Arterial hypertension in children is divided into two types:
- The primary – provoking cause is unknown.
- Secondary – the main reason lies in the present diseases.
Many doctors believe that the following factors can provoke changes in blood pressure indicators in young people:
- the presence of excess weight in the child;
- abuse of cholesterol-rich foods;
- a change in the balance of cholesterol in the blood upward (against this background, the risk of developing atherosclerosis increases);
- motionless lifestyle, refusal of physical activity;
The listed causes are attributed to sources provoking the detection of primary hypertension.
Among the factors that can provoke the manifestation of secondary hypertension, there are:
- serious head injuries that can cause changes in intracranial pressure indicators;
- Congenital heart defect;
- serious kidney disease associated with their dysfunction;
- long-term use of drugs containing steroid hormones;
- drug use and smoking;
- the presence of other serious diseases that cause severe pain;
- reduced motor activity;
It should be noted that there is a tendency for symptoms to appear in children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Pediatric hypertension is invisible, symptoms of high blood pressure may manifest covertly. Presentation of changes may be belated. Such statistics are scary for physicians, since such values indicate a change in the health indicators of the cardiovascular system in children.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension in a teenager implies a long-term use of drugs that reduce performance.
It is worth paying attention to what are the causes of high pressure, which is steadily beyond the norm, doctors say. Primary hypertension occurs in such conditions:
- typical heredity;
- against the background of high blood cholesterol;
- with excess weight;
- after taking certain drugs (this also applies to oral contraceptives);
- due to an inactive lifestyle;
- when smoking, alcohol abuse.
In 95% of cases, it is for these reasons that hypertension appears in children and adolescents. But sometimes the diagnosis can detect diseases that led to the formation of hypertension. These include the following diseases:
- kidney disease;
- Congenital heart defect;
- head injuries that caused an increase in intracranial pressure;
- drug addiction;
Since 2002, every year, overweight and increased pressure in adolescents associated with obesity are increasingly being diagnosed.
The problem of high blood pressure can manifest itself to varying degrees at any age, so it is considered advisable to check blood pressure even in children. Increasingly, with mandatory medical examinations (medical examinations conducted at school), doctors find symptoms of hypertension in boys and girls.
Arterial hypertension can be primary and secondary, both in a child and in an adult. The first can develop if a family has a certain genetic predisposition – it arises under the influence of the adolescent’s lifestyle itself.
In addition, in relation to the occurrence of primary hypertension, in addition to heredity, it is customary to distinguish the following trigger factors (the so-called risk factors):
- against the background of high blood cholesterol;
- with excess weight – the so-called alimentary obesity;
- after taking certain medications (this also applies to oral contraceptives, which many gynecologists prescribe for girls during puberty to normalize hormonal processes);
- due to an inactive lifestyle – physical inactivity provokes the development of obesity due to insufficient energy expenditure;
- when smoking;
- with alcohol abuse (especially alcoholic energy) – unfortunately, alcoholism is now often found among adolescents.
In 95% of cases, hypertension in children and adolescents appears precisely because of the above reasons and trigger factors. But sometimes the diagnosis can detect diseases that led to the formation of hypertension.
The reason for the second (secondary) is the pathology that arose in the human body – that is, it will already be considered not an independent disease, but simply one of the syndromes of an existing one. Typically, these are the following problems:
- heart defects that were not detected earlier (or did not manifest themselves in any way);
- various pathologies of the central nervous system and PNS.
In young people, arterial vessels have a sufficient degree of elasticity, and the heart has a high functional activity and endurance, so adolescent hypertension is a relatively rare condition. It can develop under the influence of a large number of various provoking factors.
For the convenience of diagnosis and determination of further adequate therapeutic measures, all provoking factors are divided into 2 groups. Factors leading to a primary physiological increase in pressure include:
- Physical exercise.
- Emotional overstrain.
- Lack of sleep.
- Irrational nutrition with the use of a significant amount of table salt, fatty, fried foods.
- Smoking, periodic intake of alcohol – toxins have a pronounced negative effect on the developing body of a teenager.
- Forced systematic use of certain medications, which to varying degrees increase the level of systemic blood pressure.
Prolonged exposure to factors may interfere with the functioning of the cardiovascular or nervous system, resulting in hypertension in the future. Pathological causes cause a prolonged and pronounced increase in pressure, they include:
- Congenital heart defects, in which the functional state of the heart and its contractility are impaired.
- Pathological conditions affecting the nervous system (neurotic disorders, emotional lability, which is often found in adolescence, vegetative-vascular hypertension of the hyperkinetic type).
- Diseases of the liver and kidneys, which lead to a change in the concentration of biologically active compounds in the blood, responsible for regulating the tone of the arteries.
- Pathology of the endocrine system, accompanied by a change in the activity of endocrine glands and the concentration of hormones in the blood (increased levels of adrenaline, norepinephrine, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, glucocorticosteroids, pituitary hormones).
Pathological factors cause the development of secondary hypertension, they require mandatory reliable diagnosis for the therapeutic elimination of their negative effects.
Researchers agree that high school students and university students are more likely to suffer from hypertension due to high psycho-emotional overstrain.
|Lack of motor activity and bad habits|
High blood pressure in a teenager: what provoked
Changes in pressure indicators even in healthy children can be recorded in such cases:
- Depending on the time of day, blood pressure may vary. For example, Blood pressure in any person can vary during the day and be as low as possible during sleep.
- Blood pressure tends to increase markedly after physical exertion, but at the same time, adolescents and children who constantly engage in sports often have low rates indicating hypertension.
- Pleasant and distressing emotions can also be a common factor provoking jumps in blood pressure.
- Often the manifestation of hypertension in adolescents is detected against the background of stressful situations and psychological stress, there is no reason for excitement. Doctors report that the indicators are higher in children with excellent school performance, this is primarily due to heavy loads and enhanced brain activity.
- Doctors also noticed this trend – Blood pressure often rises in overweight children. This is due to the fact that obese people are prone to hypertension.
During the measurements, the person or adolescent must remain calm and relaxed in order to prevent distortion of the values.
An increase in pressure at a young age is a danger, because it can cause the formation of diseases:
- cardiac ischemia;
- heart attack and stroke;
- hypertonic disease.
The manifestation of such pressure deviations in adolescents requires attention. If timely measures are taken there will be a higher risk of developing the disease. Then, in a patient after 20-25 years, a manifestation of a complex of cardiovascular diseases is likely.
The doctor may suspect the child is not just “leaps” associated with an excess of emotions or a transitional age, but a serious illness due to the presence of characteristic complaints.
The main symptom of hypertension is a systematic increase in pressure in adolescents. At the same time, children often complain of such manifestations:
- a general deterioration in well-being;
- for frequent headaches;
- for sleep problems:
- severe sweating;
- to nausea;
- heart pain;
- bleeding from the nose;
- on dizziness.
Parents themselves may note that the child has become very nervous, irritable
Symptoms in this case are similar to hypertension in adults. Signs:
- A headache that becomes more intense in the morning.
- Dizziness and tinnitus.
- Psycho-emotional disorders: the child becomes irritable, mood changes dramatically.
- Fatigue and general weakness.
Of course, treatment is necessary in most cases. But if hypertension occurs due to age-related hormonal changes, then after 17 years this syndrome goes away on its own. Quite often, parents do not know at all that the child has high blood pressure. And poor health and behavioral changes are attributed to the transition period.
If the increase occurred due to certain pathological conditions, then therapeutic therapy is simply necessary. In order to determine whether a child has a systematic increase in pressure – one measurement is not enough, at least three trials are needed. Hypertension in adolescence is a common occurrence.
In a teenager, high blood pressure has almost the same clinical symptoms as in adults:
- Frequent development of headaches with predominant localization in the temples and occiput. In young people, the manifestation may be associated with overwork, especially against the background of intense mental stress.
- The appearance of general weakness amid a deterioration in well-being, while after rest there is no sensation of a surge of strength.
- Periodic nausea, it can be accompanied by vomiting, which does not bring noticeable relief.
- Visual impairment with a decrease in its acuity, the appearance of “flies”, “fog” in front of the eyes.
- Periodic bleeding from the nose, the mechanism of their development is associated with damage to the vessels of the mucous membrane against the background of high blood pressure.
- Pain in the heart, which can be diverse. In adolescents, they often have a tingling appearance.
- Impaired gait and balance.
- Dizziness of varying severity.
- Increased nervousness and irritability, decreased concentration of attention and academic performance.
The appearance of one or more clinical manifestations indicates a possible increase in systemic blood pressure.
Arterial hypertension in adolescents can be diagnosed only with a comprehensive examination. The early stage of the disease can be characterized by borderline pressure (140/90 mmHg), so kidney pathology is primarily excluded. For this purpose, ultrasound of the kidneys, urine and blood tests are prescribed.
Primary hypertension is diagnosed based on:
- tetrapolar impedanography;
- fundus pressure;
- a comprehensive study of heart rhythm and the autonomic nervous system;
- stress tests;
- pressure monitoring.
Be sure the teenager is sent for a consultation with a neurologist. If the development of arterial hypertension occurs during the period of maturation during examination with the help of an ECG and echocardiography, pathological changes in the heart muscle will not be detected at first.
Monitoring of pressure, which is prescribed to a teenager during the day, during the period of puberty shows fluctuations in indicators within the border zone. Stress testing indicates a good working capacity of the body, and vascular changes during examination of the fundus are not detected.
|If a teenager has grade 1 hypertension|
|Second degree of hypertension|
The diagnosis of a teenager can be established in this way:
- 1 degree of arterial hypertension of puberty;
- 1 degree of hypertension, 1 degree of arterial hypertension;
- 2 degree of hypertension, 2 degree of arterial hypertension.
Often, the disease is detected in the pathology of the urinary system, diseases of the endocrine glands. Hormonal rearrangement, characteristic of the ripening period, leads to changes in the endocrine system.
Therefore, paroxysmal rises in blood pressure to high levels can be observed, against this background, severe headaches, increased sweating, fever and thirst occur. In this case, the examination takes into account the level of catecholamines in the urine and blood, and an MRI is performed.
Treatment and pressure normalization
The treatment of arterial hypertension in children should take place under close medical supervision. Choosing the main methodology of therapy, a specialist should consider and compare the following factors:
- age of the patient;
- the reaction of the child’s body to medications;
- baseline blood pressure.
High blood pressure in a child can occur as a result of stress at home. To select the optimal method of therapy, a conversation is held with parents.
If the cause of hypertension in a teenager lies in the disease, it is important to choose a method of getting rid of it. How to reduce the pressure the child will tell a specialist. If the cause of high blood pressure has not been identified, you need to pay attention to adolescent lifestyle changes:
- Change the level of physical activity.
- If there is excess weight to the teenager explain the need to eliminate it.
- When a teenager smokes you need to explain to him about the dangers of addiction.
Such actions help to lower blood pressure and stabilize its performance in a child, its decrease should not be sharp, therefore, substances with a mild effect should be selected. Arterial hypertension in children requires correction and medical intervention.
Hypertension treatment is necessary at any age. In this case, therapy should be comprehensive. Be sure to prescribe antihypertensive drugs. For adolescents, doctors select the most gentle drugs, as well as the minimum dosage.
Still necessary measures for the treatment of hypertension in a child are:
- The correct diet. The diet should include vegetables, fruits and greens, dairy products, etc.
- A teenager needs physical activity according to his age, more walks in the fresh air. Some are encouraged to play sports, and some are prescribed exercise therapy.
- If there is excess weight, then you need to get in shape, according to age.
- A complete absence of bad habits is necessary. This is entirely justified, as today, adolescents are increasingly addicted to smoking, alcohol and even drugs.
Hypertension in children can be treated with folk remedies. But they should be recommended by specialists, these funds have a slight hypotensive effect.
In the case of children and adolescents, it is especially important that the doctor prescribe the methods of traditional medicine. Children are very sensitive, and their allergic reaction can be much more pronounced than in adults.
There are practically no differences in the methods of treating juvenile hypertension and hypertension in adults – this concerns both the approaches to emergency care and the principles of prescribing basic, planned treatment. In both cases, you must first measure the pressure and pulse, and only then take some more specific steps.
- drink tincture of peony, valerian or motherwort (valerian is also sold in tablet form).
- make weak tea with mint, lingonberry or cranberry juice.
- take some fresh viburnum or make a healthy drink from it.
A prerequisite for effective treatment is a change in the lifestyle of a teenager. It is fundamentally important to ensure a calm environment, both at home and at school, you must comply with the regime, sleep at least 8 hours at night, spend the minimum amount of time at the computer (1 hour per day, no more).
The recommendation is to increase the amount of consumed fruits and dairy products. Before going to bed, it is useful to take a contrast shower, drink sweet tea.
If all of the above activities are ineffective, medication should be started:
- the first drugs of choice will be sedatives – it is worth using drops of Valocordin or Barboval (Valocordin is preferable);
- if this does not help, then it makes sense to take a tablet of Lisinopril or Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor of immediate action;
- with an increased pulse, it is worth drinking Bisoprolol or Nifedipine in drops – these drugs not only reduce blood pressure, but also normalize heart rate.
The dosage of the drug and the frequency of its administration should be selected by the attending physician and no one else. Only he can decide (and then, after a series of additional clinical diagnostic tests) how many tablets to drink in order to lower his blood pressure to the desired level. This kind of need is easily explained by the complexity of the clinical situation, as well as the individual characteristics of each child.
Effectively lowering the level of blood pressure is possible only after the examination with the appropriate medical specialist who will select the appropriate therapy.
Modern treatment of hypertension includes several measures:
- General recommendations with a specific mode of work and rest of the child, sufficient sleep, limiting excessive physical, mental and emotional stress.
- Diet with limited intake of sodium chloride, fatty, fried foods and easily digestible carbohydrates (sweets).
- Drug treatment of hypertension – drugs are used that reduce the level of systemic blood pressure (ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, drugs that suppress the activity of calcium channels).
- Exclusion of the influence of the pathological cause that led to hypertension – after an objective examination, treatment is prescribed together with doctors of other specialties, it includes the normalization of the liver, kidneys, endocrine glands.
The choice of methodology largely depends on the state of the teenager, the individual characteristics of the body, the presence of chronic diseases. At the initial stage, hypertension in adolescence needs to normalize the regimen of the day.
To treat severe manifestations and symptoms of hypertension, as prescribed by a doctor, antihypertensive drugs are taken, possibly in an inpatient setting.
To improve health, it is necessary to apply general principles that are suitable for all adolescents, without exception:
- it is necessary to create a calm atmosphere in the family, which will help protect the child from excessive nervousness;
- sleep should be 8 hours;
- every Sunday, it is necessary to organize classes that are different from everyday activities, for example, work in a summer cottage, a trip to the countryside, sports, shopping and more;
- in the morning the teenager must be provided with a hot breakfast, and in the afternoon a full dinner;
- after classes, a walk for an hour is recommended;
- after lunch, an hour’s rest is recommended;
- breaks should be taken every 45 minutes during homework;
- First you should do complex homework, and then easy;
- Before going to bed, you need to limit physical activity and emotional experience.
Timely treatment will help to become a guarantee of recovery and the abolition of the diagnosis.
In order to provide first aid and reduce high blood pressure at home, several measures should be taken:
- Provide peace for the teenager, for which he should be placed in a ventilated room with limited noise and light.
- Give a glass of warm, sweet green tea to drink (black tea should not be given, as it has a stimulating effect and can increase blood pressure even more).
- Give a pill to drink from pressure, but only if it was previously prescribed by a medical specialist.
Effective preventive measures
The primary prevention of hypertension is a complex of actions that affect the causes of the pathology. If the cause of the increase in blood pressure is known, then eliminating it, you can count on a positive result.
Below are some tips. It is relatively easy to follow one of them, others will require volitional efforts.
Effective recommendations for preventing cardiovascular disease:
- Keep track of how much you weigh. Is body weight 5 kg above normal? About as many millimeters of mercury can increase blood pressure. And so on the rise.
Maintaining optimal body weight means no additional stress on the heart and blood vessels.
- In the diet should be fatty varieties of fish. Here is the very case when you do not need to be afraid of the word “fat”. We are talking about special fatty acids, which are extremely important for humans. Without them, the fetus under the mother’s heart develops poorly, schoolchildren begin to study worse, and adults run the risk of becoming hypertensive.
If there is no possibility to include fatty fish in the diet, you need to use at least vegetable oil (olive oil is great), at least two tablespoons a day.
Salt is a real provocateur of hypertension. Fans of cool salted food take serious risks! This seasoning retains water in the body, as a result of which the swollen walls of blood vessels narrow, pass blood worse and cause the heart to work with overloads. Eat less salt and pickles, and enrich your diet with foods containing potassium and magnesium (carrots, spinach, potatoes, dried apricots and prunes, bananas). It is these trace elements that neutralize excess sodium in the body.
- The use of tobacco and/or alcohol inevitably makes a person hypertensive. Many are convinced that alcohol, by expanding blood vessels, improves blood flow. However, alcohol lovers rarely know that after expansion, a sharp and prolonged narrowing of the vessels occurs, and hypertension is one of the most likely consequences.
- Life without enough movement can quickly turn into an existence among all kinds of diseases and unpleasant conditions. A person who does physical exercises every day and does not neglect walks is largely protected from pressure surges.
Walking, swimming, riding a bicycle perfectly stimulate blood flow and can bring a person out of the hypertensive risk group.
Preventive measures seem difficult to implement? You can start with psychological self-training. Imagine your life surrounded by all kinds of prohibitions, with constant dependence on drugs and accompanied by threats of various complications. Such an unsightly picture helps to take the prevention of arterial hypertension in all seriousness.
Prevention of blood pressure after treatment
If you have been diagnosed with arterial hypertension and undergo treatment, it is important to adhere to the list of preventive rules.
• A planned visit to the doctor for control once a month • Continuous use of medicines prescribed by the doctor. If the drug ceases to lower blood pressure, then it is necessary to replace it with another agent. Which one? The doctor will tell you • It is necessary to measure blood pressure in the morning and evening before bedtime • If the pressure normalizes, it is necessary to measure it 1 times a week and write the values in a notebook.
• Perform special exercises as indicated by the doctor in the treatment regimen • Do not return to your old habits. Forget about smoking and strong alcohol. Abuse can minimize all treatment. • Complete rejection of fatty, spicy and salty foods. • Eat more plant foods, fruits and raw vegetables. • Eat fish and seafood at least 2 times a week. • Drink herbal teas, natural fruit and vegetable juices.
According to statistics provided by the Federal Council of Pediatric and Adolescent Doctors, hypertension occurs in 4% of preschool children and 10% of school-age children.
And the reason for this is the insufficient attention of parents to the problem under consideration – as a result (and this is at best), a change in pressure in a teenager is detected only at a preventive examination at school.
Everything that took place before this is ignored: any deviation in well-being is attributed to an “excessive” school load. That is why the disease is detected already at the stage of progression. And only careful attention to the child’s health and correctly implemented preventive measures will help to avoid future problems.
Teenagers 12-17 years old have a very labile psyche. Accordingly, if a family creates comfortable conditions for rest and study, and at the same time carefully monitors the child’s psycho-emotional state, the situation will quickly change in a positive direction. Health education at school, which will deal with occupational hygiene, is also important – each presentation of these issues should highlight the problem of the need to create a comfortable microclimate in the work team (which an institution is for a teenager) and in the family.
With younger children, parents can play and have fun together, arrange home performances and other events where the child can take his own initiative and show off his talent. We must not forget about the great benefits of physical activity and walking in the fresh air.
And even if the child does not present pathognomonic complaints for hypertension or hypotension, it is not worth giving up prevention. After all, it is always better to prevent the manifestation of cardiological pathology than to treat it later, spending enormous forces and means, both moral and material.
The best preventive measures for the occurrence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents is the observance of the principles of a healthy lifestyle, the basis of which is a balanced diet and sufficient movement. Children and adolescents who systematically engage in sports and are not overweight (alimentary obesity), as a rule, do not have any complaints about high blood pressure (hypertension).
Sending children and adolescents with an unstable level to the summer camp Blood pressure (both hypertension and hypotension) is strongly discouraged, as they need constant monitoring by adults, and some adolescents need to take medication constantly.
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