If the lumen of the carotid artery closes gradually, then bypasses for blood supply begin to form in the brain, the cells adapt to oxygen starvation and lack of nutrition, therefore, with unilateral and local stenosis there may be a low-symptom course and a relatively favorable prognosis.
- weakness (paresis) in one arm or upper and lower limb on the opposite side of the clogged artery;
- numbness of half of the face and fingers;
- visual impairment on the side of stenosis – darkening in the eyes, flickering of dots or spots;
- difficulty pronouncing words;
- difficulty swallowing;
- local convulsive muscle twitching.
If the lumen of the carotid artery closes gradually, then bypasses for blood supply begin to form in the brain, the cells adapt to oxygen starvation and lack of nutrition, therefore, with unilateral and local stenosis there may be a low-symptom course and a relatively favorable prognosis. Sudden obstruction leads to an acute cessation of blood flow, that is, a stroke.
Carotid artery stenosis often develops with vascular atherosclerosis (up to 90% of all cases). Atherosclerosis is a degenerative disease in the body that develops during age-related changes. Often the causes of its appearance are sedentary and improper lifestyle, abuse of fatty foods, impaired lipid metabolism. Also, specific plaques characteristic of this disease appear as a reaction to an injury to the vessel wall.
Therefore, you can get atherosclerosis and its complications during a fight, traumatic strokes or, for example, sports. Substances that accumulate in a damaged vessel can cause its blockage, up to complete obstruction.
There are other diseases that can trigger stenosis of the carotid artery:
- nonspecific aortoarteritis;
- fibro-muscular dysplasia;
- thromboembolism and thrombosis.
There are also separate phenomena that narrow the lumen of the artery:
- heart and vascular defects;
- aneurysmal expansion of the aortic arch;
- malignant and benign tumors that are located along the vessels.
As you can see, all these diseases are classified as quite serious and complex. It should be noted that stenosis and the factors provoking them affect the male part of the population more often than women. Perhaps this is due to a more common addiction to alcohol and smoking.
Here are the predisposing factors for the development of stenosis, characteristic of most cases:
- alcohol addiction;
- overweight and malnutrition;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- anomalies in the location of organs in the body;
- increased blood coagulation;
- spasm of the vascular bed as a cause of stress conditions;
- genetic predisposition;
- heart failure;
- pathological changes in the shape and location of the artery;
- advanced age.
Elderly people are prone to carotid stenosis
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- Why arises, how dangerous, and how to treat carotid stenosis
- Risk Factors
- What is pathology?
- What is carotid stenosis
- Possible complications and predictions
- How is carotid obstruction treated?
- Folk remedies
- The most popular recipes from the people
- Stenosis (narrowing) of the carotid arteries: how it develops, signs and degrees, treatment
- Carotid stenosis: symptoms, treatment, prognosis for life
- Therapeutic diet
Why arises, how dangerous, and how to treat carotid stenosis
In the vast majority of cases, modern folk healers recommend natural preparations as an effective means for cleaning vessels. Some clinicians critically examine the possibilities of plants whose active substances do not have the ability to dissolve cholesterol deposits and plaques, eliminate pathologically arterial loops, or even out congenital anatomical abnormalities. Thanks to numerous studies, folk recipes still took their rightful place in the complex treatment of stenosis.
In no way, without interfering with the medical effects, they allow the body to receive the necessary amount of substances that strengthen the vascular wall, normalize metabolic functions, reduce appetite, improve the absorption of trace elements and vitamins. Recommended herbalists recipes have another positive factor.
The author of the article: Alexandra Burguta, obstetrician-gynecologist, higher medical education with a degree in General Medicine. From this article you will learn what stenosis of the carotid artery is, what causes and risk factors cause its development. The main symptoms of stenosis, treatment methods and prognoses for the disease. Carotid artery stenosis is a narrowing of the lumen of one of the largest arteries responsible for the blood supply to the brain.
The result of vascular atherosclerosis or other damage to the wall is a change in the direction of blood flow. Bending around an obstacle (atherosclerotic plaque) under pressure, it is able to damage the walls of the vessel and provoke the formation of a blood clot – a clot that eventually completely blocks the lumen and causes carotid artery thrombosis.
A blood clot blocked the blood flow through the carotid artery. Cholesterol plaques on the vessel wall
Pathology is more actively formed in the presence and combination of the following risk factors:
- hereditary predisposition;
- violation of lip >
These conditions and diseases many times increase the risk of damage to the vascular walls.
Hypodynamia is a violation of body functions due to a sedentary lifestyle. Hypodynamia is the cause of many diseases, including carotid artery stenosis may develop as a result of it. Stenosis develops gradually and at first does not have characteristic symptoms or signs, does not worsen the quality of life, does not impede the performance of any household actions. Prolonged oxygen starvation gradually leads to various neurological disorders of brain activity:
- sleep impairment;
- emotional instability;
- difficulties with perception and reproduction of information;
The duration of such an attack depends on the degree of stenosis of the carotid artery and can last from several minutes to an hour, and all the symptoms most often disappear on their own within a day. Subsequently, when the cerebrovascular disorder becomes chronic, and the stenosis of the carotid artery becomes more pronounced, the attacks end acute cerebrovascular accident (stroke). The result is a partial or complete disability in survivors after a stroke (more than 80% of patients become disabled).
Transient ischemic attack (a violation of cerebral blood flow) caused by stenosis of the internal carotid artery If stenosis is eliminated in time, cerebral circulation is completely restored, even at the stages when temporary ischemic transient attacks appear. It is impossible to treat the consequences of stenosis (cerebrovascular accident) when they become irreversible (after a stroke or cerebral infarction).
After a stroke, one can only hope that the extent of damage to the brain is minimal and, over time, will restore the main functions (speech, coordination of movements, sensitivity, etc.). The treatment of patients who have been diagnosed with narrowing of the carotid artery is divided into two stages: intervention to eliminate the defect and the appointment of medications to help prevent arteriosclerosis.
Why in that order? Typically, stenosis is diagnosed at a stage when it is impossible to treat it with drugs and does not make sense. Even in the early stages (when the lumen of the vessel has not yet been closed by more than 50%), only 30% succeed in improving the patient’s condition with drug therapy. Therefore, in most cases, surgery is first necessary, and then correction of conditions or diseases that have become the basis for the development of stenosis.
What is pathology?
Carotid artery stenosis (CHA) is a condition manifested by a pathological narrowing (partial or complete) of the vascular lumen, which leads to a decrease in the blood supply to the brain. As a result, his cells lack oxygen and nutrients – this is called ischemia. Such a prolonged deterioration in perfusion over time can cause encephalopathy. In the case of acute blockage, a stroke occurs – the most serious consequence of this disease.
This is a very dangerous disease, because it has a large percentage of complications – in almost 2/3 of cases, there is discirculatory encephalopathy or acute cerebrovascular accident (stroke, stroke). It develops mainly in elderly men.
What is carotid stenosis
Violation of the patency of the blood through the carotid artery due to the narrowing of its lumen is called stenosis. This disease is found in every second patient with cerebral ischemia and in a third of patients with stroke. The disease, as a rule, proceeds against the background of the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque inside the vessel. Depending on the degree of damage, the following options are distinguished:
- limited stenosis up to 1,5 cm, spread more than 1,5 cm;
- segmental – up to a quarter of a circle, concentric – more than half of the clearance;
- with complications (hemorrhage, blood clot formation) and without them.
Possible complications and predictions
The prognosis for life with a disease such as stenosis of the carotid artery, the successful treatment of which largely depends on the prompt response of the patient himself, his relatives and specialists to the disturbing symptoms that have arisen, can be quite deplorable.
Unfortunately, the human brain is not able to accumulate oxygen reserves, and therefore requires its constant “supply”, which the body carries out through arterial blood. An acute lack of oxygen in the brain causes irreparable damage to nerve cells. They begin to die after 3 to 5 minutes in the absence of a fresh portion of oxygen.
The condition when the body is experiencing such a shortage is called a transient attack. Multiple transient attacks in many cases have a fatal outcome for the patient, since an extensive stroke develops in their course. This is accompanied by the death of vital brain tissue, which, alas, is incompatible with life.
Carotid stenosis and its complications can lead to:
- paralysis and paresis;
- various visual impairments, up to blindness;
- failure of vital organs;
- problems with speech;
- fatal outcome.
However, with timely intervention (if necessary, surgical), the most negative consequences of the disease are completely preventable.
How is carotid obstruction treated?
The treatment of carotid blockage depends on various factors, including the patient’s age, health, and medical history. Typically, the course of treatment is determined by the signs and symptoms that are present, the degree of stenosis and the tolerance of various surgical procedures and drugs, for example normapulsa.org. In general, the treatment of carotid blockage can be carried out in three main directions – taking medications, lifestyle changes and surgical intervention.
In addition to the age and family history of a carotid blockage, the risk factors for this disease are high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. To further aggravate the condition, smoking, a diet high in saturated fats, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity can contribute.
To control the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, you should stop smoking and eat foods low in saturated fats and trans fats. It is important to maintain a normal weight, maintain a healthy diet and exercise regularly. It is also necessary to control blood pressure and diabetes to effectively reduce the likelihood of a stroke.
If the artery is blocked by plaques less than 60%, certain drugs may be prescribed to prevent the formation of blood clots in the artery. Often used such antiplatelet agents, clopidogrel and dipyridamole. These drugs lower the ability of platelets to stick together and form blood clots in the arteries. Anticoagulant drugs, or blood thinners, are also used to reduce the risk of blood clots.
If high blood pressure is observed, antihypertensive agents may be recommended in order to control it. With an increased amount of fat in the blood, antihyperlipidemic agents such as pravastatin and simvastatin are used. It is known that these drugs reduce the thickness of the walls of arteries and increase their clearance.
Classic folk remedies for the treatment of stenosis:
- Decoction of plantain and golden mustache.
- Jam from hawthorn berries. Its use can significantly reduce the load on the heart of a sick person. For cooking, pour boiling water of hawthorn berries and leave the mixture overnight. In the morning they need to be taken out of the water and crushed in a bowl. After this, sprinkle the berries abundantly with sugar and cook the jam using the traditional approach. Take this jam should be once a day for a week, on an empty stomach, dissolving a tablespoon of jam in a glass of water.
- Tincture of garlic with honey and lemon.
- A mixture of honey and onion juice.
Before using these funds, you need to make sure that the patient is not allergic to herbs. The cost of using such methods is much lower than professional treatment, but you need to remember how to treat the disease without risk: only in combination with professional medicine methods and only with the permission of a doctor!
Also in the treatment and prevention of household methods of treatment are used that serve to strengthen the body, for example, a contrast shower. Used to quickly relieve vasospasm. Every morning and evening you should pour hot water on your head, then cold water. Such a shower can be taken for the whole body – this is a universally recognized method of hardening.
Carotid stenosis is a dangerous consequence of atherosclerosis and a number of other diseases, which, in turn, has quite frightening symptoms and development forecasts. Fortunately, modern medicine allows you to treat it, and a timely reaction to the disease will allow the patient to save his life and get rid of most of the serious consequences.
The most popular recipes from the people
The statement that such complex and diverse pathologies as aortic stenosis, clogging of the lumen of the great vessels with blood clots or cholesterol formations are not subject to effective treatment only with herbs does not need to be confirmed. At the same time, modern doctors recommend including simple available recipes for various types of stenosis in the treatment course:
- A serious improvement and a decrease in pathological signs with stenosis of the cerebral vessels allows you to get a fairly simple medication. In a glass dish mix 1 bottle of pharmacy tinctures – peony, hawthorn, motherwort, valerian and Corvalol. Take twice a day before dinner, 1 teaspoon in 25 ml of water.
- Stenosis of the ducts of the digestive glands will partially eliminate the coltsfoot infusion. To prepare it, take 1 tsp. a mixture of flowers and leaves is poured with 1 glass of boiling water, after 30 – 40 minutes, the infusion is filtered and I drink 100 ml before meals.
- The atherosclerotic process will help slow down the use of garlic tincture. For cooking, take 80 g of chopped garlic cloves, pour 1 cup of vodka, insist for 10 days in an opaque glass container. Take 10 drops of 3 r. / d. 90 – 95 days.
- Atherosclerosis of the brain vessel basin helps significantly slow down the mountain ash. The broth is prepared from 200 g of ground bark and ½ liter of boiling water, cooked in a quenching mode for at least 2 – 2, 5 hours. Take 3 tbsp. l before meals three times a day, a course of 30 days is repeated three times a year.
- A good effect can be obtained by using a decoction of a golden mustache. For its preparation, the juice of plantain is mixed with the juice of a golden mustache as 20/1, and honey in the same volume, brought to a boil in a steam bath, dried and stored in a cool dark place. Take only after one daily meal.
- Manifestations of narrowing of the aortic lumen affect the activity of the entire cardiovascular system. To reduce the load on the heart, folk healers recommend therapeutic jam from hawthorn berries. Pre-steamed for 10 to 12 hours in hot water, the fruits are strained, crushed, then boiled for 5 to 10 minutes with sugar in a ratio of 1 to 2 or 1 to 3. Take no more than a week 1 tbsp. a spoonful of jam dissolved in 200 ml of water before meals once a day. Hawthorn reduces hypertension, which simplifies the work of the heart muscle.
- Blockage of blood vessels by blood clots is also very relevant for traditional medicine. Here you can find a recipe for the infusion of white onion juice on May honey in equal parts. The resulting mixture must be insisted 20 days – in the room, then in a cooler place. It is recommended to take 1 tbsp. l three times a day before meals, a course of 5 to 8 weeks.
- In certain cases, stenosis of the main vessels, the effect of eating 20-30 minutes before eating slurry from grated raw potatoes should be rubbed together with the peel.
- If not completely eliminated, then in a certain way to solve the problems of the cardiovascular system of a different nature will allow decoction of motherwort grass. For cooking, you need to take 4 tablespoons of dry chopped stems and leaves of motherwort, pour ½ liter of boiling water and simmer for no more than 5 minutes. Accepted before meals, 50-60 ml, a course of 25-30 days.
- The use of pharmacy herbal preparations No. 1, 2, 3, 4 based on grass of meadowsweet, mint, motherwort, birch leaf, nettle, lemon balm, yarrow, cinnamon, elderberry and other equally useful gifts of nature will significantly complement traditional medical treatment methods and increase them efficiency.
Alternative formulations as an alternative type of therapy should not be taken as a panacea, this is a small part of helping the body. The choice of treatment methods based on the diagnosis lies solely in the area of competence of the doctor.
Stenosis (narrowing) of the carotid arteries: how it develops, signs and degrees, treatment
Cerebrovascular diseases constitute one of the most significant problems of modern medicine. Mortality from vascular catastrophes of the brain is a leader among other diseases, and the incidence of disability is extremely high. Carotid artery stenosis causes ischemic necrosis in the brain in about a third of all cases of stroke.
With the closure of the lumen of the internal carotid artery by more than 70%, cerebral infarction occurs in almost half of patients during the first year after a significant violation of blood flow. Early diagnosis and timely resolution of the problem can help to avoid such a dangerous consequence. Modern surgical methods of treatment are safe, and with early detection of pathology, minimally invasive treatment is possible, which does not require large incisions and general anesthesia.
The main volume of blood flows to the brain through these large arterial trunks, therefore, any violations in them lead to hypoxia and require immediate examination and treatment. If in the USA the number of surgical stenosis corrections reaches 100 thousand a year, then in Russia there are only about 5 thousand of them. Such a low figure does not cover all those in need of treatment, and this is one of the significant problems of the health system.
To determine the tactics of treatment and prognosis of the disease, a criterion such as the degree of stenosis is used. It is calculated in relation to the reference size of the vessels:
- internal carotid artery above the bulb;
- common carotid artery before branching at 1 cm and 3 cm.
For calculation, measure the minimum clearance of the artery and divide it by the proper size. The data obtained can be: moderate (above 50%), hemodynamically significant (from 70%), critical (up to 99%), complete occlusion. At the same time, narrowings of more than 75 percent are indications for surgical treatment.
In the initial stage, the narrowing of the carotid artery is asymptomatic: the quality of life, the usual rhythm, are preserved. The disease begins to progress, and due to chronic oxygen starvation, brain structures begin to suffer, and neurological disorders develop.
This is evidenced by a number of alarm signals:
- Night sleep worsens.
- Dizziness periodically occurs, headaches become more frequent (discomfort occurs on the right or left, depending on the side of the injury).
- Inhibition of behavior is noted. The perception of information, its reproduction is difficult.
- There is emotional instability.
Most of the listed symptoms are initially attributed to fatigue or considered as a manifestation of depression.
As a rule, the clinical picture described above is accompanied by an overlap of the right or left vessel by less than 50%. If further narrowing occurs, the condition is aggravated by transient ischemic attacks due to a temporary disturbance of cerebral circulation.
The characteristic symptoms of seizures include:
- Slurred speech, difficult perception of information from the interlocutor.
- Uncoordinated movements, inability to perform familiar everyday activities.
- Deterioration of vision, blurred “picture”, its vagueness.
- Sensation of numbness, tingling in limbs.
- Difficulty swallowing.
- Sudden weakness up to loss of consciousness.
- Vomiting without prior nausea.
The duration of the attack is determined by the degree of stenosis. Symptoms can persist for an hour, over the next day, the condition is gradually restored. In the absence of treatment, ischemia intensifies and a stroke develops.
One of the classification criteria is the prevalence of vascular wall lesions. If the pathological site takes no more than one and a half centimeters, then focal atherosclerosis is noted. With a more extensive narrowing, ICA stenosis is diagnosed in a common form.
The main division occurs depending on the degree of narrowing of the lumen.
The following classification is generally accepted:
- I degree – characterized by an asymptomatic course without signs of brain ischemia. Diagnostic measures confirm the clinically significant pathology of the head vessels. The narrowing of the lumen is from 30 to 50%.
- II degree – the patient suffers from transient ischemic attacks as a result of periodic disturbances in cerebral circulation. A focal neurological deficit is detected with the elimination of negative symptoms within the next 24 hours. The overlap of the lumen is about 60-70%.
- Grade III (hemodynamically significant process) – is characterized by a chronic course of cerebrovascular insufficiency, the presence of severe neurological symptoms in the absence of a history of focal deficiency. The degree of blockage is up to 80%.
- IV degree – it is diagnosed with a stroke with persisting focal neurological symptoms for a day or longer. The obstruction of the vessel is up to 90%.
Only an experienced doctor can determine a developing disease at the initial stage. The first sign is an uncharacteristic murmur over the artery, detected during normal listening. If there is a suspicion of a vascular disorder, a complex of examinations is prescribed, consisting of ultrasound of the cervical vessels with Dopplerography, tomography (MRI or CT), angiography.
Carotid stenosis: symptoms, treatment, prognosis for life
Therapeutic measures to restore the health of clogged carotid arteries are developed by a neurologist with the participation of a therapist, since the simultaneous elimination of cerebral and somatic disorders is required.
Additionally, consultations with a cardiologist, angiosurgeon are prescribed. The latter, if necessary, plans surgical treatment, without which it is impossible to effectively cure severe stenosis.
Qualitative elimination of negative symptoms and restoration of quality of life is possible if a stroke does not occur. Surgical intervention is prescribed for stenosis of more than 60%. Without a radical approach, improvement in the condition is possible by no more than 30%. For this reason, doctors first of all restore the patency of the vessel and only after that go on to measures that affect the cause of stenosis.
Radical therapy is indicated in the following cases:
- A narrowing of the lumen by more than 60%, even without obvious clinical symptoms.
- Stroke suffered as a result of CA stenosis.
- Regular transient ischemic attacks even with a 50% CA lesion.
|Method||Features of the intervention||Result|
|Carotid Endarterectomy||Under general anesthesia, after cutting the vessel, the pathological formation is removed, vascular plastic surgery is performed and the dissection site is sutured||Removal of a full thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque|
|Carotid angioplasty, stenting||After expansion of the lumen of the vessel by means of a balloon catheter, a stent is inserted into the narrowed region. The operation requires local anesthesia, continuous monitoring of pulse and pressure. Intervention carried out under x-ray control||Effective increase in clearance, preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the focus of stenosis|
|Arterial prosthetics||Practice with extensive vascular lesions, replacing part of the wall with a special prosthesis||Updating the affected area|
In the framework of carotid endarterectomy, if necessary, it is planned to restore the geometry of the carotid artery. The technique is used for congenital anomalies in the structure of SA. After removing the loop-shaped or bent segment, the vessel is rectified. The result is the elimination of deformations, including tortuosity, kinks.
Rehabilitation after surgical treatment lasts differently for each patient. If stenting was performed, hospital stay is limited to 2-3 days. With endarterectomy, this period increases to a week. Before discharge, the patient is removed skin sutures.
If pain occurs in the operated area, short-term ice application is allowed. Shower is allowed on the third day after surgery, bathing – only after 14 days.
Contraindications for intervention are:
- The development of Alzheimer’s disease.
- Heart failure 2-3 degrees, unstable angina pectoris.
- Recently suffered myocardial infarction or an extensive stroke.
- Identification of a metastatic tumor.
- Intolerance to drugs used as part of an intervention.
It is important to consider a number of complications that may occur in the postoperative period:
- The development of vascular thrombosis, stroke.
- Bleeding in the operated area.
The chosen method of surgical treatment determines its cost.
On average, amounts vary within the following limits:
- Carotid endarterectomy – from 30 to 50 thousand rubles.
- Stenting is an expensive procedure that will cost 200-280 thousand rubles.
Even after the intervention, the diagnosis means the need for a complete review of the usual way of life. After recovery, rejection of bad habits, proper dosing of physical activity with the addition of massage, and correction of the diet by drawing up a diet are required.
It is carried out with small degrees of stenosis, after an intervention to prevent deterioration, or as the main therapeutic measure if there are contraindications for surgery.
|Pharmacological group||Action||Available Tools|
|Antithrombotic agents||The prevention of blood clots, the dissolution of existing pathological structures|
|Providing a lipid-lowering effect of statins||Cholesterol lowering|
|Antihypertensive drugs||Blood pressure correction||The type of drug and the appropriateness of its use are determined by the attending physician|
The use of medications for the detection of carotid artery stenosis is indicated throughout life.
Due to the high risk of re-forming plaques, drug therapy is necessarily combined with the preparation of a diet, the purpose of which is to reduce the level of cholesterol entering the body.
When planning the menu, make the following corrections:
- Allowed to use only lean varieties of fish, meat, low-fat dairy products.
- Butter is replaced with a vegetable product.
- They consume seasonal fruits and vegetables in sufficient quantities.
- Confectionery products and offal are minimized.
- Dishes are prepared by choosing boiling or steaming modes.
- The number of meals per day is 4-5 times with small portions. Dinner is planned no later than 3 hours before a night’s sleep.
It is advisable to measure the calorie content of ready meals. The optimal daily rate is from 1500 to 2000 kcal. When calculating, individual characteristics must be taken into account – height, weight, level of activity. After calculation, the resulting value is reduced by 15%.
With stenosis of the carotid artery, there is a violation of the blood supply to the brain due to the narrowing of this vessel, which is to varying degrees, responsible for the flow of blood to the brain tissue. This pathological process begins with a slight narrowing of the lumen of the carotid artery and ends with its complete obstruction (occlusion).
According to the observations of specialists, stenosis is detected in approximately 50% of patients with signs of cerebral ischemia and is found in approximately 30% of patients with ischemic stroke. When the artery is blocked by 70% during the first year of such a significant circulatory disorder, almost 50% of patients develop cerebral infarction.
Given the high risk of disability and mortality in such vascular accidents, the problem of stenosis of the carotid arteries is extremely urgent for medicine, and this disease needs timely detection and treatment. According to statistics, more often this ailment is detected in men. Why is the narrowing of the carotid arteries?
How is it manifested? What are the methods for diagnosing and treating this disease? What are the life predictions for patients with carotid stenosis? You can get answers to these questions by reading this article. Carotid arteries branch from the aorta and rise along the front of the neck to the head, splitting into two branches – the outer and the inner.
Their stenosis can occur in any area, but it most likely develops in the narrowing zones (the initial sections of the artery, the area of its division into branches and their mouths). The cause of stenosis can be obliterating and mechanical factors that reduce the diameter of the lumen of the vessel. arteries include: Mechanical compression of the carotid artery cause:
- benign and malignant neoplasms located along the artery;
- aneurysmal expansion of the aortic arch;
- malformations of blood vessels and heart.
The following diseases and factors can contribute to the development of stenosis:
- smoking and addiction to alcohol;
- pathological tortuosity of the arteries;
- arterial hypertension;
- tendency to thrombosis;
- elevated blood cholesterol and triglycerides;
- abnormalities of the development of blood vessels;
- heart failure;
- hereditary insufficiency of collagen synthesis, leading to inelasticity of the vascular walls;
- frequent vasospasm during stress;
- vascular injury;
- age after 70 years.
The operation for stenosis of the carotid artery is aimed at restoring normal blood flow and can be radical or minimally invasive. Radical interventions are performed in an open way, minimally invasive – without a large skin incision. Radical treatment – carotid endarterectomy – an open operation in which an incision is made on the neck in the area of the vessel, the artery is extracted, the surgeon finds a narrowing site and removes the plaques together in the area of the vascular wall, then the integrity of the vessel is restored by plastic, and the wound is sutured. With concomitant bending, looping, crimping, the entire affected fragment of the artery can be removed. The operation requires general anesthesia.
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