Captopril is available in the form of tablets of several varieties for oral administration.
Colloidal anhydrous form of silicon dioxide, castor oil, lactose, starch
Varieties of the drug are distinguished by the addition of the abbreviation of the manufacturer to the main name. For instance:
The manufacturer is given the right to modify the composition of the drug, leaving the main substance unchanged, diversifying the list due to auxiliary components. This gives reason to study in detail the indications for use, in order to avoid side effects.
The dosage form of the drug is tablets. The active substance is captopril, in 1 tablet its content reaches – 12,5; 25 or 50 mg.
- Captopril is the main component responsible for regulating blood pressure. Its concentration is 25 g per dose (1 tablet);
- auxiliary components – milk sugar (lactose), potato starch, microcrystalline cellulose, stearate, magnesium hydrosilicate, povidone.
The properties of the drug are as follows: angiotensin II is formed in smaller quantities from angiotensin I. Aldosterone is excreted to a lesser extent. There is a decrease in total peripheral vascular resistance. Blood flow through blood vessels improves. The state of hypoxia is eliminated. The load on the walls of arteries and veins is removed.
With prolonged use of Captopril, the severity of hypertrophy of the heart muscle and arterial walls decreases, improves blood supply to the ischemic myocardium
Prolonged use of the drug can reduce myocardial hypertrophy. The expansion of the coronary arteries helps to improve the supply of heart muscle with nutrients (oxygen). Useful property for the treatment of myocardial hypoxia. The active substance of the drug worsens the adhesion of platelets. Blood liquefies. These facts give an answer to the question: “Does this drug increase or decrease blood pressure?”
- magnesium stearate;
- lactose monohydrate;
The release form is in tablets having a flat cylindrical shape. They have a specific aroma and a white tint.
The amount of active ingredient per tablet is 25 mg.
ACE inhibitor. When taking the drug, high blood pressure begins to decrease gradually, due to which the drug is prescribed for many patients.
Quickly absorbed by the stomach. Active action occurs 2 hours after taking the pill. Excretion – with urine unchanged. 25-35% binds to blood proteins. The bioavailability of the active active ingredient is about 70%.
Captopril is prescribed not only for hypertension, but also for other diseases.
The antihypertensive effect of the drug is based on competitive inhibition of ACE activity, as a result of which the rate of conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II is reduced and its vasoconstrictor effect is eliminated.
Due to the vasodilating action of Captopril, the total peripheral vascular resistance, the jamming pressure in the pulmonary capillaries, as well as the resistance in the pulmonary vessels are reduced. It also increases exercise tolerance and cardiac output.
With prolonged use, Captopril reduces the severity of myocardial hypertrophy and artery walls. The drug improves blood supply to the myocardium affected by coronary artery disease and reduces platelet aggregation.
Captopril is a drug of the pharmacological group of ACE inhibitors. Its effectiveness is based on the suppression of enzyme activity, which ensures the conversion of angiotesin I to angiotesin II. This feature allows blood vessels to maintain an expanded state and, as a result, stabilize blood pressure.
Expansion of the lumen of blood vessels, increases the threshold of tolerance of emotional and physical stress, by reducing the load on the heart muscle. Moreover, the active substance does not retain fluid, freeing the patient from additional intake of diuretics. This property gives an advantage when choosing a hypotensive drug.
- as an aid in the treatment of hypertension;
- after a heart attack;
- cardiac ischemia;
- with severe heart failure (as an additional treatment);
- with diabetic nephropathy;
- disruption of the left ventricle;
- with heart diseases of a pronounced nature.
The drug is prescribed for high blood pressure, when other drugs are ineffective.
- Hypersensitivity of the body.
- Lung diseases accompanied by shortness of breath.
- Pregnancy (second, third trimester).
- Extreme exhaustion.
- The lactation period.
- With impaired kidney function.
- Stenosis of the mouth of the aorta.
- Exacerbation of liver disease.
- Children under 18 years of age.
- With difficult outflow of blood from the left ventricle.
- Quincke swelling.
- After kidney transplantation.
- With intolerance to the body of lactose.
The drug is prescribed with caution in case of nausea, in severe diseases, impaired renal function, connective tissue, inhibited bone marrow circulation, brain ischemia. Treatment is carried out under the control of elderly people, with diarrhea, after a chronic intervention.
Despite all the obvious positive properties of the drug, it also has a number of contraindications:
- Pregnancy at any time. Captopril is toxic to the fetus at any stage of development. There is reliable evidence that taking the medicine at 13-40 weeks of gestation can lead to fetal death or to further malformations of the child.
- Lactation period.
- Age to 18 years.
- Severe organic damage to the liver and kidneys.
- Chronic renal and hepatic failure.
- Hypersensitivity to ACE inhibitors.
- Systemic vasculitis.
- Transplanted kidney, etc.
Despite the fact that captopril interacts well with other drugs, its purpose should be avoided while taking potassium preparations (Asparkam) and potassium-sparing diuretics (Veroshpiron). The combined use of these drugs can trigger hyperkalemia. The same effect can occur in patients with diabetes mellitus and sitting on a salt-free diet.
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If Captopril is exceeded, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, headaches, fainting, and confusion may appear. Convulsions, impaired vision and smell, tachycardia, shortness of breath and other negative reactions of the body are observed. In this case, you must definitely consult a doctor and completely stop taking the drug.
However, as practice shows, the drug is usually well tolerated by patients, even in old age. Nevertheless, Captopril treatment should be prescribed only by a doctor, patients should strictly follow the dosage and follow the established treatment regimen.
It should be constantly monitored by a specialist and periodically take the necessary tests and undergo an examination.
If, according to some indications, Captopril is not an optimal means for the continuous treatment of hypertension in a particular patient, it can be completely replaced with other drugs to reduce blood pressure. Including those with fewer contraindications and only a single daily intake is expected.
- age up to 18 years (efficacy and safety in children have not been established);
- hypersensitivity to captopril and other ACE inhibitors, from which adverse reactions may develop;
- cardiogenic shock;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- severe liver dysfunction;
- stenosis of the aortic orifice, mitral stenosis, the presence of other obstacles to the outflow of blood from the left ventricle of the heart;
- angioedema, including hereditary, in the anamnesis (including in the anamnesis after use of other ACE inhibitors);
- severe renal dysfunction, azotemia, hyperkalemia, bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of a single kidney with progressive azotemia, a condition after kidney transplantation, primary hyperaldosteronism.
Reducing blood pressure components of the drug make it possible to use it in the treatment of a wide range of diseases of the cardiovascular system. The use of monotherapy is acceptable (the use of a single drug). Combined therapy (simultaneous administration of several drugs) contributes to the achievement of the synergy effect. The effectiveness of treatment is increasing. The patient quickly returns a healthy state of the body.
Before you learn how to take pills, you need to understand in what situations the prescription of the medicine is justified
The medication is used in the treatment of the following diseases:
- high blood pressure. Monotherapy or a combination of several drugs is possible. Increased efficiency is achieved by a combination of Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic);
- congestive heart failure;
- disruption of the left ventricle after myocardial infarction. Application is allowed on the third day, provided that the patient’s condition is stabilized;
- autoimmune nephropathies (acute scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus);
- nephropathies of diabetic origin. The reason for the appearance is type 1 diabetes;
- primary damage to the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy).
Contraindications are increased susceptibility of drug components, low blood pressure. Patients who have had a kidney transplant are not allowed. Narrowing of the arteries in the kidneys prevents the healthy absorption of the drug. In case of renal failure, Captopril cannot be used.
Strongly reduces blood pressure, increases heart rate, swelling of the lower extremities
- with hypertension;
- heart failure;
- progressive form of scleroderma;
- lupus erythematosus;
- diabetic nephropathy;
- left ventricular dysfunction.
Captopril tablets are indicated for use in the following cases:
- hypertension at any stage of the course. The drug Captopril effectively lowers the pressure mark, and is used when drugs of another category with antihypertensive effect do not give the stated results;
- Captopril is prescribed at elevated pressure if elevated measurements are caused by angina pectoris, vascular problems, pathologies of the heart muscle;
- hypertension caused by renal pathology;
- Captopril is recommended to relieve symptoms of hypertensive crisis;
- if the parameters of blood pressure increase due to asthma attacks;
- renal pathologies against diabetes mellitus;
- congestion that develops due to pathologies of the heart muscle. The drug can be used, sat diuretics did not have the necessary effect;
- pathological processes developing in the adrenal cortex.
How to take Captopril at high pressure, and with other pathological processes, which dosage to prescribe, the doctor decides on the basis of diagnostic tests.
Captopril, used as a hypotensive drug, has its contraindications:
- intolerance to the active substance of the drug;
- allergic reactions;
- renal pathology;
- problems with the passage of blood through the aorta, due to its narrowing;
- myocardial pathology, in which the structure of muscle tissue is changed;
- mitral valve problems;
- past kidney transplant surgery;
- children’s age up to 14 years.
If you ignore the listed contraindications for hypertension, then after administration, additional health problems may be added.
An independent increase in the dose of the drug provokes a sharp decrease in blood pressure. An overdose threatens the patient with a violation of cerebral circulation and can lead to thromboembolic complications, collapse or myocardial infarction.
In order to prevent irreversible reactions in the patient’s body when the dosage is exceeded, emergency care should be immediately given to him. For this patient, lay down and give a drug that raises blood pressure before the ambulance arrives. Qualified doctors will continue symptomatic therapy in the hospital, which sometimes requires hemodialysis.
Captopril tablets are washed down with a small amount of water. Reception – half an hour before a meal. Dosages in each case are set individually for each patient, taking into account the disease and the specifics of the body.
The instructions indicate recommended dosages.
Moderate hypertension – twice a day for half a tablet. If necessary, the dosage is increased, but with an interval of two to four weeks.
Severe form of hypertension – initially taken half a tablet twice a day. The dosage is gradually increased to a whole tablet. It is taken three times a day.
If there is a need to treat heart failure, it is under the supervision of a therapist. The first days should be taken 3 times in the amount of ¼ of the drug. Gradually increase the dose to half the tablet, then to the whole.
After a heart attack, the drug is prescribed on the third day of treatment. It is taken three times a day, the dosage is ¼ tablets. Then the dosage is increased to the maximum.
In diabetic nephropathy, administration is divided into two to three times a day. The recommended dosage is no more than 100 ml.
For patients with moderate pulmonary dysfunction, the drug is prescribed three times in a dosage of 75 ml (divided into three doses). If lung disease is severe, the daily dose should not exceed 12,5 mg.
For people over the age of 65, the drug is prescribed individually, taking into account the condition, concomitant chronic diseases. Treatment is recommended to start with a minimum amount of the drug.
When taken over the above doses, there is a sharp decrease in pressure, dizziness, confusion. A gastric lavage is carried out, it is necessary to drink a large amount of water. In severe cases, hospitalization is necessary.
Instructions for use
What dosage will be prescribed, how to correctly take Captopril in tablets from pressure drops, is calculated based on the individual characteristics of the patient’s body, the presence of a specific problem. During the course of treatment, you can take tablets containing the active substance from 12,5 mg 2 times, and up to 50 mg 3 times. The medication must be agreed with the attending physician.
If Captopril is prescribed for pressure, then the doctor writes to the patient how and how much to take the tablets according to the scheme. At the initial stage of treatment, it is recommended to take a hypotensive drug in a dosage of 25 mg, 2 times. Drink a pill in the morning and evening. Dose may be increased.
The time interval between dosage adjustment should be from 14 days to 3 weeks. Such a long period is explained by the fact that the active substance must accumulate in the body before it helps.
The maximum allowable use of the drug is calculated individually. Sometimes it is allowed to take a drug in an amount of the active substance of 150 mg per day per day. It is imperative to monitor blood pressure readings, monitor whether the therapy raises the measured marks, and exclude stress.
Captopril effectively lowers the pressure, and is often used as an ambulance. If you need to quickly stop the hypertensive crisis, drink immediately a whole tablet. This improves the general condition, improves performance.
To cope with a hypertensive crisis, Captopril tablets must be placed under the tongue, counting down intervals of 20 minutes, until the active substance begins to reduce pressure. But, the amount of a single dosage should not exceed three. When Nitroglycerin is used with Captopril, the number of single doses is reduced to two.
For the elderly, it is also possible to use Captopril to eliminate hypertensive symptoms. But, the initial dosage comes from indicators, 6,25 mg, from once a day.
If there are pathologies of the heart muscle, proceeding in a severe stage, then Captopril is indicated in a dosage of 6,25 mg 3 times a day. If a decrease in blood pressure has not occurred, then the dose increases.
When renal function is impaired, how much and how to take the prescribed captopril at elevated levels of pressure, the doctor will tell. Typically, the dosage is 75 mg per day.
The drug is taken orally (the tablet is swallowed and washed with plenty of water at room temperature). It should be consumed an hour before a meal. The following dosages are used:
- the initial dose does not exceed 12,5 mg. The maximum frequency of administration twice a day;
- half dosage (6,25 mg, similar frequency) is prescribed for patients with increased sensitivity to the components of the drug. Recommended for older people.
The maximum decrease in blood pressure parameters can be recorded 50-80 minutes after administration
When taking the medicine for the first time, it is necessary to monitor the patient’s reaction to the effect of the drug. The appearance of hypotension (a significant drop in blood pressure) is possible. In such a situation, the patient should reduce locomotor activity, taking a horizontal position. Achieving dormancy normalizes pressure. A similar reaction is common. Do not stop treatment after experiencing an attack of hypotension.
A long course necessitates an increase in dose. Dosage increase occurs after half a month or a month. The maximum dose is 50 mg three times a day. The treatment of acute hypertension (blood pressure exceeds 120 mm Hg. Art.) Is accompanied by the use of additional funds. Hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, is used.
Most readers are interested in the questions: at what pressure and how to take captopril? Reception should be carried out at high pressure an hour before meals. At the same time, it is not allowed to grind tablets: chew or bite. It is necessary to swallow the drug in its original form, washed down with plenty of water.
Starting therapy with minimal doses, it is necessary to monitor the effective action of the drug. Blood pressure is checked with a blood pressure monitor every 30 minutes. If necessary, the amount of the drug is increased to a maximum dose of 300 mg / day. It should be noted that increasing the dosage increases the risk of side effects that can lead to undesirable consequences.
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