Causes and methods for identifying rheumatoid factor

With arthritis, markers of inflammation appear in it – an increase in ESR (more than 10 mm / hour in men, 15 in women), leukocytosis (more than 10 x 10 ^ 9 / l). These are non-specific indicators that change with any inflammatory process. But the acceleration of ESR over 40 mm / hour may indicate an exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis or its prognostically unfavorable course.

With a special variant of the disease – Felty’s syndrome – the spleen is affected. In the UAC, neutropenia (the number of neutrophils is less than 48%) and thrombocytopenia (the number of platelets is less than 180 x 10 ^ 9 / l) are observed.

With rheumatoid arthritis, the level and activity of anti-inflammatory cytokines significantly increases. They affect the metabolism of iron, the life span of red blood cells, their bone marrow production. A picture of anemia appears in the blood. Most often, it is hypochromic and microcytic. It is characterized by:

  • decreased hemoglobin (in women below 120, men – 130 g / l);
  • decrease in MCV (mean red blood cell volume) – less than 80 fl;
  • decrease in color index (less than 0,85);
  • reactive thrombocytosis – the number of platelets is more than 320 x 10 ^ 9 / l.

Anemia can be aggravated by the use of drugs. Some basic drugs with prolonged use have a toxic effect on blood cells. So, methotrexate quite often causes megaloblastic anemia, gold preparations and sulfasalazine – aplastic. Severe anemia may be a contraindication for plasmapheresis in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid factor, for the most part, refers to class M immunoglobulins (IgM) and is an antibody to its own, but modified by pathogenic microflora immunoglobulins G (IgG).

In the acute period of the disease, the RF is produced by cells of the inflamed synovial (articular) membrane. When it enters the bloodstream, it forms active immune complexes (antigen – antibody), which damage the sheath of the joints and the walls of the blood vessels.

When the pathological process is chronic, the rheumatoid factor is already secreted not only by the synovial membrane, but also by the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, rheumatoid nodules, etc.

Note: with age, the concentration of the Russian Federation may increase. This is due to the physiological aging of the body, therefore, almost half of people over 65 years of age are stably increased.

An analysis in the Russian Federation is a highly sensitive diagnostic test, which allows to determine the presence of an autoimmune pathology with an accuracy of 90%. However, this study does not have the same high specificity, so every fourth result is false positive. This is explained by the fact that the nature of the Russian Federation has not yet been fully studied by specialists, but it is known for certain that antibodies of this class are produced on almost any inflammatory process in the body that proceeds in a chronic form.

  • Symptoms characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis:
    • joint pain and aches;
    • increase in local temperature;
    • redness;
    • swelling;
    • feeling of stiffness;
    • decrease in range of motion;
    • muscle weakness, etc .;
  • Signs of Sjogren’s syndrome:
    • drying of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, eyeballs, etc .;
    • dry and flaky skin;
    • pain and aches in muscles, joints;
  • Screening diagnostics for suspected autoimmune disorders or non-immune inflammatory pathologies;
  • Differential diagnosis of autoimmune processes from other diseases of the musculoskeletal system;
  • Prescribing and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome.

Decipher the test results for the rheumatoid factor can specialists: rheumatologist, cardiologist, therapist, pediatrician, family doctor.

How is the analysis

A blood test for rheumatoid factor, involves compliance with certain requirements. Since there is a likelihood of a false positive result.

When conducting incorrect diagnostics, it is possible to prescribe inappropriate treatment that can impair the patient’s health. Therefore, it is recommended that you adhere to the following basic rules:

  • perform diagnostic tests on an empty stomach;
  • it is recommended to exclude the use of clean drinking water before blood sampling;
  • in about one day, you should refrain from drinking alcohol-containing drinks and nicotine;
  • it is recommended to refrain from physical activity about one day before the diagnostic study;
  • for several days, it is recommended to remove high-calorie foods from the usual diet.

The analysis and decryption take place in the laboratory, at a medical institution. In biochemical analysis, the patient’s blood is taken from a vein.

Also, if necessary, additional tests and examinations can be prescribed by a medical specialist.

What does the indicator mean?

Many ask what analysis shows? Rheumatoid factor (RF) – antibodies against endogenous immunoglobulin G. It belongs to the immunoglobulins IgM, IgG, IgA or IgE. RF is an important part of the differential diagnosis of rheumatism. RF is positive in about half of patients with RA. However, it can be increased in analyzes and with other diseases of the muscular or skeletal system.

Not all patients with a high concentration of RF in the blood really suffer from rheumatism. The test can show a positive result in about 5% of healthy people under the age of 50 and in 15% of 70-year-old women and men.

Proteins are produced by B cells and can circulate in the blood. Their role in healthy people and in patients with RA is unknown. In approximately 60-80% of people with RA, RF is determined during the entire duration of the disease. However, RF results are positive in less than 40% of patients with early RA. RF levels vary depending on disease activity, although even patients with drug-induced remissions usually have high RF concentrations.

RF circulates in the blood and with other connective tissue disorders, autoimmune disorders and pro-inflammatory conditions. Thus, the Russian Federation is not considered specific for RA.

The results of a blood test for the content of rheumatoid factor may be positive in patients without RA who have the following diseases:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Polymyositis;
  • Tuberculosis;
  • Syphilis;
  • Viral hepatitis;
  • Infectious mononucleosis;
  • Flu.

The reasons may be different. The results should be interpreted by the doctor, since the Russian Federation is not a pathognomonic sign.

RA – chronic autoimmune peripheral polyarthropathy of unknown etiogenesis. The diagnosis of RA is made on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the results of clinical and laboratory studies, since the test results are not pathognomonic. Patients with suspected RA are advised to undergo the following biochemical studies:

  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR);
  • C-reactive protein (CRP);
  • Complete blood count (KLA);
  • Analysis in the Russian Federation;
  • ANA analysis;
  • Assay for antibodies to citrulline cyclic pept >

Comparative diagnostic sensitivity with less specificity for ADC is provided by the new ELISA test based on mutant citrulinated vimentin. Initial studies of this test show the relationship of antibody concentration with disease activity and severity of RA. For a final diagnosis, further results from other independent examinations are required to be taken into account.

False negative and false positive test results for the Russian Federation are common in patients with and without RA. Patients without RA have an 8% chance of false results. It is impossible to increase or decrease the chance of an incorrect result.

Due to its poor specificity and insufficient prognostic value, the Russian Federation is only one of the tests used to diagnose RA. It should not be prescribed to each individual patient.

When deciphering the results, it should be borne in mind that the norms and deviations for different laboratories may differ. Therefore, it is important to conduct an examination and treatment in the same clinic.

The generally accepted norm for the Russian Federation is considered to be 0-30 IU / ml.

The results obtained must be evaluated as follows:

  • 30-50 MED / ml – slightly elevated RF (has no diagnostic value);
  • 50-100 IU / ml – increased factor;
  • from 100 IU / ml – significantly increased (indicates a critical condition or an unfavorable prognosis for the treatment of autoimmune diseases).

An increase in the values ​​of the rheumatoid factor is characteristic of many diseases, therefore, for making an accurate diagnosis and determining effective treatment tactics, a number of other studies are necessary.

Factors of influence on the result:

  • Age – the older the patient, the higher the risk of a false positive result;
  • Increased C-reactive protein in the acute period of the inflammatory process;
  • The presence in the body of antibodies to viral proteins;
  • Active allergic processes;
  • Mutation of antibodies;
  • Violation of the blood sampling process by a health worker;
  • Violation of the rules for preparing for venipuncture by the patient.

The main cause of deviations from normal indications is rheumatoid arthritis. This disease is today considered incurable. The diagnostic tests described above help to detect the initial stages of the formation of the disease. But for a more detailed picture, the doctor usually prescribes additional studies. In the course of which it is possible to judge the stage of the disease and its variants:

    Felty’s syndrome, is one of the varieties of rheumato >

Also, the following factors may be the reason for the deviation from normal indicators:

  • severe inflammatory process;
  • chronic inflammatory process that occurs in the liver, kidneys, respiratory organs, bone and muscle tissues;
  • autoimmune pathologies, leading to the destruction of connective tissue, glands;
  • the presence of leukopenia;
  • an increase in white blood cells in the blood;
  • the presence of myeloma;
  • surgical intervention;
  • lupus;
  • malignant formation.

The above diseases are quite dangerous for human life and health, therefore, it is recommended to perform timely diagnostic tests, and most importantly, to carry out the correct treatment. Only in this case is it possible to avoid the appearance of various complications.

Varieties of analysis

To date, the following methods are used in medical practice that determine the rheumatoid factor in a blood test:

  • use of latex test. During testing, latex-aggregated human immunoglobulins (type G) are used, agglutinating in the presence of a rheumatic factor. Testing allows you to detect the presence or absence in the blood of a patient, rheumatoid factor. Using it is impossible to figure out the number of units. Testing is fast enough, at a very reasonable price category. It is used mainly for screening diagnostics. This diagnosis is characterized by a large number of false positive results, so you should not rely solely on its indications, before prescribing therapeutic treatment;
  • used in the rarest cases, the Waaler-Rose test. It determines passive agglutination with sheep erythrocytes coated with anti-erythrocyte serum made from rabbit blood;
  • determination using nephelometric and turbidimetric studies. This technique not only helps to detect rheumatoid factor in a blood test, but also indicate its quantitative values, determined in IU / ml;
  • the most accurate of the above tests is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The method well determines, not determined by the above methods, autoantibodies of types A, E, G, which make up ten percent of a specific protein. This technique has received the most widespread use, since it has been established that it is the most accurate and reliable.

These methods help in a short time to establish the presence of rheumatoid arthritis, while eliminating the similar symptoms of the disease.

Rheumatoid factor increased

A positive result (increased rheumatic factor level) is possible in the following situations:

    rheumato >

The clinical picture of most of these diseases is characterized by damage to the joints, blood vessels and surrounding tissues: connective, epithelial, epidermis and dermis;

  • other pathological conditions:
    • endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart);
    • Borreliosis (Lyme disease – an infectious disease transmitted by ticks);
    • malaria (a life-threatening infectious disease transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus and accompanied by severe bouts of fever);
    • mononucleosis (acute viral pathology, which is characterized by damage to the lymph nodes, pharynx, spleen, liver, changes in blood composition and severe fever);
    • chronic hepatitis (active form);
    • thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the walls of the vein and the formation of a thrombus blocking its lumen);
    • syphilis (sexually transmitted sexually transmitted disease);
    • tuberculosis (a highly infectious disease that affects the lungs, bones, joints, intestines), etc.
  • granulomatous lesions of tissues of internal organs with the formation of granulomas in them:
  • oncological processes;
  • macroglobulinemia (impaired production of plasma cells, Waldenstrom disease);
  • viral infections (congenital cytomegaly (the formation of giant cells in the tissues of newborns) in newborns).

The norms of the Russian Federation in adult women and men

  • Lower limit for men and women: none.
  • Upper limit: 10 or 20 international units per milliliter (IU / ml), depending on the measurement method.

After it was found out what the value of Rf means, the rheumatoid factor norm in women should be considered in the table, and also allowable and strong deviations from normal values ​​should be established.

Возрастная группаValues ​​in units / ml
From 11 to 18 years of age12
From 18 to 50 years12, 5-14
From 50 years and older10

The norm for women according to the table allows deviations of several units, but with a strong discrepancy of indications, a more complete examination should be carried out and adequate treatment should be started.

Medical specialists decipher the results, in which it is determined whether the rheumatoid factor is increased or not:

  • permissible excess of the norm from 25 to 58 IU / ml;
  • a significant degree of discrepancy – from 50 to 98 IU / ml;
  • a high degree of deviation from normal readings from 100 IU / ml and above.

In women, there are short-term increases in the rheumatoid factor, returning to normal, after some time. This condition is characteristic of women after childbirth, as well as after surgery.

The age of the patient also depends, for example, if a woman is more than sixty years old, then slight increases in the rheumatoid factor are considered acceptable.

It should be remembered that a certain group of medications also contributes to an increase in the value of the rheumatoid factor.

It is important, however, to remember that a high degree of deviation from normal indications is a consequence of a serious disease that requires accurate diagnosis and correctly prescribed treatment.

If in adult women and men, normal values ​​will range from 0 to 14 U / ml, then in childhood, the indicators should not exceed 12. 5 U / ml. That is, in a child, values ​​from 0 to 12 will be considered optimal. 5 U / ml.

If during the examination of the child, the tests showed a value of 12. 5 U / ml, then juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can be assumed. This disease mainly occurs in children under the age of sixteen.

It should also be noted that in determining this disease, an excess of rheumatoid factor titer is observed in twenty percent of children under the age of five and ten percent before the age of ten.

Indicators of the rheumatoid factor in childhood are also increased as a result of viral, infectious diseases, chronic infections, the presence of parasites in the body of the child.

In the blood of a healthy man, antibodies are mostly not detected. However, there is an assumption considered normal. Thus, normal indicators for men aged 18 to 50 years will be considered, from 0 to 14 units / ml.

An increase in values ​​can also indicate the age of the patient, that is, in a 70-year-old man, indicators can reach from 50 to 60 U / ml.

Preparation for analysis

The biomaterial for analysis is venous blood.

The research method is immunoturbidimetry (ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Also, to determine the rheumatoid factor, rapid diagnostics are carried out: carbo- and latex test and carbo-globulin test.

To obtain a reliable result, it is advisable to apply several methods for identifying a rheumatoid factor.

The recommended time for venipuncture is from 8.00 to 11.00.

  • Do not take food 8-12 hours before the procedure (venipuncture in emergency cases is possible after 4 hours after a light snack);
  • On the day of analysis (before manipulation) you can drink only water without gas;
  • 2-3 hours before the procedure do not smoke;
  • The day before – to protect oneself from physical and emotional overstrain;
  • For a day – exclude alcohol, fatty, spicy and fried foods;
  • For a week – cancel treatment with antibiotics, hormones and other medications (as agreed with your doctor).

Other rheumatological screening tests

The whole truth about rheumatic factor and rheumatic tests – why and how to do the analysis and what threatens to increase the rheumatoid factor

The main reason for exceeding the normal values ​​of the rheumatoid factor is the disease of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This ailment is a serious disease that threatens patients of various age groups. A high risk of disability determines the importance of timely diagnosis of the disease. The symptomatology of the disease is diverse, it does not always manifest itself clearly, making it difficult to write the correct medical report.

High values ​​of this indicator are markers of the following diseases:

  • chronic ailments of an autoimmune nature (for example, lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s disease, Benje-Beck-Schauman disease);
  • diseases caused by infection (for example, syphilis, hepatitis, rubella, malaria);
  • oncological damage to the body;
  • disorders of the cardiovascular sphere (for example, the presence of rheumatic heart disease, myocarditis of a rheumatic nature). In most situations, the diagnosis of heart disease is a concomitant result of the study.

A blood test to determine the rheumatoid factor is a serious reason for setting a medical report. The results of the study make it possible to identify an accurate diagnosis, determine the degree of the course of the disease, develop a prognosis, and offer an effective way to treat patients. The choice of diagnostic method is determined by the appointment of medical staff, the specific equipment of a particular laboratory.

In diseases of the joints, the patient is often prescribed a laboratory test for rheumatoid factor in the blood. This is due to the fact that its detection may indicate the possibility of developing serious extra-articular lesions, which greatly complicates the patient’s condition. What is a rheumatic factor (RF), what are the reasons for its appearance?

The ability of immune complexes to cause damage to the synovial membrane leads to further inflammation in the joint tissues and their destruction. This condition resembles a closed cycle, which ultimately ends in degenerative changes in the joints, impaired function, limited joint mobility and patient disability.

Damage to the vascular walls by immune complexes can cause diseases such as scleroderma, dermatomyositis, Sjogren’s syndrome, and others. Most often, rheumatoid factor is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s disease. It is detected in them in 60-70% of cases, so they take blood from a vein for rheumatic tests. Rheumatic tests are also prescribed for suspected rheumatic inflammation in other tissues (rheumatic myocarditis, endocarditis).

Rheumatic tests are laboratory tests that determine the inflammatory process in the connective tissue. Analysis for rheumatic tests mainly includes the determination of rheumatoid factor, C reactive protein and antistreptolysin-O. Rheumatic tests can identify the inflammatory process, its activity and, in some cases, the causative agent of the disease.

C reactive protein rheumatic tests is an indicator of the activity of the inflammatory process and tissue destruction. It can also be detected in diseases associated with tissue necrosis, for example, with a heart attack. Antistreptolysin-O in the blood indicates the presence of an infectious lesion with streptococci. In addition to rheumatoid arthritis, it can also be determined with glomerulonephritis.

The detection of rheumatoid factor in the blood suggests an autoimmune process in the body. Rheumatoid factor can be increased with the following diseases:

  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Sjogren’s syndrome;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • chronic infections;
  • viral infections;
  • scleroderma;
  • sarcoidosis;
  • dermatomyositis;
  • malignant tumors.

A 2-fold increase in rheumatoid factor, with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis or Sjogren’s disease, confirms the diagnosis. In other cases, when the RF is increased, you need to look for the reasons for the changes. And they can be diverse, for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, cirrhosis, infectious mononucleosis or a malignant tumor.

It must be remembered that laboratory analysis for the rheumatoid factor is nonspecific. It is used as an additional method, and the specialist should evaluate the result after a comprehensive examination of the patient.

If the study showed that the rheumatoid factor in the blood test is elevated, then there is reason to assume systemic (autoimmune) pathologies, that is, those associated with damage to the connective tissue and chronic inflammatory process. These include:

    rheumato >

In addition, an increase in rheumatoid factor may be a sign of the following diseases:

  • vasculitis – a generalized vascular lesion that can develop with many pathologies (Takayasu disease, Horton’s disease, and others);
  • septic endocarditis is a bacterial infection of the inner lining of the heart, covering its cavities and valves. May lead to heart failure and the development of heart defects;
  • Infectious mononucleosis is a disease that is caused by the herpes-like Epstein-Barr virus. It proceeds acutely and is accompanied by fever, damage to internal organs and the appearance of atypical mononuclear cells in the blood;
  • tuberculosis, leprosy (Hansen’s disease) – infectious diseases that are caused by mycobacteria;
  • viral hepatitis in the active phase;
  • malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and other parasitic diseases;
  • oncological diseases – chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and malignant neoplasms giving metastases to the synovial membrane of the joints.

Occasionally (in 2-3% of adults and 5-6% of elderly people), an increase in the rheumatoid factor in the blood is found in healthy people, but in most cases this is a sign of serious pathology, therefore it is an occasion for urgent medical attention.

Excessively high RF concentrations may indicate rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other rheumatoid conditions (mixed connective tissue disease, scleroderma, or Sjogren’s syndrome). With vascular inflammation (cryoglobulinemia), cirrhosis of the liver or chronic liver inflammation (hepatitis), RF can also be increased.

Separately, a number of conditions stand out in which the RF can be increased without rheumatoid disease (false results). These include non-rheumatic chronic inflammatory diseases: endocardial inflammation, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, syphilis, acute viral or parasitic infections. RF sometimes increases with excessive formation of immunoglobulins (hypergammaglobulinemia), malignant tumors, after radiation or chemotherapy.

This examination does not require special preparation. The patient does not even have to be sober. Blood is taken from a vein in the elbow or on the back of the hand (in a child, adolescent, elderly patient). Biomaterial (blood sample) is sent to a special laboratory.

Indications for the determination of rheumato >

Joint syndrome occurs in many rheumatic diseases. This complicates the diagnosis, especially in the early stages of arthritis. Therefore, patients often require an extensive examination in order to establish a diagnosis. From laboratory methods for this apply:

  1. Analysis for rheumatoid factor.
  2. ADC test.
  3. General blood analysis.
  4. Blood biochemistry.
  5. The study of synovial fluid.

There are several different ways to determine the rheumatic factor, and this leads to the fact that the norm for various determination methods (turbidimetric, nephelometric, agglutination, Vaaler-Rose test and others) can be different. Therefore, the decoding of a blood test for a rheumatic factor should be carried out by a specialist, taking into account the research method, and the norm of indicators with it.

The rheumatoid factor in the blood is changed to U / ml, IU / ml or as a ratio at dilution. Normally, with a 1:20 blood dilution, there should be no rheumatic factor in the blood. If the result of the analysis is issued in international units of IU / ml, with the nephelometric method, then the norm is up to 20 IU / ml. When, as a result, U / ml are used, the norm is a rheumatic factor below 10 U / ml.

As you can see, the norm is not the complete absence of a rheumatic factor; it can be found in quite healthy elderly people. With age, due to a decrease in the reparative functions of the body, as well as a change in the hormonal background in women during menopause, metabolic processes in the bone and cartilage tissue are disturbed.

Violation of the exchange of calcium and phosphorus causes degeneration of bones and articular cartilage, which leads to osteoporosis, degenerative aseptic changes in the joints (osteoarthritis). Therefore, the RF in elderly people and women during menopause can be increased. In women, an increase in the rheumatoid factor occurs after childbirth, but then the RF quickly returns to normal.

For laboratory analysis, blood is taken from a vein for rheumatic tests. In parallel, the doctor may prescribe other tests that help confirm:

  • inflammatory process (general blood test with leukocyte formula);
  • tissue destruction (ESR, total protein, albumin, fibrinogen in the blood);
  • specific inflammatory process (determination of various types of antibodies and CEC complexes circulating in the blood).

Each set of tests is assigned individually based on the patient’s complaints and symptoms found during the examination. To exclude a false positive reaction before analysis, you can not eat food 10-12 hours before the examination. For a day to follow a diet, you can not eat fatty, fried foods, drink alcohol. Heavy physical activity and smoking are also not recommended.

If you are a specialist in the diagnosis of rheumatoid factor, the following video may be useful to you. But it will not give experts much information. Have patience, watch and listen carefully to your medical practitioner.

A blood test for rheumatoid factor is prescribed if the patient has symptoms of joint inflammation. These are pains, swelling, flushing of the skin, fever, thickening in the subcutaneous tissue, rheumatic nodules. In such cases, rheumatic tests are prescribed in the complex.

Another indication is symptomatology corresponding to Sjogren’s syndrome. It occurs more often in women and is characterized by impaired function of glandular cells, usually the salivary and lacrimal glands. There are complaints of dry mouth, sand and burning in the eyes, there are changes on the skin in the form of a seizure, cracks. All mucous membranes, including internal organs, for example, the stomach (atrophy), and synovial membranes of the joints suffer.

A blood test for rheumatic factor is also prescribed for patients with rheumatoid arthritis or Sjogren’s disease in order to monitor the activity of the process during treatment. Its decrease indicates the adequacy of the therapy. If the rheumatoid factor rises, then the prognosis of the development of the disease is poor.

State of concern is when the factor is elevated. Non-compliance with the norm can occur with systemic lupus erythematosus and some other collagenoses, hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, as well as with any acute inflammatory process.

There are several laboratory methods for determining the rheumatoid factor in a blood test. Most often, quantitative methods for determining the RF are used, but for screening, a qualitative study can be carried out – a latex test.

Latex test – a type of agglutination reaction (bonding and precipitation of particles with antigens and antibodies adsorbed on them), which is based on the ability of immunoglobulins of a rheumatoid factor to react with class G immunoglobulins. For the test, a reagent is used that contains immunoglobulin G adsorbed on particles latex.

Another technique that uses the agglutination reaction is the Vaalera-Rose test, in which the rheumatoid factor of blood serum reacts with sheep erythrocytes. This method is currently rarely used.

To decipher the results of the analysis, it is necessary to take into account not only age, but also the individual characteristics of the body, as well as the research method, so only a doctor can interpret the results and make a diagnosis.

More accurate and informative are nephelometry and turbidimetry – methods that determine not only the presence of rheumatoid factor in blood serum, but also its concentration in different dilutions (quantitative test). The essence of the methods is to measure the intensity of the light flux that passes through the blood plasma with suspended particles. High turbidity means high rheumatoid factor content. Standards depend on the specifics of the test in a particular laboratory.

The most commonly used ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). It shows not only the level of rheumatoid factor, but also the ratio of the types of immunoglobulins that enter it. This method is considered the most accurate and informative.

Evaluation of results

Deciphering the results is carried out only in conjunction with other symptoms of the disease and in dynamics. By international units, the amount of rheumatic factor in the blood below 25 IU / ml is a negative result, above this is positive, or they say that the RF is increased.

When examining children, it should be borne in mind that with rheumatoid arthritis, the rheumatoid factor may be negative, but this does not mean that the child is healthy. The detection rate of a positive rheumatoid factor in young children with rheumatoid arthritis is only 15-20%, and in school-age children it decreases and amounts to 7-10%, so the diagnosis is made if there are symptoms and changes in other tests.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.