (Grade 3) – Amiodarone, Sotalol.
- Calcium channel blockers (Grade 4) – Verapamil, Diltiazem.
The patient is under the control of a doctor, if necessary, he must take tests. Depending on the psychosomatics and the patient’s attitude to his health, a consultation of other specialists is prescribed. According to indications, additional funds may be required. They should go well with arrhythmia pills.
If therapy is carried out successfully and the condition normalizes, then folk remedies can be prescribed. For this, medicinal herbs are used, which are mixed in a certain ratio. Widely used valerian root, lemon balm, motherwort and anise. The ingredients are combined, poured with boiling water and insisted for about half an hour. Then the resulting infusion is taken in a dose of ½ cup three times a day.
One of the healing methods is a proper lifestyle and nutrition. It is necessary to abandon tobacco, alcoholic beverages and junk food. To maintain heart health, it is recommended to drink water (1,5-2 liters per day). If there is swelling, then this issue is resolved with your doctor.
A lot of fresh vegetables and fruits should be present in the diet. For the myocardium, bananas, dried fruits and baked potatoes are considered especially useful. They are more than other foods rich in potassium, which is needed for the work of the heart.
In the absence of dynamics from treatment at home, the patient is referred for surgery. The most common and effective are:
- production of an artificial pacemaker;
Cardioversion is indicated for patients with ventricular arrhythmias. The method is based on the use of electricity discharge. It is important to carry out the differential diagnosis correctly. If the form of conduction disturbance is atrial, then the procedure will be contraindicated. This is due to the high probability of blood clots.
If the heart cannot cope with the problem on its own, then an artificial pacemaker is installed under the skin. When a focus of arrhythmia is detected, a catheter is inserted, the task of which is to destroy it – ablation. This treatment method will return the patient to a full life.
In case of an attack of ventricular fibrillation, it is necessary
start cardiopulmonary resuscitation immediately. The most important part of resuscitation
measures – ventricular defibrillation, which is carried out using special
devices – electrical defibrillators. Prevent Deadly
condition may implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator.
At the Meshalkin Center, a patient can be diagnosed
heart rhythm disturbances using high-end equipment and get
professional consultation of a specialist cardiologist-arrhythmologist. The center has
a full range of competencies in the treatment of patients with cardiac arrhythmias:
highly professional staff, modern equipment,
practical and scientific basis that comply with European standards, which
provides the maximum result of diagnostic and surgical procedures.
It is far from always possible to determine arrhythmias even on an ECG, therefore, many patients are advised to undergo such a study as Holter monitoring – recording an ECG during the day allows you to assess the presence of rhythm changes, clarify the diagnosis and choose the right treatment.
Some arrhythmias manifest themselves with certain symptoms, among which there are interruptions in the work of the heart, a feeling of irregular contraction, or such general symptoms as dizziness and weakness. The patient often associates such manifestations with completely different reasons, but not with arrhythmia, the existence of which he does not even suspect.
Treatment of arrhythmias at home with the use of folk remedies is practically not possible for one simple reason: you can learn about arrhythmias only after a specialized examination. And if the patient goes to the hospital, then there he is prescribed medication, which is better not to refuse.
Without diagnosis, it is virtually impossible to determine both the presence of arrhythmia and its type.
The only arrhythmia that can be clinically diagnosed is atrial fibrillation.
However, a person who has nothing to do with medicine, will not be able to make a diagnosis on his own and receive adequate treatment with folk remedies or with the use of drugs.
Thus, the treatment of arrhythmias at home is practically not possible, if only because you cannot find out what needs to be treated without proper examination. In addition, to monitor the effectiveness of therapy, it is also necessary to undergo an ECG or Holter monitoring with a certain regularity.
Your doctor is unlikely to agree that you will use folk remedies and refuse pills.
Hiding this information from the doctor is not practical, since you may be prescribed additional drugs and examinations due to ineffective therapy, which will hit your own pocket.
But taking pills and folk remedies together is a very dangerous event, even if both components are highly effective in relation to a particular type of arrhythmia, their use in combination can have irreparable consequences.
In fact, the treatment of arrhythmias is a very difficult task even for a doctor who has at his disposal a wide range of drugs and a large selection of diagnostic methods to clarify the diagnosis. It is virtually impossible to find the right treatment without an examination, since therapy should be aimed at the cause of the arrhythmia, and it is often extremely difficult to establish it.
For example, an imbalance of trace elements can cause the appearance of supraventricular arrhythmias and extrasystoles. In this case, doctors prescribe potassium and magnesium preparations, but it is very easy to do without them if there are a large number of dried fruits: raisins, prunes, dried bananas, and so on.
Some arrhythmias, for example, a tachysystolic form of atrial fibrillation, are treated with digoxin, a herbal remedy.
An overdose of digoxin can cause a malfunction of the heart until it stops.
With some types of arrhythmias, such as extrasystoles or other mild arrhythmias, the use of sedatives may be effective.
At home, such a treatment will be quite possible: it is enough to use valerian or mint in the form of tinctures or decoctions, and a motherwort has a good calming effect.
If the cause of the appearance of rhythm disturbances lies precisely in the psychological plane, then such remedies can help, but if there is an organic change in the heart, then the treatment will be practically ineffective.
Many folk remedies that are recommended for use in arrhythmias have a hypotensive effect, i.e. they reduce the level of blood pressure and, due to this, to some extent improve the blood supply to the heart.
They may also have a weak vasodilating effect. Since arrhythmias are often the result of coronary heart disease, a decrease in the phenomena of hypoxia in the myocardium can reduce clinical manifestations and even improve the picture on the ECG.
But such therapy will be effective only in the very early stages.
Since arrhythmias are often diagnosed very late, as such, treatment at home is ineffective. And since patients often don’t understand what exactly they are treating, therapy can even be dangerous, so doctors do not recommend resorting to such treatment. However, your health is in your hands!
Daily Holter Monitoring
This technique is a long record of the electrical activity of the heart. Contrary to popular belief, the recording device is a small box that is attached to the patient using a belt. On the chest, electrodes are fixed at the most suitable points for data collection. After 24 hours, the device is removed and decryption of the received information on the computer begins. Patients are subjected to this diagnostic method if:
- fainting, half-fainting state, dizziness for no reason;
- ECG revealed changes that cause cardiac arrhythmias;
- the patient complains of heart failure.
In this type of diagnosis, you can not deal with bath procedures, so as not to damage the device. It is also forbidden to approach power lines. For a day, the patient should start keeping a diary. Everything should be painted there by the clock. If the patient became ill, he should write at what time and how.
The diagnosis based on the results of this examination is made by a cardiologist. If any pathological data were found, then the doctor must compare them with the existing patient records. If we talk about some of the disadvantages of the procedure, then it is not always accurate, because sensors still limit the physical activity of the patient.
Prognosis for Arrhythmias
For life and health, the prognosis is favorable with early diagnosis and treatment. If complications and concomitant pathology are present, then it is evaluated based on the severity, form of arrhythmia, and the dynamics of the condition after therapy.
Patients at risk of heart rhythm disturbances should remember this and avoid factors provoking this condition. If the unpleasant symptoms mentioned above appear, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination. Early treatment allows you to maintain health and avoid complications.
Is it possible to identify a disease without hardware diagnostics?
Some doctors talk about tachycardia or bradycardia, based on the results of the anamnesis or data obtained during a physical examination. This is not entirely correct. Without confirmation obtained using hardware diagnostics, it cannot be said that the patient has any particular type of heart rhythm disturbance.