General analysis of urine, norms of indicators and decoding

General urine analysis is a thorough research study of urine in order to detect the health status of specific systems or the body as a whole. The urine test consists of 4 lab treatments that supply information on the structure of urine. It is suggested to perform lab research studies of this item of human important activity at a frequency of a minimum of as soon as every 3 years in order to avoid the advancement of illness and pathological conditions. Below will be explained what a general urine test programs and general suggestions for gathering urine are offered.

Types of urine tests

  • Organoleptic lab evaluation of urine is a research study of a human waste item related to visual examination. Key qualities in organoleptic evaluation: amount, color, smell, foaminess, openness.
  • Physicochemical lab evaluation of urine is the research study of the physical and chemical homes of urine. Key qualities in physical and chemical research study: density and level of acidity.
  • Biochemical lab analysis of urine is the research study of the chemical structure of urine. Key qualities: the quantity of protein in the urine.
  • Microscopic lab evaluation of urine is the most comprehensive research study of the structure of urine in order to identify the number of pathological and non-pathological bacteria. Key qualities: research study of arranged sediment, research study of messy sediment, round research studies.

Basic guidelines for gathering urine for general analysis

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In order to acquire unbiased research study information, it is very important to follow the following concepts of urine collection:

  • The collection should be performed in the early morning. The initially urination is thought about optimum for research study, considering that throughout the night the fluid totally gets the physical and chemical homes of the bladder and the genitourinary system as a whole.
  • Before gathering, it is essential to completely clean the external genital organs utilizing warm water. The usage of soap and other cleaning up representatives, along with medications of main or conventional medication in the application of cleaning, is inappropriate, as it lowers the neutrality of the last research study.
  • It is very important to utilize a sterilized container for gathering and transferring urine in order to prevent presenting foreign bacteria into the collection. You can acquire unique containers for bioassays offered in drug stores, or utilize tight-fitting containers that are formerly disinfected.
  • The day prior to the collection of urine is not permitted the usage of drugs, liquors, energy beverages. In case of going through a course of treatment or the requirement for a one-time consumption of a medical item due to paroxysmal conditions, it is essential to supply this details when moving a container with urine to the lab.

The primary indicators of organoleptic lab urine research study

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  • The quantity of urine excreted daily. It is identified roughly by the visual quantity of urine in the provided container and by questioning the client. In case of suspicion of a pathology, it is suggested to keep track of the client’s diuresis for one to 3 days. Adequate is the quantity of urine equivalent to 70% – 80% of the fluid taken in daily. With a basic diet plan in terms of ml, the quantity of fluid launched is from 1,5 to 2 liters daily. The most typical pathologies of diuresis: polyuria, oliguria, anuria, pollakiuria, olakizuria, dysuria, nocturia, enuresis.
  • Colour. What color needs to the urine be: with a big quantity of produced fluid – from colorless to straw, with a percentage of produced fluid and throughout the early morning application of the act of deurination – from straw to dark yellow. A transformation in the color of urine can be related to a number of various diseases/pathologies: icteric liver disease, glomerulonephritis, hemolytic crisis, pyuria, a number of sexually transmitted illness, and so on.
  • Smell. What urine needs to be: the lack of an excessively sharp or noticable foreign odor. The following smells with a high degree of likelihood suggest the existence of pathologies: acetone, feces, pronounced stink, mouse, fish, chlorine, ammonia. An extra research study of urine is needed in the existence of an extraneous smell in order to determine and distinguish an illness or pathological condition.
  • The degree of foam. The regular structure of urine supplies the following indicators: foam is not plentiful and loose, transparent or with a moderate whitish tint.
  • The degree of openness. The regular structure of urine presumes the lack of pollutants that make urine cloudy.

The primary indicators of physical and chemical lab research study of urine

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  • Density. The indicators of the general analysis of urine for density ought to generally remain in the variety from 1009 to 1025 g/l. The outcomes of urine analysis might vary a little from the above provided standard due to regular physical phenomena – in specific: a boost in ambient temperature level, and so on.
  • The level of acidity index. The research study of urine with a regular structure of urine reveals a level of acidity level from 5 to 7. Important! The level of acidity is considerably affected by the everyday diet plan. In this regard, it is not permitted to utilize level of acidity information as the only ways of identifying illness or pathological conditions.

The primary indicators of biochemical lab research study of urine

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Biochemical evaluation of urine is mainly focused on acquiring information on the existence of protein material in urine. What the analysis of urine reveals at regular protein material: protein concentration not going beyond the level of 0,03 g/l.

In males, this indication might be greater due to the existence of semen in the urine.

If this level is gone beyond, there is a high likelihood of the existence of proteinuria, which can be both an independent illness and a sign of another pathology.

The primary indicators of tiny lab evaluation of urine

  • Organized sediment. Microscopy suggesting pathologies: the existence of epithelium (flat or round), an increased material of erythrocytes (hemotest and exemption of possible internal bleeding is suggested) or leukocytes.
  • Unorganized sediment. Deciphering the analysis of urine might have information on the material of the following unfavorable elements: uric acid, urates, oxalates, sulphate lime, phosphates, tripel phosphates, ammonium urate.
  • Cylindruria. Normal urine indicators recommend the lack of the following type of tiny cylinders in its structure: hyaline, granular, waxy, epithelial, erythrocytic, leukocytic. In the existence of any of the types of these pathogenic micronutrient, extra diagnostics are needed in order to determine pathology.

When performing urinalysis in grownups, it is very important to utilize the optimum number of types of research study in order to get a more total medical photo. If pathologies are spotted, extra extremely specific research studies are appointed. In the lack of pathological conditions, the client does not get a comprehensive decoding of the outcomes gotten with totally free tests. However, today it is possible to acquire a records of blood online.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.