Alkaline phosphatase in children, the norm, increased, decreased

240 f 66474559 dubtirztlruyku8myw9utchgeqn7rqrk - 23Alkaline phosphatase is a collection of enzymes that make up the cell membranes of most tissues in the human body. In total, this series is represented by 11 isozymes.

A biochemical blood test helps determine an indicator of alkaline phosphatase activity. This study is often prescribed to children, since with the rapid growth of bones, the ALP activity increases, and this may indicate many diseases.

In childhood, this figure is much higher than in adults.

Most of all, the concentration of alkaline phosphatase is localized in the liver, kidneys, bones, intestines, as well as tumors located in these organs.


The rate of alkaline phosphatase in the blood of children differs in the course of growth. According to the table, the indicators are:

In newborns up to 10 days, the rate is normal.150-380 units/l
From 6 months to a yearmore than 462 units/l
Ages 1-3281 units/l
From 4 to 6 years, alkaline phosphatase should not be less269 units/l
7-12 years old are characterized by ALP indicators130-560 units/l

In adolescents, alkaline phosphatase values ​​are already beginning to differ depending on gender. Boys have more meaning. At the age of 12-13, their ALP is 200-495, and for girls – 105-420 units/l. And already from 16 to 19 years old, the norm for boys is 65-260, and for girls it is lower – 50-130.

These indicators are due to the fact that adolescents are actively growing bone tissue. For the same reason, the norm in newborns is significantly higher than the level of alkaline phosphatase in adults. All of the above indicators are the total amount of enzymes localized in different organs.

Deviations from the norm

The physiological reason for the increase in alkaline phosphatase in children or a decrease in its activity is the intensive growth of bones or the arrest of their growth due to the person’s age. But there are also pathological reasons for changes in the concentration of these enzymes.

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Increased alkaline phosphatase

An increase in serum alkaline phosphatase can occur due to diseases of the organs in which these enzymes are contained. Alkaline phosphatase is increased in the following diseases:

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25Liver pathologies – hepatitis, parenchymal necrosis, cirrhosis, drug intoxication, toxic type, organ damage by parasites, etc.

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25Pathologies of the biliary tract and gallbladder – cholecystitis, mechanical jaundice, adhesive process.

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25Infectious mononucleosis

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25Myeloma disease.

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25Cytomegaly.

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25severe acute intestinal infections,

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25Lymphogranulomatosis.

Quite often, pathologically increased alkaline phosphatase in children occurs due to bone diseases. It can be a tumor process localized in bone tissue, rickets, metabolic disorders, during the rehabilitation period after severe bone fractures. When bones are fused after fractures, a high ALP is always recorded.

The tumor process in the body also causes a rapid increase in this indicator. If the concentration of these enzymes has increased to very high values, then this may indicate a malignant tumor.

In children and adolescents, alkaline phosphatase in the blood is increased if the body grows too rapidly, leading to various pathological conditions or due to pathologies of the endocrine system.

Certain medications can also increase serum alkaline phosphatase levels. For example, these are paracetamol, erythromycin, antibiotics of the penicillin group, etc.

- Alkaline phosphatase in children, the norm, increased, decreased2019

” title=”- 40 Alkaline phosphatase in children, the norm, increased, decreased”>Safe deviation from the norm

A high concentration of enzymes in a child’s body can be safe for a child. According to statistics, in 1-5% of children this occurs at an early age. This condition is called transient hyperphosphatasemia. Most often, this condition is observed in children under 5 years of age.

This can only be diagnosed by chance, during a preventive examination, since such deviations do not show symptoms, since they do not indicate liver or bone pathologies. Transient hyperphosphatasemia in children is a temporary condition. That is, after a few weeks, and in some cases several months, the normal ALP level is restored. Moreover, there will be no negative consequences for the child’s health.

Decreased alkaline phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase levels in children decrease when the body does not receive the required amount of minerals and vitamins. Namely, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc. This occurs when the child is malnourished.

In rare cases, children manifest conditions such as:

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25hypophosphatasia,

1 krasnaya strelochka e1494861994659 - 25a genetic disorder in which there is a disturbance in the exchange of phosphatase.

Reduced alkaline phosphatase levels are very dangerous for children under 6 months of age. Since such a deviation causes a delay in development, calcium in the body pathologically increases, bones are deformed. Often this pathology leads to death. For older children, lowering alkaline phosphatase levels is not so dangerous. But everything exactly can lead to deformations of bone tissue and frequent fractures. Also, these children will grow slowly.


In medical practice, the level of alkaline phosphatase is very important in the diagnosis of various diseases in children. It is determined during a biochemical blood test. It is necessary to control the condition of children and adolescents with a history of liver, kidney, endocrine and digestive tract diseases. Biochemistry analysis is prescribed for both inpatients and outpatients.

For the correct analysis, venous blood sampling is required, which is performed on an empty stomach. Also, before the analysis, the child should not experience increased physical activity.

An exclusively qualified specialist should decipher the analysis results with ALP indicators, as well as prescribe additional diagnostics.

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.