Each blood group has an international designation. The first is 0, the second is A, the third is B, the fourth is AB. This classification system is called AB0 and indicates the presence of specific enzymes in the blood. They are not only in group 0 (first).
In this case, the child can inherit the blood group of the mother, father or have their own. Probability indicators can be calculated using special tables. For example, a woman and a man have the first group – the child will also receive the first. If the mother has the first, and the father the second, the baby can have both the first and second.
What blood types are considered incompatible? None of the combinations prevents the conception and does not affect the floor of the crumbs. However, the conflict on the AB0 system sometimes arises, but it manifests itself only in the small jaundice of the newborn. Also, pregnant women notice manifestations of toxicosis – morning nausea and weakness.
In addition, according to some estimates, there is an influence of the blood type of the parents on the growth and development of the baby. For example, there is an observation that health is better for those children whose mom and dad have different blood types. At the same time, it is desirable that a woman has a lower figure than a man.
This process is closely integrated into any family planning course and is mandatory for first-expecting families in every clinic. In cities where family planning is based on more modern Rh algorithms, the blood compatibility factor is given at the stage of conception planning to exclude negative experiences for the couple.
In the case when the Rhesus factors in a couple are the same or in a man from a negative, pregnancy will pass without complications caused by this factor.
In the case when a woman has a Rhesus factor negative and a man has a positive, a Rhesus conflict may occur.
Rhesus conflict is the process when a protein (Rhesus factor) in a man’s gene material is taken by a woman’s immune system as a foreign body, because the Rh factor in her blood is negative and there is no such protein. A foreign body is attacked by all immunity mechanisms. As a result, the embryo faces complete rejection by the mother’s body and in many cases dies despite attempts to suppress the mother’s immunity and other ways of supporting it.
The problem of compatibility of blood groups and Rh conflict does not concern all couples in which, on the basis of analyzes, it can occur. A complete list of reasons and factors that may affect its manifestation has not yet been established, since it is impossible to conduct experiments in this area.
Many couples, even with different Rh factors, do not have any problems. Negative blood compatibility for conception does not exclude conception, a successful pregnancy and childbirth. However, a family-leading obstetrician necessarily enhances the monitoring and control of pregnancy.
Partners who decide, despite the incompatibility of blood groups to overcome potential difficulties, should consult a doctor long before making a conception.
Repeated, within the framework of the healthy baby program, blood donation for the Rh factor, as well as passing an additional examination, will help significantly increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.
As a result of the examination, for the conception of a child, the doctor will put out a series of recommendations that can increase the chances of a successful pregnancy and birth without pathologies. Since it is impossible to bring blood compatibility to the ideal formula, approaches to wallpaper partners are used for conception.
Since it is a protein in his blood that manifests the Rh conflict reaction, drug preparation minimizes the protein content, which increases the chances that the immune system will not notice the invasion and will not activate protective mechanisms at conception.
On this side, blood compatibility is brought to the best performance due to the planned, but careful suppression of the immune system in various ways. It is impossible to leave the body of the expectant mother without protection, so you need to act carefully.
If you follow all medical recommendations and do not overload the conception, pregnancy and childbirth will pass without complications.
Blood type is constant and does not depend on any circumstances. In total, there are 4 blood groups that differ in composition. The basis of any of them are red blood cells, but their antigenic characteristics are different:
There is no scientific evidence that incompatibility of partners in the blood group is possible, making conception or the birth of a healthy baby impossible. Some believe that a normal pregnancy is possible if mom and dad have the same blood type, because in this case there is complete compatibility of blood. Absolute compatibility is also characteristic of the first group in men and the fourth in women.
In fact, the compatibility of blood groups is relevant only in the case of transfusion of donated blood to the recipient. This has nothing to do with the possibility of conception or the safe course of pregnancy and the development of the baby. It is simple to check, it’s enough to ask your friends – among them there are probably couples with supposedly incompatible blood types that conceived and gave birth to healthy children.
|Woman’s blood type||Blood type men||Blood type in a child with probability|
|II||I||any of the two – 50/50|
|IV||I||The second or third – with the same degree of probability|
|II||II||first/second – 50/50|
|III||II||any of the four – with a probability of 25%|
|IV||II||the second – 50%, the third/fourth – 25/25|
|II||III||1/2/3/4 – 25/25/25/25|
|III||III||the first or third – equally|
|IV||III||III – 50%, II or IV – 25/25|
|I||IV||second or third – 50/50|
|II||IV||2 – 50%, 3/4 – 25/25|
|III||IV||3 – 50%, 2 or 4 – 25/25|
|IV||IV||the fourth – 50%, the second/third – 25/25|
It is believed that the nature of a person depends on the blood type. So, representatives of the 1st group are very emotional and energetic, have a somewhat explosive character and stubbornly move towards their goal. The second group is conservatives, they are calm and friendly, they can adapt to various situations.
People with the 3rd group are practical and rational, but at the same time have a rich imagination. Representatives of the 4 groups are characterized by a balanced nature, avoid conflicts, and are very hardworking. It should be noted that many people eat in accordance with the diet for blood type or follow the corresponding horoscope.
Determining the compatibility of Rh factors is one of the first tests that are carried out in antenatal clinics. Blood counts can seriously affect maternal health during pregnancy.
Pregnancy proceeds normally only if the mother’s body produces antibodies that do not take fetal cells for foreign elements. So women with blood of the first group always give birth without complications. In most cases, they have healthy and strong children, even from men with inappropriate blood type and Rh factor.
With a positive Rhesus factor in the mother and negative in the father, the chances of having a baby with a positive are higher. However, at the time of conception, blood incompatibility occurs: during the gestation period, the woman’s body produces antibodies that attack the baby’s cells. The fight against fetal cells is carried out because the woman’s body recognizes them as foreign due to the protein content.
Continuous attacks expose the child to serious danger. Often the struggle ends in the death of the fetus. If the baby survives, this affects the immunity of the mother does not pass without a trace. Pregnancy with incompatibility of blood is fraught with such complications (toxicosis, fatigue, weakness, etc.).
In the case of a rhesus conflict in the mother and the child, it is necessary to avoid infections and colds in every possible way, to be less nervous and worried. The combination of Rh factors is shown in the table.
Immunological infertility and Rh incompatibility
It is worth remembering that immunological incompatibility and the conflict of Rh factors are different concepts. In immunological infertility, contact of the immune system with germ cells occurs, which does not occur in a healthy body for a man, and in the body of a woman is subject to a natural process. With incompatibility of blood, conception occurs normally, but problems arise with the development of the fetus.
- In infertility, incompatibility is said to be if immunologically the man and woman are incompatible. Blood type and Rh factor do not play a role in the process of conception. With immunological infertility, antibodies to sperm are produced in the female body.
- A woman with a negative Rhesus is able to endure and give birth to a child with a positive. There may be complications during pregnancy and deviations in the baby after birth, but this phenomenon cannot be taken as incompatibility for conception.
- A couple in which Rh factors are different can have healthy children. In this situation, the Rhesus of the mother will be key, and the child may well have the same Rhesus, which will not lead to conflict.
- If your partners are incompatible, follow all the recommendations of doctors. Often it is possible to compensate for the harm and make a healthy baby.
- A successful pregnancy with incompatible partners does not guarantee the next success. Each subsequent pregnancy increases the risk of incompatibility between the mother and the baby. Often during the first pregnancy, incompatibility does not occur. The following attempts may turn into a problem, because the woman already has antibodies in her body.
- With a negative rhesus in the mother and positive in the father, the probability of conflict during pregnancy is 50% (when encoding the antigen of each of the chromosomes in a pair) and 25% (when encoding the antigen of one of the chromosomes in a pair).
- Women with positive rhesus never have a conflict with the blood of the fetus.
- Conflict can happen only with a negative Rhesus in the mother. The maximum probability is 50%.
- The formation of the Rh factor in the fetus depends on the rhesus of the parents and genes that are transmitted, but never manifested.
In addition to the blood group, the Rh factor is important. So indicate the presence of a special protein (D) on the surface of red blood cells. Those people who have this protein have positive Rhesus, in others this indicator is considered negative.
The Rh factor of the future baby can be predicted only in one case – if it is negative for mom and dad, it will be the same for the child. In other combinations, this protein in a baby may be determined, or may be absent.
However, then pregnancy can go without complications. Much depends on whether the mother’s body was previously familiar with these antigens – proteins that are detected on the surface of red blood cells of Rh-positive people. This “acquaintance” is called sensitization, and it can occur during a previous pregnancy, abortion, blood transfusion, etc.
If a woman’s immunity has already been developed in relation to this specific protein (D antigen), it can attack the baby if his blood enters the placenta. This can happen already in the last months of pregnancy, when the permeability of the placenta increases significantly. Sometimes “acquaintance” occurs at the time of delivery, which also requires the attention of a specialist.
What to do if there is a Rhesus conflict?
In order for future parents not to have problems, girls need to be very careful about abortions and transfusions. During transfusions, there is a risk of introducing blood with the wrong rhesus, and there is always a risk of immunization with other antigens. Transfusion should be performed for health reasons.
In most cases, maternal immunization occurs after the first birth. In this regard, a special vaccine should be administered to the woman in labor during the day, which will prevent the occurrence of problems in the future.
Differences in rhesus and blood type in spouses or in an unborn child should not become an indicator of global problems. No one will choose a spouse based on data on his proteins on red blood cells. Modern medicine allows us to overcome this incompatibility and control the body’s reaction. To do this, you need to be careful about your health, and follow the doctor’s instructions.
Despite the likelihood of a Rhesus conflict, a mother with a lack of D antigen has the opportunity to avoid trouble and risk to the baby’s health. There are all kinds of ways to prevent pregnancy complications. It is important to timely register in the LCD and perform the appointment of an obstetrician-gynecologist.
To begin with, experts determine how high the risk is that the mother’s immune cells will harm the baby. To do this, the entire mother will regularly give a blood test for the entire pregnancy period, which determines the presence of antibodies. Caption 1: 4 already indicates an immunological conflict. If the result shows 1:64, the doctor will propose early delivery to avoid the baby’s disease.
If there is a Rhesus conflict, a woman is immunized at 28 weeks of gestation
The next step is immunization of the mother at week 28. A woman is shown an intramuscular injection of a special type of immunoglobulin (anti-D gamma globulin). These antigens destroy the red blood cells of the fetus, which penetrated through the placenta into the mother’s body until the moment when her immunity manages to react to them.
Immunization is required when no antibodies are detected in the patient’s blood. Otherwise, its effectiveness will be zero.
Blood conflict does not affect the success of conception. Fertilization is possible in a couple with incompatible rhesus factors. A pregnant woman with a conflict should be specially registered with a gynecologist and should be examined regularly.
Measures to prevent complications in case of a blood conflict in a pregnant woman:
- if incompatibility of the blood of the parents is found, a chorionic biopsy should be taken (a procedure that will help determine the Rh factor of the child and the presence of conflict with the mother);
- the introduction of immunoglobulin (vaccine anti-Rhesus immunoglobulin prevents rhesus conflict by binding and excretion of antibodies from the body);
- in case of a threat to the life of the mother, it is necessary to preserve to the stimulation of labor by artificial means;
- conducting cordocentesis.
All recommendations of the doctor must be followed implicitly, because the outcome of pregnancy depends on this.
In women with a negative group, pregnancy proceeds normally only with a negative group in the father. If the mother is negative, and the man is positive, then the child is likely to receive a negative group and the conflict will not happen.
Women with a positive blood group usually do not have problems with bearing and having a baby. Mother and child are compatible in any case, even if the father has a negative blood type. There is no conflict in the womb, antibodies do not try to attack the baby. The child has protein in red blood cells even if the mother is positive and the father is negative.
Table for determining the blood type of the unborn child
We mentioned that there are ways to predict the likely blood type of an unborn baby. Our table will help to suggest which group the baby will have, but it will not give a 100% answer.
|Blood type (1 parent)||Blood type (2 parent)||Blood type of the child,% probability|
|I (0)||I (A)||I|
|I (0)||II (A)||I, II|
|I (0)||III (B)||I, III|
|I (0)||IV (AB)||II, III|
|II (A)||II (A)||I||II|
|II (A)||III (B)||I, II, III, IV|
|II (A)||IV (AB)||III, IV||II|
|III (B)||III (B)||I||III|
|III (B)||IV (AB)||II, IV||III|
|IV (AB)||IV (AB)||II, III||IV|
As can be seen from the table, in almost all cases (except for one – when mom and dad have 1 group) 2 or more options are permissible. The greatest number of variations is in a child in which both parents have 3 groups – the baby can be born with either 1 or 2, 3 or 4. Only laboratory tests can guarantee the right answer.
What measures are taken in case of Rh-conflict pregnancy?
If the mother has a positive Rh factor, then the negative Rh factor of a man does not affect the development of the fetus. When a child inherits a negative Rhesus, a conflict does not arise, because there is no protein in the child’s blood that would be unfamiliar to the woman’s immune system.
- Positive Rhesus mother and positive father, the child inherits positive Rhesus. There will be no complications.
- Positive mother and positive father, the child inherits the negative. There will be no complications, the mother’s body does not respond to the baby’s blood elements.
- Positive mother and negative father, the child inherits the positive. The protein in the mother’s blood is “familiar” to the immune system, therefore, the protein in the baby’s blood is not perceived as foreign.
- Positive mother and negative father, the child inherits the negative. There is no protein in the blood of the child, the reaction does not occur.
In all cases, the child’s body will not contain elements that are unfamiliar to the mother’s immunity.
A negative rhesus in the mother can lead to complications during pregnancy, but not always. The key to successful bearing is the same negative Rhesus in mother and baby.
- Negative of the mother and negative of the father, the child inherits the negative. The lack of protein in the blood of the child does not cause a conflict, because it is not in the mother’s blood either. Immunity simply does not know what to react to.
- Negative mother and positive father, the child inherits negative. There is no protein in the blood of both, so there is no conflict.
- Negative in the mother and positive in the father, the child inherits the positive. The fetal blood contains a protein unknown to the mother’s body. Since there is no such substance in the mother’s body, immunity begins to defend itself. Antibodies penetrate the baby’s blood and destroy red blood cells.
If there is even a small risk of developing Rh conflict, the best option is to plan a pregnancy. The gynecologist will choose the optimal scheme of preliminary therapy and the necessary treatment for bearing a child. The main task during pregnancy is to prevent the negative reaction of the mother’s body to the fetus.
If the necessary measures are not taken in time, incompatibility will affect the health of the baby. With a small amount of antibodies in the pregnant woman’s blood, mild anemia may develop, in case of intensive production the situation is aggravated, since the crumb organism cannot produce new blood cells at such a rate.
The baby will get sick or not, depends not only on the number of antibodies produced, but also on whether they can break through the placenta and harm the fetus. Often babies are born healthy or have minor health problems. The consequences of a “blood conflict” can be:
- spontaneous rejection of the embryo;
- premature onset of the birth process;
- swelling of the organs in the fetus;
- abnormal development;
- erythroblastosis, accompanied by an increase in the spleen and liver.
With difficult gestation or when there is a suspicion that there is no Rh factor compatibility, the gynecologist should refer the woman to a number of studies. A woman will be taken blood to detect antibodies using the Coombs test, CTG and ultrasound will be done, in some cases, amniotic fluid examination is necessary.
The situation becomes more dangerous from the second trimester of pregnancy, when the number of antibodies increases. To monitor the condition, you must periodically check:
- 4–32 weeks of pregnancy – monthly;
- within 7 months – 2 times in thirty days;
- before delivery – weekly.
To minimize the risk of abnormal development of the child and maintain pregnancy at the beginning of the third trimester of the potential mother, immunoglobulin is injected. The drug stops the production of antibodies that negatively affect the fetus.
Anti-Rhesus serum must be administered to the puerperance within three days after delivery. Despite the fact that Rhesus conflict is rare during the first pregnancy, antibody production is inevitable during childbirth. An injection is necessary to protect the subsequent pregnancy of a woman. Anti-Rhesus drug must be administered in cases of:
- abortion or miscarriage;
- platelet transfusion;
- surgical intervention;
- placental abruption;
- attachment of the embryo outside the uterine cavity.
Children in pregnant women with a Rh factor conflict are often born prematurely due to premature birth or emergency caesarean section. At the end of the birth process, the neonatologist deals with the child. Often, newborns are prescribed special medications and physiotherapeutic procedures. In extremely difficult situations, the baby is given a blood transfusion.
Genetics and obstetricians argue that the positive Rh factor of the mother is guaranteed to avoid the development of hemolytic disease in the child.
Two scenarios are acceptable – the child will have a positive Rhesus or a negative:
- in the first case, almost complete compatibility is determined – the mother’s immunity will perceive a specific protein in the fetal blood as already familiar;
- in the second, the blood in the crumbs will be completely without an antigen that can cause an immunological response.
If the future mother has a negative Rh factor, she will need to undergo an additional examination. It is believed that the Rhesus factor in the fetus is finally formed by the age of 3 months. The problem arises only if the crumbs have a positive rhesus, but it is almost impossible to find out for sure. The penetration of blood particles of the baby through the placenta can provoke an immunological conflict, and then the child will seriously suffer.
Signs of hemolytic disease are diagnosed by ultrasound
The doctor in the antenatal clinic carefully monitors the condition of such a patient and her child using various methods:
- Ultrasound Ultrasound examination helps to see at an early stage signs of a hemolytic disease of the newborn – an increase in its liver, thickening of the placenta, polyhydramnios.
- Dopplerography. This type of examination is a type of ultrasound. It allows you to evaluate blood flow in the cerebral artery, to see other pathologies.
- Pregnant blood test for antibodies. An important indicator is not only their number, but also the dynamics. If the concentration of antibodies rises, there is reason for alarm.
- Sometimes a puncture of amniotic fluid and a cord blood test for bilirubin are performed (see also: how is an analysis of bilirubin in newborns?). This is shown only in critical situations, since the procedure can cause premature birth of the baby.
In case of rhesus conflict after childbirth, the newborn is given blood transfusions with the maternal group and rhesus. This avoids the effects of maternal antibodies that enter the baby’s body. Upon contact with familiar blood, antibodies are neutralized.
Immunoglobulin prophylaxis is also carried out after abortion, miscarriage, prolonged labor, ectopic pregnancy. Today, the Rhesus conflict can be controlled with medication. Parents with incompatibilities have every chance of having a healthy child.
As we have already found out, the problem in the compatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus can only be in the presence of a Rhesus conflict. Experts say that the Rhesus factor is lifelong and cannot change. However, there is a category of people with a “weakly positive” factor in whom the presence of D-antigen is not always easy to detect. It is these people who can find out that their Rh factor was determined incorrectly.
The Rh factor of a person cannot be changed, therefore, women with a negative Rhesus need to be observed by a doctor throughout pregnancy
In this regard, it is impossible to achieve the compatibility of mother and child blood. You can only carry out prevention (antigen administration) and monitor the condition of the pregnant woman and the fetus. In critical cases, the following measures are possible:
- replacement blood transfusion for a baby in the womb;
- plasmapheresis – purification of a pregnant woman’s blood from antibodies;
- birth stimulation for a period of 36 weeks.
There are other ways to eliminate the consequences of incompatibility. For example, intravenous administration of glucose and a number of special solutions.
How to get around the problem?
With each new conception and pregnancy, the woman’s body produces more and more antibodies for a foreign body, which is considered an embryo. The result of several attempts may be:
Frozen fetus when immunity suppressed it in the second third trimester of pregnancy;
Stillbirth, when in the last weeks of pregnancy, hormonal changes in the body overcome the attempts of doctors to save the child;
Spontaneous abortion, rejection of the embryo in early pregnancy;
pathology in newborns.
With each new attempt, provided that the compatibility of the parent blood groups has not changed, the chances of a positive pregnancy outcome fall exponentially. Even for those who have already had their first baby, the risk of losing during the second pregnancy is very high.
This is due to the rejection by the immune system of a woman of an organism alien to her. The production of antibodies, which increase with each new pregnancy, worsens the prognosis for the birth of healthy children.
According to experts, the risk of developing hemolytic disease of the newborn increases with subsequent pregnancies of a Rh-negative patient. During childbirth, fetal blood particles can enter the mother’s blood, which allows the woman’s body to develop immunity against an unfamiliar blood protein.
To avoid this, it is advisable to plan a pregnancy in advance. If the husband’s Rhesus factor is defined as weakly positive, IVF is recommended in special cases. Of the ready-made embryos grown in vitro, a Rh-negative is selected and sits in the woman’s uterus.
A significant point is the postpartum injection of immunoglobulin. In this case, the risk of complications during subsequent birth is significantly reduced. Anti-D globulin should be administered in the 72-hour period after the birth of the baby.
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