Encephalopathy is a complex concept that combines the numerous syndromes of diffuse cerebral lesion, which is based on dysmetabolism and death of neurons. The idea of combining polyetiological cerebral diseases into one group arose in connection with the commonality of their pathogenesis and morphological changes. The term is formed by the fusion of the Greek words “encephalon” – the brain and “pathos” – the disease. Encephalopathy includes 2 groups of diseases: perinatal and acquired encephalopathy.
The concept of perinatal encephalopathy was introduced in 1976 and implies cerebral lesions that occur from the 28th week of pregnancy to the 7th day of life. Perinatal encephalopathy manifests itself in children in the first months of life. Acquired encephalopathy is secondary in nature and is noted mainly in adults, more often in middle-aged and elderly people, in the presence of severe chronic diseases, after injuries, intoxications, etc. Encephalopathy is an interdisciplinary pathology that, in accordance with the etiology, requires attention from specialists in areas of neurology, pediatrics, traumatology, narcology, toxicology, urology.
- What is the basis of encephalopathy?
- What is encephalopathy of mixed origin?
- Signs of encephalopathy
- Encephalopathy of mixed origin: developmental causes, symptoms, treatment
- Patient examination
- Mixed Genesis Discirculatory Encephalopathy
- Prognosis and prevention of encephalopathy
- Preventive measures
What is the basis of encephalopathy?
In contrast to the typical pathological processes that underlie focal symptoms (ischemia or hemorrhage during a stroke, inflammation of the brain substance in encephalitis, etc.), dystrophy of the nervous tissue is the basis of encephalopathy. This process is never sudden, but should take some time. For example, at high pressure a hypertensive lesion develops that affects a person for a number of years.
A significantly shorter period is required for the development of toxic encephalopathy, which occurs, for example, due to the use of alcohol substitutes. Sometimes one episode suffices, so that as a result of the massive death of neurons, pronounced neurological symptoms appear. Dystrophy of the nervous tissue is manifested in the form of death of individual neurons, a decrease in synapses between them and deterioration of blood flow due to the development of cerebral arteriosclerosis.
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But, as practice shows, dystrophy and necrosis, that is, death of nerve cells in encephalopathy are not as noticeable as a large lesion in stroke. Since this process is scattered both in time and in space (along the entire cerebral cortex and white matter), according to MRI data, only flattening of furrows and convolutions and a decrease in the thickness of the cortex can be seen.
This indirectly indicates a decrease in the volume of the substance of the brain. In addition, one can never be sure that the cause of dystrophy was any particular and only factor (except for the toxic and hypoxic forms). Almost all causes of encephalopathy, especially in old age – of complex, or mixed origin (post-traumatic, hypertensive and other forms).
What is encephalopathy of mixed origin?
There are many reasons for the manifestation of discirculatory encephalopathy of mixed origin. Among them: cerebrovascular accident, metabolic and endocrine system abnormalities (endemic goiter or diabetes mellitus), alcoholism and traumatic brain injuries.
A serious reason for the formation of mixed encephalopathy can be residual encephalopathy (congenital CNS pathologies), hypoxia (lung oncology, obstructive pulmonary disease and uncontrolled bronchial asthma) – respiratory failure, hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, surgical treatment of brain pathologies and intoxication of the body ( , heavy metals).
It is customary to prescribe nootropic drugs characterized by a vasodilating effect (Piracetam, Ceraxon, Cerebrolysin and Encephabol). Cognitive abnormalities undergo typical therapy in the form of Memantine, Galantamine, Gliatillin, Amiridin and Remanil.
Since patients suffered the stress of oxidative etiology, they are prescribed treatment with antioxidants – Bilobil, Actovegin, Mexidol and Cytoflavin. In the condition of a chronic condition, Cavinton, Sermion, Vinpocetine or Vazobral is prescribed.
In a situation where deviations of the vestibular apparatus are observed, Betaserk, Belloid and Thiethylperazone are used.
Therapy of emotional disturbances is often performed with the help of Fluoxitine, Zoloft, Citramil and Paxil. During asthenia, Magnesium B6, Fenotropil, Enerion and Nooklerin are prescribed.
Neurosis is treated with Phenibut, Novopassit, Mezapam and Glycine.
In addition, a significant effect is given by exercise therapy, acupuncture, balneotherapy, massage and vitamin complexes.
Sometimes patients are prescribed surgery – in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels of the brain.
In most cases, endovascular interventions and stenting are performed in conditions of vasoconstriction.
A healthy lifestyle is the surest and most reliable way to keep your body in good shape. This measure also applies to the prevention of encephalopathy.
Therefore, it is important to monitor your body weight, nutrition, activity of the day, daily routine (work-rest), blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
From your menu you need to exclude mayonnaise, smoked meats, fatty and fried meat, butter, eggs, margarine, muffins, unrefined vegetable oil, easily digestible pasta, alcohol and salt.
You should add brown rice, low-fat sour-milk products, seafood and boiled fish, low-fat cheese varieties, hazelnuts, linseed and corn oil, fresh vegetables, berries and herbs, as well as freshly squeezed juices, into the diet.
In addition, it is recommended to limit the daily intake of fluid – no more than 1,5 liters, and the last meal should be at least 2 hours before bedtime.
If the diagnosis is determined, then it is necessary to strictly adhere to all the recommendations and prescriptions of the doctor, as well as regularly undergo a medical examination.
This diagnosis is present as a concomitant in most cases in elderly people who turned to a neurologist with complaints of a “head”. For example, a patient with a long history of hypertension is diagnosed with hypertensive encephalopathy. After a brain concussion, meningitis, and as a result of long-term alcohol abuse, the patient is diagnosed with encephalopathy of mixed origin.
Encephalopathy of complex etiology is the result of several ailments. which often makes treatment difficult.
It is customary to prescribe nootropic drugs. characterized by a vasodilating effect (Piracetam, Ceraxon, Cerebrolysin and Encephabol). Cognitive abnormalities undergo typical therapy in the form of Memantine, Galantamine, Gliatillin, Amiridin and Remanil.
Encephalopathy of mixed genesis appears as a result of exposure to several destructive pathological processes. It develops gradually and can have a reversible and irreversible character.
This disease does not apply to independent pathologies. It is a consequence of past illnesses or a head injury of varying severity. In medicine, the causes of encephalopathy are precisely determined. They are divided into congenital and acquired.
Perinatal encephalopathy refers to congenital. Occurs when:
- Intracranial injuries sustained by the infant during childbirth
- Umbilical cord entrapment or during labor
- Metabolic disorders
- Fetal hypoxia
- Pathological brain development
- Defects of the central nervous system
- Genetic abnormalities
Acquired reasons are divided into several main subgroups:
- Disciplinary processes. Sudden pressure drops, chronic disorganization of cerebral blood supply, disruption of the cardiovascular system.
- Post-traumatic. It develops against the background of open and closed craniocerebral injuries. Appearance after surgical treatment is also possible.
- Metabolic. It occurs with endocrine pathologies or with metabolic disorders caused by pathological changes in internal organs. The most common: endemic goiter, diabetes mellitus of any form and pathology of the digestive tract.
- Hypoxic Occurs with insufficient external respiration. This deficiency appears in severe forms of lung diseases, bronchial asthma, in the presence of malignant and benign neoplasms in the lungs.
- Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The risk of encephalopathy increases with severe pyramidal insufficiency.
- Toxic The systematic use of poisonous drugs and narcotic drugs, as well as alcoholic beverages, the systematic use of medicines.
- Beam. Appears when exposed to radiation.
The combination of several provoking factors cause the appearance of encephalopathy of mixed origin. The most common combination is vascular encephalopathy, which develops against the background of atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and mixed encephalopathy, combining hepatic, post-traumatic and alcoholic forms.
Symptoms of encephalopathy of mixed origin depend on many conditions: the causes of development, duration and stage of pathology, the presence of more than two factors that negatively affect nerve cells.
The most common symptoms characteristic of various forms of pathology:
- Vestibular disorders
- Sharp, throbbing headaches
- Noise in the head
- Hearing and vision impairment
- Frequent mood swings
- Unstable emotional state
- Irritability and irritability
- Decreased concentration and memory
- Speech impairment
- Chronic malaise and fatigue
- Sleep Disorders
In the initial stage, changes in the body occur when the weather changes, in stressful situations and with great physical exertion.
The brightness of the symptoms directly depends on the stage of the pathology. In medical practice, there are three main stages in the development of encephalopathy of mixed origin:
In the first stage, mild cognitive impairment and asthenia occur. Forgetfulness begins, sleep disturbance, minor disorders of memory and attention. Excessive irritability and a frequent change of mood appear. At this stage, the disease is easily treatable.
At the subcompensated stage, the clinical picture remains unchanged, however, the symptoms become brighter and more constant. It is characterized by the progression of signs of the first stage. Strong fluctuations in blood pressure, migraine, amnesia and distraction appear. Violations of intellectual abilities are increasing.
Tinnitus and constant headaches of a different nature are observed. The psychoemotional state is unstable. A person becomes depressed, resentful and tearful. Severe depression or paranoia may develop. At this stage, treatment is aimed at reducing the degree of symptoms. It is impossible to completely get rid of pathology.
The decompensated stage of development is characterized by atrophy of certain parts of the brain. Attacks of parkinsonism appear, dementia develops and, as a result, the neurotransmitter system is disrupted. Body weight decreases sharply, behavior becomes uncontrollable, headaches are strong and persistent, and tinnitus also interferes more and more. At this stage, only symptomatic treatment is carried out.
This disease develops gradually and significantly reduces the quality of life. Therefore, at the first symptoms, you should consult a doctor to prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Encephalopathy is a brain lesion caused by a high dependence of brain tissue on the flow of oxygen from the bloodstream. Without a constant and stable level of tissue oxygen supply, brain cells can survive for no more than 6 minutes, after which the process of dying begins. The sensitivity of nerve tissues to the effects of toxic substances entering the body from the outside or produced in the body by infectious agents, organs with impaired functions, also leads to an increased risk of diffuse damage to nerve tissues.
Trigger factors that can result in perinatal encephalopathy include fetal hypoxia, intrauterine infections and intoxications, Rhesus conflict, asphyxiation of the newborn, birth trauma, genetically determined metabolic disorders and developmental abnormalities (e.g., congenital heart defects). The risk of perinatal pathology increases with abnormalities of labor, a large fetus, premature birth and prematurity of a newborn, a narrow pelvis, cord entwining.
Acquired encephalopathy can develop as a result of a traumatic brain injury, exposure to ionizing radiation, intoxication with chemical neurotropic (ethyl alcohol, lead, chloroform, drugs, barbiturates) and bacterial (with diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, etc.) toxins. Encephalopathies due to vascular disorders are widespread: atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, venous discirculation, cerebral angiopathy with amylomidosis, leading to chronic cerebral ischemia. A large group consists of encephalopathies associated with exposure to endotoxins and which are a complication of various diseases of somatic organs: acute pancreatitis, acute and chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure.
Diseases of the lungs leading to a disorder of pulmonary ventilation (pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis, pulmonary embolism) provoke encephalopathy of hypoxic origin. Encephalopathy, observed in a number of patients after resuscitation, has a similar genesis. Glucose is important in cerebral metabolism. Encephalopathy can develop both with a decrease in its level (hypoglycemia), and with its increase (hyperglycemia), which is often observed in diabetes mellitus. The cause of metabolic cerebral disorders is hypovitaminosis (primarily a lack of vitamins gr. B). In some cases, encephalopathy is a consequence of a decrease in osmotic pressure and hyponatremia that arose due to water retention during hypersecretion of the antidiuretic hormone (with hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, tumor processes, etc.). Leukoencephalopathy, which has a viral etiology and is noted in immunocompromised patients, is rare.
Signs of encephalopathy
It is known that encephalopathy is expressed by a large number of various symptoms that are not closely related to each other. Most often, patients present the following complaints:
- diffuse headaches;
- memory loss for current events;
- reduced concentration;
- poor sleep at night, drowsiness in the daytime;
- difficulties in performing clear professional skills;
- rapid exhaustion with mental stress;
- various options for dizziness;
- narrowing the circle of interests;
- apathy, lethargy, lack of initiative;
- noise in the head.
As a rule, the symptoms of the disease are very similar to the manifestations of dementia and Alzheimer’s, only in the early stages. Such a mixed clinical picture with various variants of the lesion made it possible to classify encephalopathy by stages or degrees.
Encephalopathy of 1 (initial) degree does not imply severe disorders. As a rule, they arise with significant mental stress or during stressful situations and reflect the brain’s unpreparedness to maintain reserves.
Encephalopathy of the 2nd degree is manifested by the progression of symptoms, personality changes occur. A person becomes moody, tearful, irritable, a significant decrease in memory joins. There is untidiness in everyday life, indifference and inattention to loved ones, outbreaks of causeless aggression are possible. The patient cannot perform many tasks, but in everyday life he is able to independently service himself.
The third degree of the disease is characterized by the inability of the patient to serve himself in everyday life, it may be difficult or complete lack of verbal contact, urinary incontinence, impaired walking. Perhaps the addition of extrapyramidal disorders, for example, secondary parkinsonism appears. The patient has severe dementia. Many functions that are normally under the inhibitory effect of the cerebral cortex are disinhibited, for example, gluttony appears.
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Thus, any dystrophic lesion of the cerebral cortex, in which there is no well-established factor (hypoxia, or exposure to toxins) is encephalopathy of mixed origin. And a specialist doctor needs to spend a lot of energy to stop the progression of the disease, and in some cases to get a lasting positive effect. The younger the patient, the greater the chance of a full recovery.
In accordance with the etiological factor, encephalopathy is classified into post-traumatic, toxic, metabolic, vascular (discirculatory), radiation. Post-traumatic encephalopathy refers to the long-term consequences of head injury and can develop several years after it. Toxic options include alcoholic encephalopathy observed in chronic alcoholism, as well as cerebral disorders that occur in drug addicts. Metabolic options: hepatic (portosystemic, bilirubin), uremic (azotemic), diabetic, pancreatic, hypoglycemic, hypoxic, anoxic encephalopathy and Gaillier-Wernicke syndrome. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy is divided into atherosclerotic, hypertonic, venous. A separate form of hypertensive encephalopathy is Binswanger’s disease.
In clinical practice, grading of encephalopathy in severity is used, however, this distinction is very arbitrary. I severity implies a subclinical course, i.e., the absence of manifestations in the presence of cerebral changes recorded by instrumental diagnostic methods. At this stage, pathology can be diagnosed during a dispensary examination of patients with chronic, primarily vascular, diseases. The presence of mild or moderate neurological symptoms, often of a transient nature, characterizes the II degree of severity. With grade III, severe neurological disorders are observed, in most cases causing the patient to be disabled.
Encephalopathy of mixed origin: developmental causes, symptoms, treatment
The primary diagnosis of encephalopathy is carried out by a neurologist according to the results of a survey and a neurological examination. Additionally, a comprehensive instrumental neurological examination is carried out: electroencephalography, echoencephalography, rheoencephalography or ultrasound of the vessels of the head. EEG, as a rule, reveals a diffuse disorganization of the bioelectric activity of the brain with the appearance of slow waves. Possible detection of epi activity. Echo-EG allows you to evaluate intracranial pressure. Vascular studies provide information on the state of cerebral circulation. The degree of morphological changes can be analyzed using brain MRI. This method also allows you to differentiate encephalopathy from other cerebral diseases: Alzheimer’s disease, intracerebral tumor, encephalitis, disseminated encephalomyelitis, stroke, corticobasal degeneration, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, etc.
Of great importance in understanding the etiology of encephalopathy is the collection of anamnesis, examination of somatic organs and consultations with related specialists: a cardiologist, nephrologist, gastroenterologist, endocrinologist, pulmonologist, narcologist. According to the testimony, hormone tests, determination of cholesterol and blood sugar, urinalysis, blood and urine biochemistry, ultrasound of the liver, pancreatic ultrasound, excretory urography, ultrasound of the urinary system, CT of the kidneys, chest x-ray, CT of the lungs, etc. are performed.
Acute encephalopathy is an indication for urgent hospitalization and urgent therapy. It may require measures such as mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, and parenteral nutrition. In the treatment of both acute and chronic encephalopathy, the leading place belongs to the treatment of causative disease. With intoxication, detoxification is carried out, including the introduction of infusion solutions; in case of dysmetabolic disorders – metabolic correction (selection of a dose of sugar-lowering drugs or insulin, administration of glucose solution, iv administration of thiamine). Hepatitis, cirrhosis, pancreatitis, nephritis, lung diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis are being treated. It is recommended that a diet corresponding to the main pathology, and a regimen appropriate to the patient’s condition.
The presence of an ischemic component in the pathogenesis of encephalopathy is an indication for the appointment of vascular therapy: pentoxifylline, ticlopidine, vinpocetine, nicergoline. Atherosclerotic encephalopathy requires the inclusion of hypolipidemic pharmaceuticals (for example, simvastatin, gemfibrozil in the treatment regimen). Therapy of hypertensive encephalopathy is carried out with the appointment of antihypertensive drugs and monitoring of blood pressure. If discirculatory encephalopathy is caused by occlusion of the carotid arteries or vertebral artery, surgical treatment is possible: reconstruction or prosthetics of the vertebral artery, carotid endarterectomy, carotid-subclavian bypass surgery, creation of extra-intracranial anastomosis.
Neuroprotective and metabolic therapy is mandatory. It includes nootropics (hopantenic acid, piracetam, pyritinol, lucetam), amino acids (glycine, glutamic acid), vitamins (B1, B6, C, E), GABA preparations (picamilon, phenibut). With mental disorders, psychotropic drugs are needed: diazepam, bromides, droperidol, phenozepam. With convulsions, anticonvulsant therapy is performed, nootropics are contraindicated. Pharmacotherapy is carried out by repeated courses 2-3 times a year. As an auxiliary treatment, physiotherapy methods are used: reflexology, electrophoresis, magnetotherapy.
It is possible to diagnose mixed encephalopathy, its form and stage of development only in stationary conditions. For this, a detailed history is collected and a complete examination of the body is carried out, which consists in the following procedures:
- Visual examination by a neurologist
- Testing for laboratory tests
- Blood test for creatinine, cholesterol, glucose
- Biochemical blood test
- Blood test for antibodies
- Blood pressure control
With the manifestation of signs of encephalopathy of mixed genesis, an additional examination is prescribed using special medical equipment:
- Transcranial dopplerography
- Ultrasound examination of extracranial arteries
- MRI of the brain vessels
- Computed tomography of the brain
- EEG and Encephalography
- Magnetic resonance angiography of the vessels of the head
Such an examination allows you to get detailed information about the general state of health, to identify the causes of the development of pathology and to choose the necessary therapeutic course.
Treatment of mixed encephalopathy is aimed at eradicating the factors that provoke the development of the disease and relieve acute symptoms. The course and method are selected according to the stage of development of pathology and the presence of concomitant diseases.
The treatment course for encephalopathy of mixed genesis is:
- Lifestyle changes
- Drug therapy
- Non-drug therapy
- Surgical treatment
The habitual way of life is initially changing. Nutrition is being adjusted: consumption of salt, simple carbohydrates and animal fats is reduced. Smoking, alcohol and drugs are excluded. If necessary, normalized body mass index.
Pharmacological drugs are prescribed depending on pathological factors. These can be antihypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic drugs, diuretics, enzymes, neuro and angio protectors, sedatives, vitamins, and vasodilators.
As supporting methods, a course of physiotherapeutic procedures, massage, acupuncture and physiotherapy exercises are prescribed.
Surgery is indicated in the last stage of the development of pathology with damage to cerebral vessels with atherosclerotic plaques.
The most effective treatment of encephalopathy of mixed origin in the early stages of development. Therefore, do not neglect the first symptoms. When they appear, it is urgent to contact a neurologist.
In the productive treatment of this serious ailment, one of the most important stages is the correctly performed diagnosis, since based on the results obtained, a course of necessary therapy is prescribed.
To identify mixed encephalopathy, its severity and form of manifestation, the following steps are performed:
- Complaints of the patient.
- History taking.
- Neuropsychological analysis of memory, attention and intelligence.
- CT and MRI.
- Ultrasound examination of cerebral vessels.
- ECHO and EEG.
- X-ray contrast angiography.
- Blood pressure measurement and electrocardiogram.
- Analysis of blood components.
If necessary, the patient is prescribed a visit to specialists – an otolaryngologist, an ophthalmologist and a cardiologist.
A differential type examination is prescribed for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, chronic neuroinfectious pathologies, alcoholic or hypothyroid encephalopathy, as well as Parkinson’s disease and other abnormalities.
Mixed Genesis Discirculatory Encephalopathy
As a rule, mixed-origin discirculatory encephalopathy is diagnosed at a time when the affected area is significant, accompanied by additional changes.
Often patients turn to a specialist after an ischemic stroke or no less fatal hypertensive crisis, which is accompanied by headache, mental disorders of certain degrees of severity.
When a doctor has discovered the presence of atherosclerosis or diabetes, the patient is diagnosed with mixed encephalopathy.
The early stages of the development of pathology are characterized by the following symptoms:
- Mnestic (loss of mental performance).
- Affective (depressive state and psychosis).
- Paranoid (truth-fighter syndrome).
Encephalopathy of complex origin – what is it? This disease, which boils down to the presence of undiagnosed bases or the presence of a mixed etiology.
Encephalopathy of complex genesis manifests itself as a typical pathology in the form of internal depression. migraine. tears and causeless mood swings.
Subsequent degrees are burdened by impaired memory. concentration of attention, tinnitus, dizziness, flashes in front of the eyes and a feeling of intoxication.
In addition, at the time of the conversation, the patient may lose the topic of conversation, being distracted by something else.
Rarely, but it may happen that the first stage of the disease is accompanied by a feeling of “failing” during movement and deviations in speech.
Encephalopathy of mixed genesis of the 2nd degree is a stage at which a complication of the condition occurs, which manifests itself in the form of microstrokes, paralysis of the extremities, pathological reflexes, angiosclerosis and dilation of the fundus veins.
In a situation where a person with a discirculatory disease does not inform the doctor about his problems, encephalopathy acquires a more severe (third) degree of existence.
Along with this, the patient’s gait changes (walking pace, instability during bends, shuffling or mincing steps, falls, the need for outside help), speech, swallowing reflex, as well as difficulties in expressing emotions.
In this case, the final stage of the discirculatory pathology is reduced to the loss of control over the emptying of the contents of the bladder and intestines, and mental abnormalities can provoke parkinsonism, muscle twitching and cramps.
When a doctor has discovered the presence of atherosclerosis or diabetes, the patient is diagnosed with mixed encephalopathy.
Encephalopathy of a complex genesis manifests itself as a typical pathology in the form of internal depression, migraine, tears and an unreasonable change in mood.
Subsequent degrees are aggravated by impaired memory, concentration of attention, tinnitus, dizziness, flashes in front of the eyes and a feeling of intoxication.
Prognosis and prevention of encephalopathy
It is well known that the occurrence of encephalopathy, as a rule, is not an independent process, but is caused by other pathologies of the body, or external causes. Therefore, to prevent organic disorders of the brain tissue, factors that can lead to them must be avoided. This means that the prevention of cardiovascular pathologies, metabolic diseases, dysfunctions of the bone system and liver in many cases will help prevent premature development of the syndrome.
It is necessary to remember the need for a healthy lifestyle, getting rid of bad habits, refusing to use harmful substances. We should not forget about the prevention of injuries that pose a direct threat to the head. Pregnant women are advised to take care of their unborn baby, the normal course of pregnancy, control it with the help of specialists and follow their instructions.
In many cases, the prognosis of secondary encephalopathy determines how effectively causative pathology can be treated. The outcome of therapy also depends on the degree of cerebral changes that have occurred. In some cases, stabilization of encephalopathy is considered a positive effect. With further progression, encephalopathy reaches the III degree and leads to severe neurological and emotional-psychological disorders that invalidate the patient. In the case of perinatal or acute encephalopathy, the outcome depends on the massiveness and severity of the damage to the brain tissue. Acute toxic encephalopathies are often accompanied by deep and irreversible brain damage.
Prevention of perinatal encephalopathy is a question of the correct choice of the method of delivery, adequate management of pregnancy, compliance with the rules for caring for the newborn. Prevention of secondary encephalopathy is the timely detection and adequate treatment of vascular, urological, gastroenterological diseases, pulmonary pathology, endocrine and metabolic disorders. As preventive measures, you can consider proper nutrition, an active lifestyle, quitting smoking, drugs and alcohol.
Progressive encephalopathy of mixed genesis can not only reduce a person’s quality of life, but also lead to inhibition of brain activity, dementia and disability. To prevent the development of this ailment, the following preventive measures must be observed:
- Lead an active lifestyle and exercise regularly
- Eat balanced and rationally
- Monitor blood pressure
- Give up all bad habits
- Exclude head injuries
- Hiking in the fresh air for 30-40 minutes required
- Regularly carry out a neck and collar massage course
- Systematically take a course of acupuncture and aromatherapy
To completely exclude all provoking factors, when planning pregnancy, a woman and a man need to be fully examined, consult a geneticist, and undergo treatment if necessary.
The main prevention of mixed encephalopathy is to maintain the general health of the body. You should regularly undergo a full examination. In the treatment of various diseases, all doctor’s recommendations should be strictly observed and do not interrupt the therapeutic course yourself. This approach eliminates the appearance of chronic pathological processes, which will reduce the risk of mixed encephalopathy.
While watching the video you will learn about the treatment of encephalopathy.
Mixed encephalopathy is a complex pathology that requires a thorough examination and is treated for a long period of time. With running forms, full recovery is not possible. Therefore, at the first manifestations of the disease, you can not self-medicate. It is necessary to consult a doctor and undergo a full therapeutic course.
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