Atrial fibrillation main symptoms, causes and treatment methods

Atrial fibrillation in Latin means “madness of the heart.” The term “atrial fibrillation” is a synonym, and the definition of the disease is as follows: atrial fibrillation is a type of supraventricular tachycardia characterized by chaotic activity of the atria with their reduction at a frequency of 350-700 per minute.

This heart rhythm disturbance is quite common and can be observed at any age – in children, the elderly, men and women of middle and young age. Up to 30% of cases of the need for emergency care and hospitalization for rhythm disturbances are associated precisely with the consequences of atrial fibrillation.

With age, the frequency of the disease increases: if up to 60 years, it is observed in 1% of patients, then later the disease is recorded in 6-10% of people. With atrial fibrillation, atrial contraction occurs in the form of their twitching, the atria seem to tremble, flickering ripples go along them, while some groups of fibers work uncoordinated with respect to each other.

The disease leads to a regular violation of the activity of the right and left ventricle, which cannot throw enough blood into the aorta. Therefore, with atrial fibrillation, the patient often exhibits a pulse deficiency in large vessels and an irregular heart rate.

The final diagnosis can be made by ECG, which reflects the pathological electrical activity of the atria, and also reveals the random, inadequate nature of the heart cycles. The pathogenesis of the disease, that is, the mechanism of its development is as follows.

The pathology is based on the re-entry of excitation into the heart muscle, while the primary and re-entry occur in different ways. Atrial fibrillation is due to the circulation of excitation in the area of ​​Purkinje fibers, and atrial flutter is due to the circulation of impulses along the conduction paths.

In order for a repeated impulse to take place, the presence of a zone with impaired conductivity in the myocardium is necessary. Flicker starts after the occurrence of atrial extrasystoles. When it appears after normal atrial contraction, but not in all fibers.

Due to the functioning of the atrioventricular node, irregular ventricular function is also observed during atrial fibrillation. Weak impulses in the AV node fade away when moving along it, and therefore only the strongest impulses coming from the atria enter the ventricles.

As a result, ventricular contraction does not occur fully; various complications of atrial fibrillation occur.
In the normal state, with heart attacks, atrial contraction first occurs, and then ventricles. It is this alternation that guarantees the normal and uninterrupted operation of the heart muscle.

But sometimes it happens that the heart goes astray, then freezes, then beats again. With atrial fibrillation, such a phase as atrial contraction does not occur. Muscle fibers lose their ability to work simultaneously. Doctors call this condition atrial fibrillation, when heart contractions become irregular and unstable.

Based on medical research, atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation is the most popular form of tachyarrhythmia. In approximately 30% of cases, among all cardiac arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is detected. The disease is more common in older people.

If up to 60 years, the disease is found in about one hundredth of a person, then after 60 years the incidence rate increases to 6%. More than half of patients are people over 70 years old. More than 6 million people in Europe and over 5 million people in the United States suffer from the disease.

Atrial fibrillation is a disease in which the rhythm of the heartbeat arises against the background of a chaotic contraction of the fibers of the heart muscle. These twitches of the convulsive nature of the atrial muscles provoke an increase in the frequency of contractions of the heart. The number of heartbeats per minute can reach up to 500-600.

It’s as if the heart is going crazy, not for nothing that MA is also called “heart insanity”. A prolonged attack of atrial fibrillation is dangerous consequences: stroke and the appearance of blood clots. With a long course of the disease, serious problems arise in the circulation.

How does atrial fibrillation proceed?

Much depends on how atrial fibrillation proceeds, including whether it is necessary to treat it. It is fundamentally important to distinguish two types of atrial fibrillation: paroxysmal (paroxysmal) and constant. The paroxysmal form sometimes over time becomes a permanent form.

Two forms of atrial fibrillation:

Paroxysmal form of atrial fibrillation. The peculiarity of this form is the alternation of arrhythmias and normal heart function. The frequency of seizures varies widely. For some, only one seizure may appear in a lifetime, but it also happens that seizures are repeated several times a day.

Out of an attack, a person feels normal. Suddenly, the rhythm of the heartbeats goes astray – atrial fibrillation appears. On their own or after medical care, the normal rhythm is restored and good health returns.

During an attack of atrial fibrillation, heart contractions become fast and irregular. The heart contracts inferiorly and pumps blood much less than required. As a result, vital organs receive insufficient blood.

As a rule, the body adapts to work in conditions of atrial fibrillation. The transition from the normal sinus rhythm to arrhythmia and vice versa is most clearly and severely felt. During the arrhythmia itself, the state of health is somewhat stabilized.

It is not so much arrhythmia that is heavily tolerated as the transition from a normal sinus rhythm to arrhythmia and vice versa.
Atrial fibrillation manifests itself in different ways. Sometimes there are only vague discomfort in the heart.

However, in most cases, it manifests itself with a sudden fit of a heartbeat and a sharp weakness. Often the picture of the attack is supplemented by cooling of the extremities, trembling and sweating. In severe cases, dizziness, fainting, and loss of consciousness are observed. The rapid deterioration of well-being can cause the patient fear for his own life.

I want to warn you right away: if you notice one or more of the listed symptoms, the presence of atrial fibrillation is not necessary at all! Many diseases proceed in a similar way. Even an experienced doctor must confirm their assumptions by electrocardiography.

Atrial fibrillation should be confirmed by electrocardiographic method. Another danger of atrial fibrillation is the formation of blood clots. Due to the irregular work of the heart, blood flow is impaired. In the end, a clot forms, that is, a blood clot.

At any time, he can come off. The flow of blood will transfer it to some small blood vessel, and it will clog the lumen of this vessel. An organ that received blood from such a vessel will experience oxygen starvation.

A persistent form of atrial fibrillation. The presence of a permanent form of atrial fibrillation is said if the attack lasted for a period of more than 2-3 weeks. The permanent form can occur not only initially, but also against the background of a paroxysmal form that has already taken place for a long time.

The condition of patients with a constant form of atrial fibrillation largely depends on the frequency with which the heart contracts. If it is close to normal, then the patient may feel good for a long time. In this case, arrhythmia may go unnoticed.

If the heart rate is too high or vice versa too low, then health may worsen.
Atrial fibrillation may go unnoticed for a long time. When they say that with atrial fibrillation, it is necessary to adjust the heart rate, first of all, they mean the frequency of contractions of the ventricles.

Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to affect atrial contractions. Atria normally provide a quarter of the amount of blood that pushes the heart out. Protecting the ventricles from excessive amounts of electrical signals is possible.

The special structure of the human heart helps this. The ventricles are separated from the atria. Electrical signals between them pass only through a special education – the atrioventricular node. It has an amazing ability – to filter the electrical impulses passing through it, to delay their excessive number (the ability to atrioventricular delay).

Therefore, with atrial fibrillation, the frequency of ventricular contraction is much less than atrial fibrillation. A whole avalanche of electrical signals descends on the ventricles. But the atria and ventricles are separated by the atrioventricular junction.

With it, extra signals are delayed that would stimulate the ventricles too often and quickly. From too frequent contraction of the ventricle protects the atrioventricular node.

Causes

Not all causes of the disease are due to cardiac pathologies and other serious disorders. Up to 10% of all cases of atrial fibrillation in the form of paroxysmal seizures are caused by simultaneous causes, and the leading one concerns those people who prefer to drink alcohol in large quantities.

Wine, strong alcohol, as well as coffee are drinks that disturb the balance of electrolytes and metabolism, which entails a kind of pathology – the so-called “holidays arrhythmia.”

In addition, atrial fibrillation often occurs after severe overstrain and against the background of chronic stress, after operations, a stroke, with too fat, abundant nutrition and overeating at night, with prolonged constipation, insect bite, wearing too tight clothing, heavy and regular physical exertion .

Lovers of dieting, taking diuretic drugs in excess are also at risk of getting atrial fibrillation. In a child and adolescent, the disease often proceeds covertly, smeared and provoked by mitral valve prolapse or other congenital heart defects.

Atrial fibrillation can occur for many reasons, so all of them should be divided into 2 groups:

  1. Cardiac (they are cardiac);
  2. Extracardiac (the so-called non-cardiac).

Cardiac causes include:

  • cardiosclerosis of various etiologies;
  • acute myocarditis;
  • myocardial dystrophy;
  • rheumatic heart disease;
  • valvular insufficiency (valvular defects);
  • IHD;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • sometimes – myocardial infarction;
  • chronic pulmonary heart;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • coronary artery disease with atherosclerosis;
  • pericarditis;
  • lesions of the sinus node – pacemaker;
  • heart failure;
  • heart tumors – angiosarcomas, myxomas.

Extracardial causes include:

  • change in water-electrolyte balance;
  • excessive drinking;
  • Thyroid gland diseases;
  • obstructive and chronic lung diseases;
  • GDVI.
  • thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism);
  • pheochromocytoma;
  • other hormonal disorders;
  • poisoning by poisons, toxic substances, carbon monoxide and other poisonous gases;
  • overdose of drugs – antiarrhythmics, cardiac glycosides;
  • VVD (rarely);
  • severe neuropsychic stress;
  • obstructive pulmonary disease;
  • serious viral, bacterial infections;
  • electric shock.

Very often, atrial fibrillation can be caused by other causes, for example, caffeine use, reaction to medications, alcohol abuse, stress, emotional stress.

Mitral valve prolapse in young people can cause illness, because is one of the symptoms.
Atrial fibrillation is most often observed:

  • in patients with hormonal disorders;
  • in young people with mitral valve prolapse;
  • in persons who have recently undergone surgery on the heart;
  • in people who are prone to obesity, drink alcohol, are overweight or underweight;
  • in patients with diabetes.

Atrial fibrillation is also the first sign of a weakened sinus node syndrome, caused by arteriosclerosis of the arteries.

Risk factors for the development of atrial fibrillation are considered obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, especially when they are combined. Often, under the mask of atrial fibrillation, another pathology appears – SSSU – a sinus node weakness syndrome, when it ceases to fully carry out its work.

Up to 30% of people with atrial fibrillation and flutter have a family history of the disease, that is, it, theoretically, can be inherited. In some cases, it is not possible to establish the cause of the disease, so arrhythmia is considered idiopathic.

Classification of atrial fibrillation

There are several classifications of atrial fibrillation that are used in modern cardiology. By the nature of the course, arrhythmia can be:

  1. Chronic (permanent or permanent form) – continues until surgical treatment and is determined by the inefficiency of electrical cardioversion;
  2. Persistent – lasts more than 7 days;
  3. Transient (form with paroxysm attacks) – the disease develops within 1-6 days, while an attack of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation can be primary and recurrent.

According to the type of atrial rhythm disturbance, the disease is divided into two forms:

    Atrial fibrillation, or atrial fibrillation.

This pathology causes a reduction in certain groups of myocardial fibers so that there is no general coordinated reduction of the entire atrium. Some of the impulses are delayed in the atrioventricular junction, the other part passes into the heart muscle of the ventricles, forcing them to also contract with the wrong rhythm.

Paroxysm of atrial fibrillation leads to an ineffective atrial contraction, the ventricles are filled with blood into the diastole, therefore, normal discharge of blood into the aorta does not occur.

Frequent atrial fibrillation carries a high risk of developing ventricular fibrillation – in fact, cardiac arrest.

Atrial flutter. It is an increase in heartbeat up to 400 beats per minute, in which the atria are reduced correctly, while maintaining a true, coordinated rhythm.

There is no diastolic rest with fluttering, the atria are reduced almost continuously. The flow of blood into the ventricles sharply decreases, the ejection of blood into the aorta is disrupted.

Depending on the amplitude of the f waves (atrial fibrillation waves), these forms of atrial fibrillation are distinguished:

  1. Large-wave – the amplitude of the waves f exceeds 0,5 mm, and their frequency is 350-450 per minute. The large-wave form is characteristic of diseases with severe atrial hypertrophy, for example, mitral stenosis.
  2. Shallow-wave – the wave amplitude f does not exceed 0,5 mm, but their frequency reaches 600-700 per minute. The small-wave form is found in acute myocardial infarction, thyrotoxicosis, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, coronary heart disease.

Depending on the frequency of ventricular contractions, atrial fibrillation can be:

  • bradysystolic – the frequency of ventricular contractions does not exceed 60 per minute;
  • normosystolic – the frequency of ventricular contractions from 60 to 90 per minute;
  • tachysystolic – the frequency of ventricular contractions is more than 90 per minute (can reach 200).

Atrial fibrillation can be assigned one of four classes according to the severity of its course:

    First >

Symptoms that are characteristic of atrial fibrillation depend on the form (tachi- or bradisystolic, persistent or paroxysmal). An important role is also played by the state of the heart valves, the state of the myocardium and the general condition of the whole organism.

All this also plays an important role in the choice of treatment. The most severe symptoms occur with tachysystole:

  1. There is an increase in respiratory movements, the frequency of heart contractions increases, due to which the excitation of the myocardium of the atria becomes even more chaotic and ceases to fully perform its function.
  2. Pain develops behind the sternum.

The duration of atrial fibrillation and the severity of symptoms are usually individual. Some patients recover for a long time, while others feel completely normal within a few minutes after its completion. The presence of persistent arrhythmia is usually invisible to the patient.

There are the following general first signs that may suggest the development of paroxysm of atrial fibrillation:

  • Pain behind the sternum.
  • Increased respiratory rate up to shortness of breath at rest.
  • Dizziness, fainting.
  • An unjustified fit of fear of death.
  • Sensation of a rapid heartbeat.
  • Cold sweat.
  • Muscle weakness.

The first signal for the development of the disease are rare short attacks. Occasionally, there are no symptoms of the disease at all, or are so weak and not noticeable that the patient does not notice them or does not pay attention. In the latter case, paroxysmal arrhythmia can develop into a constant.

In a medical institution, a full medical examination should be completed, the patient’s medical history should be carefully studied in order to diagnose the classification of the disease and prescribe appropriate treatment, taking into account all the characteristics of the patient’s body and genetic predispositions.

A feature of this variant of the course of atrial fibrillation is the alternation of normal heart function with a leading source of rhythm from the sinus node and atrial fibrillation. The frequency of seizures can range from one during life to several during the day.

Sometimes this form becomes permanent over time. With this option, arrhythmias outside an attack due to normal heart function, a person feels as usual. During a sharp rhythm disturbance in the type of atrial fibrillation, the condition deteriorates sharply.

With independent or medical restoration of a normal heartbeat, the state of health again becomes normal. When an attack (paroxysm) of atrial fibrillation occurs, the heart begins to contract inefficiently and quickly.

As a result of this, there is insufficient blood pumping and its delivery to vital organs. This leads to ischemia of the tissues and systems of the body.

With frequent paroxysms or long periods (episodes) of irregular heartbeat, the whole body gradually adapts to such a heart function. Subjectively, the well-being worsens at the time of transition to arrhythmia from the normal sinus rhythm.

During an already disturbed rhythm, a person’s state and his sensations improve slightly. Atrial fibrillation can manifest itself with completely different symptoms. Common of which are:

  • an attack of a sharp rapid heartbeat;
  • discomfort in the heart;
  • sharp weakness, malaise;
  • excessive sweating, cold extremities;
  • feeling of fear;
  • dizziness up to loss of consciousness.

The above symptoms can bother a person not only with atrial fibrillation. Almost all types of heart rhythm disturbances are accompanied by similar manifestations.

Such a course of atrial fibrillation is characterized by the absence of pulse generation in the sinus node. All idiopathic sources of rhythm are in the myocardium of the atria. Often the paroxysmal form becomes permanent.

This happens either when it is impossible to restore the sinus rhythm, or with too frequent paroxysms, when the restoration of a normal heartbeat is not justified. The condition and well-being of patients with this variant of the course determines the heart rate (HR).

If it is as close as possible to 80 beats per minute, then a person may not feel this disease at all. With significantly increased or decreased heart rate, health is worsening.

The concept of “heart rate for atrial fibrillation” includes the number of ventricular contractions per minute. With this pathology, it is not possible to change the number of atrial contractions.

Diagnostics

Usually, an experienced cardiologist can make a presumptive diagnosis already at the external examination, pulse count, auscultation of the heart. Differential diagnosis at an early stage of the examination should be made with frequent extrasystole. The characteristic signs of atrial fibrillation are as follows:

  • irregular heartbeat, which is much rarer than heart rate;
  • significant fluctuations in the volume of heart sounds;
  • moist wheezing in the lungs (with edema, congestive heart failure);
  • the tonometer reflects normal or decreased pressure during an attack.

Differential diagnosis with other types of arrhythmias is possible after an ECG examination. The interpretation of the cardiogram for atrial fibrillation is as follows: the absence of P wave, different distance between the complexes of the ventricular contractions, small waves of fibrillation instead of normal contractions.

With flutter, on the contrary, there are large waves of flutter, the same frequency of ventricular complexes. Sometimes signs of myocardial ischemia are noticeable on the ECG, since the blood vessels of the heart can not cope with its oxygen demand.

In addition to the standard ECG in 12 leads, Holter monitoring is performed to more accurately formulate the diagnosis and to search for the paroxysmal form. It allows you to identify short atrial fibrillation or flutter, which are not fixed on a simple ECG.

Other methods for diagnosing atrial fibrillation and its causes are:

  1. Ultrasound of the heart with dopplerography. It is necessary to find organic lesions of the heart, valvular disorders, blood clots. A more informative diagnostic method is transesophageal ultrasound.
  2. Thyro >

Methods of treating a persistent and paroxysmal form of the disease are seriously different. With the development of an attack, emergency relief of paroxysms should be performed to restore heart rhythms. It is necessary to restore the heart rhythm as early as possible from its beginning, because any attack is potentially dangerous due to the development of serious complications and death.

First aid at home should include calling an ambulance crew, before which a person should be placed in a horizontal position. If necessary, do an indirect heart massage. It is allowed to take antiarrhythmic drugs prescribed by a doctor in the usual dosage.

The treatment standards for all patients with atrial fibrillation suggest its hospitalization in order to find the cause of the pathology and differentiation with the chronic form of arrhythmia.

You can stop the attack with such drugs:

  • Quinidine (there are many contraindications to the drug, so it is not used in every case and only under ECG control);
  • Disopyramide (you can not give it with prostate adenoma, glaucoma);
  • Novocainamide;
  • Bankor
  • Alapinin;
  • Etatsizin.

To prevent acute heart failure, the patient is usually prescribed cardiac glycosides (Korglikon). The treatment protocol for an attack of atrial flutter involves intravenous administration of Finoptin, Isoptin, but with flickering this will not be an effective treatment.

Other antiarrhythmic drugs will not be able to normalize the heart rhythm, therefore, are not used. A painful, but much more effective procedure for restoring sinus rhythm is electric cardioversion.

It is usually used if arrhythmia does not go away after taking medication, as well as for stopping paroxysm of arrhythmia with acute left ventricular failure. Prior to such treatment, sedatives are administered or general anesthesia is administered for a short time.

The discharges begin with 100 J, each increasing by 50 J. The cardioversion helps to restart the work of the heart and eliminate the attack of atrial fibrillation.

Treatment of ailment

The more time the patient does not visit the doctor, the more the disease worsens and, as a result, the harder it is to cure. In some cases, the refusal of medical advice, the heart may lose independent working capacity.

That is why timely access to a medical institution is one of the most important steps to recovery.

Before prescribing a course of treatment, the doctor directs the patient to a comprehensive examination. Then, depending on the severity of the disease, the patient’s history and other reasons, the doctor may prescribe various types of treatment:

  • Medication;
  • Surgical
  • Integrated – more effectively affects various systems that contribute to the development of the disease.

The treatment option for the disease depends on the course and degree of developing complications. The permanent form does not require the restoration of a normal heartbeat, but involves the correction of heart rate and increased contractile function of the ventricles.

The paroxysmal form requires restoration of the sinus rhythm as soon as possible. Treatment of paroxysm of atrial fibrillation (relief of an attack with a paroxysmal form):

  • Provide access to fresh air.
  • Take a horizontal position of the body.
  • Take Corvalol. If the attack does not develop for the first time, take the antiarrhythmic drug recommended by your doctor.
  • In the event of a sharp deterioration in well-being or lack of effect within a few hours, it is necessary to seek qualified medical help.

When providing assistance in a hospital, rhythm restoration is performed in two main ways:

  • The introduction of an antiarrhythmic drug intravenously.
  • The use of electric pulse therapy (the use of electric discharge).

The choice of tactics for the treatment of a constant form of atrial fibrillation should be approached with extreme caution. In some cases, we can still talk about restoring normal sinus rhythm.

The main objective of the treatment of persistent arrhythmias is to ensure adequate blood supply to all organs of the body.

To do this, you need to create the optimal number of heart contractions. At an increased frequency, drugs are used that contribute to the atrioventricular node to allow fewer nerve impulses to pass to the ventricles.

With a ventricular contraction rate of less than 40 beats per minute, drug treatment is practically useless. In this case, surgical intervention is necessary. Due to the increased risk of blood clots in the atrial cavities, additional therapy is aimed at preventing their occurrence.

The main drugs used for atrial fibrillation:

    Antiarrhythmic drugs (Novocainam >

Medical therapy for MA should be selected by an experienced cardiologist who thoroughly knows the area of ​​indications and contraindications of drugs. It should not be forgotten that many antiarrhythmics interact difficult with other medicines.

Also, some of them have the so-called pro-arrhythmic activity – this means that uncontrolled intake of drugs can itself cause an arrhythmia episode. The drug treatment strategy is usually carried out in three areas:

    Medications that normalize the rhythm.

Propafenone (propanorm), amiodarone (cordaron), sotalol are considered the drugs of choice in these cases. Antiarrhythmics for relieving an attack are best used in a hospital with the possibility of cardiomonitoring and clinical observation.

Drugs for heart rate control.

If sinus rhythm cannot be restored or atrial tachyarrhythmia attacks constantly recur, the doctor’s tactics is to reduce the rate of ventricular contraction to a normal frequency, thereby “saving” the heart and normalizing its pumping function.

To convert arrhythmias to the norm form (slowing the rhythm to a heart rate of 60–70 beats / min.), Drugs of the beta adrenoblocker group, calcium antagonists of the verapamil group (non-dihydropyridines) are used, sometimes digitalis preparations (glycosides), as well as drugs that reduce heart rate without recovery rhythm.

The selection of therapy is usually carried out in a hospital, then the patient takes medication according to the developed scheme for a long time.

One of the terrible complications of MA is vascular catastrophes (strokes, myocardial infarction and other organs) due to the formation of blood clots in the atria. To prevent thromboembolic conditions in the chronic form of MA, treatment with blood thinners is necessary.

These include the indirect anticoagulant warfarin and the so-called “new” anticoagulants (prodax, xarelto) involved in the complex coagulation mechanism.

Invasive therapy

Surgical correction is carried out only if drug therapy does not have the desired effect, and the proposed intervention will significantly improve the prognosis and quality of life of the patient:

    Catheter ablation. With this method of treatment, a surgeon-arrhythmologist using a thin catheter, conducted through a peripheral vessel (ulnar or femoral artery) directly to the heart, acts on a specific part of the myocardium with liquid nitrogen or a high frequency radio pulse. As a result, the focus that produced the pathological impulse is neutralized, the excitation wave is interrupted, and the natural pacemaker again takes on the function of generating electrical impulses.

Catheter ablation refers to the so-called minor interventions, the procedure is quite safe and effective.

Implantation of pacemaker (pacemaker).

In severe forms of chronic MA, it may be necessary to implant an apparatus – an artificial cardioverter under the skin. The principle of its operation is as follows: ablation of the atrioventricular node (the place through which the electrical impulse passes from the atria to the ventricles) is performed.

Thus, the path is “blocked” by pathological waves of conduct.

At the same time, electrodes coming from the EX apparatus are installed in the chambers of the heart. A pacemaker generates physiological electrical discharges that are transmitted to the ventricles and cause the heart to contract.

Access to chambers also occurs through vessels; trauma is minimal – only the skin and (in thin patients) a section of the pectoral muscle are dissected to reliably strengthen the EX apparatus.

Treatment with folk remedies

Folk remedies for atrial fibrillation are more preventive in nature than healing. Especially good for people with a genetic predisposition to the occurrence of diseases of this kind. As a rule, traditional methods of combating arrhythmia are means from berries and herbs, such as:

  1. Tincture of hawthorn alcohol is mixed with the alcohol tinctures of valerian and hermit, sold in each pharmacy. One bottle of each product. Shake the resulting tincture well and let it brew for a day in a cold place. Half an hour before meals three times a day, one small spoon;
  2. Grate about thirty berries with seeds to a pulp state, then pour boiling water over a mug, boil over low heat for ten minutes and drink in small sips throughout the day;
  3. 0,5 kg of lemons are finely chopped and dipped in honey, followed by the addition of the nucleoli of twenty apricot kernels. Take this mixture twice a day: in the morning and in the evening, one tablespoon;
  4. 40 grams of mountain celery root (lovage) is poured with a liter of water, and about eight hours are set. Then strain and drink throughout the day the whole tincture;
  5. ¼ boil a liter of water and add four grams of adonis herb, making the fire under the pan quieter and cook for three minutes. After that, turn off the fire, leave for twenty minutes pre-covering. Strain and take three times a day for a large spoon;
  6. Mix the chopped onion head with the grated apple. This tool should be taken before lunch and dinner.

The best folk remedies to combat these diseases are the following:

  1. Guelder-rose broth. Dried berries of viburnum are poured into a mug of boiled water and left on low heat until the water boils. After that, cover the saucepan with a lid and let the broth cool. The broth is taken twice a day in the morning and in the evening for 2/3 glasses;
  2. Yarrow tincture. Freshly picked grass is crushed, poured into a bottle with a capacity of one liter by about half, then filled with alcohol, tightly closed with a lid, infused for ten days in a dry place inaccessible to sunlight. Tincture is taken in one small spoon twice a day: in the morning and before a lean meal;
  3. This broth will need dill seeds. For one glass, about 1/3 of it should be filled with seeds and filled with boiled water, after which the broth is covered with a lid, wrapped in a thick towel, set up for twenty minutes. It is filtered, taken three times a day before meals, 1/3 cup.

Treatment of atrial fibrillation with folk remedies or medical means not only taking certain drugs and drugs, but also refusing to consume certain foods with high cholesterol, such as:

  • Fatty foods;
  • Fat;
  • Meat;
  • Sour cream;
  • Black coffee;
  • Granulated sugar;
  • Tea;
  • Products with starch.

You should also categorically abandon the use of alcohol, tobacco smoking, and the use of narcotic substances. In addition to proper nutrition, it is necessary to limit physical activity.

Medications and recipes for older people

Treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation in old age is a rather specific and time-consuming process. This is due to a large number of concomitant diseases, a high risk of thromboembolism and a decrease in trophic myocardium and other organs.

The combined treatment regimen includes calcium channel blockers, anticoagulants. In the presence of hypertension, calcium blockers are replaced with beta-blockers, such as digoxin.

Alternative medicine is also used, which include:

They are used in the form of alcohol tinctures, decoctions on water, in grated form or in a fresh state. These plants are rich in minerals that support normal cardiac function and, when used regularly, have a powerful treatment effect.

Prognosis and complications of pathology

Speaking about the possible complications of atrial fibrillation, it is necessary to understand that they are divided into two types:

  1. Developing with paroxysm.
  2. Developing with a prolonged course of constant arrhythmia.

The first group includes:

  • ARVF – acute left ventricular failure (cardiogenic pulmonary edema);
  • ONMK – acute cerebrovascular accident due to oxygen and nutrient deficiencies;
  • blood supply disorders of any organ of the body.

The second group includes the so-called late complications:

  • chronic heart failure with all its manifestations;
  • increased thrombosis and thrombosis of various organs (myocardial infarction, thromboembolic strokes).

The prognosis of the disease completely depends on the timely diagnosis and treatment of pathology. Adequate treatment that contributes to the normalization of heart rate and full blood supply to the organs of the body, to the least extent leads to complications.

However, even with the right treatment, there is an increased risk of developing thrombosis and their complications. Thus, with atrial fibrillation, it is quite possible to maintain a normal lifestyle for a long time.

Prevention of atrial fibrillation

If there is a history of at least one episode of paroxysm of atrial fibrillation, it is important to identify its cause. This is necessary to prevent their recurrence. The general plan of measures aimed at preventing arrhythmias:

  1. Treatment of the disease that caused rhythm disturbance.
  2. Taking magnesium and potassium preparations. Eating foods rich in their content (pumpkin, watermelon, bananas).
  3. Constant intake of small doses of antiarrhythmic substances (only on the recommendation of a cardiologist).
  4. Exclusion of the effect of increased tone of the nervous system.

The last point of prevention is effective if there is evidence of a vagal or hyperadrenergic form of arrhythmia.

Prevention of attacks of the vagal type of atrial fibrillation:

  • decrease in overweight;
  • avoid constipation and bloating;
  • the exception of the horizontal position of the body after eating. Exclusion of excessive eating at night;
  • Avoiding sharp torso.

Prevention of the hyperadrenergic type:

  • increase in rest time and sleep;
  • avoidance of stress and intense physical exertion;
  • the maximum possible reduction in the use of coffee, strong tea, nicotine;
  • taking sedative herbal preparations (tincture of motherwort or valerian).

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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