What are the symptoms of a microstroke, signs of a stroke and microstroke, diagnosis, treatment,

A microstroke can be recognized by the following signs:

  • Headache and dizziness;
  • Numbness of the face and limbs, including a decrease in sensitivity;
  • Lack of coordination of movements – easy staggering while walking, etc .;
  • Mild nausea
  • Visual and auditory disorders – for example, the appearance of cloudy spots in front of the eyes, distortion of sounds, etc .;
  • Increased blood pressure;
  • Loss of consciousness for a few seconds or 1-2 minutes in rare cases;
  • Sensitivity to bright light and intolerance to loud sounds;
  • Muscle weakness;
  • Severe drowsiness and fatigue;
  • Speech disturbance – slowdown, slurred mumble.

A stroke also develops from these symptoms, but they do not pass as quickly as with a microstroke.

Signs of the disease can last from a few minutes to 24 hours. If the symptoms disturb (or progress) for more than 1 day, the person is given a more serious diagnosis – a stroke, which requires urgent hospitalization and long-term treatment.

Because, as a consequence of the manifestation of a microstroke, there are focal lesions of the brain structures, neurological signs appear according to the focal localization of pathological disorders. Let us consider in more detail these focal signs at the location of cerebral blood flow disorders.

With this pathological process in women, the symptoms of a microstroke can be expressed:

  • Names in motor functions – in the form of a shaky and uncertain gait, lack of control of movements, lethargy and decreased muscle strength. The fingers of the limbs are sometimes reduced by convulsive spasms, causing them to twitch.
  • Signs of motor aphasia develop, manifested by impaired speech. It is difficult for a woman to find words to describe any event or even characterize her condition; she gets confused in cases, endings of words and their declension.
  • The “habits” in behavior change – it can be inappropriately funny and playful, detached, or be furious.
  • There are violations of smell. Usually one-s >

Symptoms of blood flow disorders in the parietal lobes

  • Localization of blood flow disorders in these areas is manifested by a decrease or complete disturbance of touch (tactile sensitivity). A woman is unable, with her eyes closed, to characterize a tangible object — to describe what it feels like, to determine its structure (soft, hard, smooth or rough) and temperature (cold or hot object).
  • Difficult – reading, writing, counting.

Signs of focal lesion in the temporal lobes

  • Blood flow disorders in this area can be reflected in problems in auditory functions, up to deafness;
  • Memory impairments and failures in it, frequent sensations of events already occurring with it (deja vu);
  • Signs of tinnitus (tinnitus and ringing).

Blood flow disorders in the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

  • Symptoms are manifested by impaired visual function and visual perception. At the beginning, the review (field of view) is significantly narrowed, gradually moving to its complete loss.
  • Women are not able to visualize objects and people. They can see an object, but they are not able to recognize it, they do not recognize familiar faces, but they are able to recognize them by their names and voices.

The characteristic signs of a microstroke are not difficult to identify, they are pronounced and clearly visible from the side. But women are not perceived adequately and they do not consider these manifestations as a disease. With this attitude to their health, close people should persuade her to consult a specialist and undergo the necessary examination.

A characteristic feature of the clinical picture of a microstroke is the short duration of the presence of pathological symptoms with their further rapid regression. Also, the signs of PNMC vary depending on the type of violation. Let’s consider them in more detail.

This type of transient cerebrovascular accident occurs most often (2/3 of all patients with this diagnosis). The cause is hypertension, and the basis of the pathogenesis of symptoms is a breakdown of autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Two options are possible here. The first – as a result of a sharp increase in pressure, the cerebral arteries expand too much, which leads to hyperperfusion of the brain tissue, venous congestion and cerebral edema.

Symptoms are nonspecific. Patients complain of a sharp bursting or throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, noise and ringing in the ears. As a rule, focal symptoms are not observed, but convulsions, mild impairment of consciousness, meningism syndrome can occur. When measuring pressure, it is increased to high numbers.

In the clinical picture of TIA, focal neurological symptoms predominate. You can observe numbness of certain parts of the body, paralysis and muscle weakness of one of the limbs, impaired vision, hearing, speech, asymmetry of the face, cramps, loss of sensitivity of certain parts of the skin. In some cases, cerebral symptoms are also observed.

With TIA, these symptoms quickly disappear, in contrast to a stroke, in which they can even progress.

This PNMK has the same development mechanism as the first variant of hypertensive cerebral crisis, but differs from it in the duration and degree of pathological changes in the brain tissue. If high blood pressure is not eliminated in time, then the circulatory disturbance in the brain progresses, which leads to the release of the liquid part of the blood from overflowing vessels into the nervous tissue with the development of cerebral edema, which is a life-threatening condition. Symptoms are similar to cerebral hypertensive crisis, but have a more pronounced character.

If timely assistance is not provided to the patient (a rapid and metered decrease in blood pressure), then acute hypertensive encephalopathy can lead to death.

The signs of a microstroke in women resemble a picture of a regular stroke:

  1. Violation of the symmetry of the face: sliding lips, cheeks or eyelids on one side.
  2. The inability to raise both hands in front of you and keep them in the air without weakness or numbness.
  3. Slurred speech, poor pronunciation of words.
  4. Visual impairment: blurred, double vision, the appearance of black dots.

Other symptoms of TIA include:

  • partial loss of vision in one eye;
  • dizziness;
  • communication problems: a person speaks slurredly and does not understand what they are told to him;
  • imbalance and coordination;
  • problems with swallowing;
  • numbness or weakness, which can lead to paralysis of one side of the body;
  • loss of consciousness (in severe cases).

Most often, patients note a sharp headache (in 90% of cases), then dizziness (in 13%), numbness of the face and lips (in almost 40%) and limbs (54% of cases). A single or episodic nature of the listed signs of a microstroke is assessed as a manifestation of neurocirculatory dystonia.

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What is the difference from a stroke?

With a stroke, damage to the vessels of the brain occurs, which can cause:

One third of people die after suffering a stroke. Restoring the brain completely after this disease is impossible.

If you seek medical help in a timely manner, the functioning of the cerebral vessels can be restored and future complications avoided. However, help should be provided no later than 3-6 hours after the onset of the first symptoms.

Can provoke an attack:

  • excess weight;
  • eating spicy and fatty foods;
  • alcohol and smoking;
  • heavy physical activity;
  • heart surgery;
  • a sharp change in climatic conditions;
  • atherosclerosis.

People who suffer from diabetes mellitus, apnea and have malignant neoplasms are most susceptible to micro strokes. In addition, a frequent cause of the disease is a constant increase in blood pressure.

The first signs and symptoms of a microstroke vary in a wide range, which depends on the diameter and location of the affected arterial vessel, as well as on the mechanism of development of the disorder (thrombus, embolus, spasm, compression, disruption of autoregulation of cerebral circulation, etc.). In some cases, a person may not even suspect that he had a microstroke, for example, ordinary dizziness, headache, numbness and tingling in his hand for several seconds, blurred vision, muscle weakness can be signs of a transient ischemic attack.

In other cases, the disorders develop very quickly and do not remain without attention, as they are pronounced and similar to the symptoms of a real stroke.

Alarming signs of a microstroke in women and men:

  • sharp patching of any part of the body or limb, a feeling of “crawling creeps”;
  • sharp muscle weakness in the arm or leg;
  • loss of sensitivity of a certain area of ​​the skin;
  • sharp headache and increased blood pressure, dizziness;
  • sudden visual impairment;
  • paralysis of the legs or arms;
  • omission of the corner of the mouth, inability to smile;
  • speech impairment;
  • cramps, vomiting, nausea, confused consciousness.

With a micro stroke, it is very important to provide medication on time. Therapy can be effective only in the first 3 hours after the onset of characteristic symptoms, therefore, the sooner a person is delivered to a medical institution, the faster they will be helped, the greater the patient’s chances for a full recovery. If after a micro stroke more than 6 hours have passed, any therapy will be ineffective.

The following drugs are used to restore blood flow in the affected area of ​​the brain:

  • Anticoagulants. Direct (heparin). Low molecular weight heparins, nadroparin (fraksiparin), enoxyparin (clexane), dalteparin (fragmentin). Indirect – warfarin, syncumar, neodikumarin.
  • Disaggregants. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin-cardio, thromboass, aspilate). With its intolerance – clopidogrel, dipyridomole, ticlopidine.
  • Vasoactive drugs. Pentoxifylline, vinpocetine, trental, chimes.
  • Low molecular weight dextrans. Reopoliglyukin, reomacrodex.
  • Thrombolytics – this group of drugs hits blood clots in the heart – dissolves a blood clot and restores blood flow in a vessel (streptokinase, urokinase, alteplase and others). But the effect of thrombolytic therapy can be obtained only within 72 hours from the onset of thrombosis, but with hemorrhagic strokes, such drugs will kill the patient. It is important to clearly know what type of stroke you have to deal with.
  • Antihypertensive. Applied with Blood Pressure gt; 180/105 mmHg ACE inhibitors (enalapril, captopril). Calcium channel blockers (nicardipine).
  • Neuroprotectors. With a low level of evidence of effects, they are used in practical neurology.
    1. Glutamate antagonists (magnesium preparations).
    2. Inhibitors of glutamate (glycine, semax).
    3. Nootropics (cerebrolysin, piracetam).
    4. Antioxidants (Vitamin E, Mildronate).
  • In the recovery period, the patient is shown – massage, breathing exercises, physiotherapy exercises, diet, physiotherapy.

Very interesting studies conducted by American scientists have proven that the use of pine cones from stroke significantly reduces the effects of the destruction of brain cells. Therefore, everyone who is at risk for microstroke, stroke, and just anyone who monitors their health, especially people after 40 years of age, can be given preventive courses of such therapy using an infusion or tincture of pine cones.

Recovering a patient after a microstroke is best done at home. The rehabilitation complex non-drug program-minimum consists of:

  • elimination of stressful situations;
  • quitting smoking and drinking alcohol;
  • diet therapy, nutrition correction, anti-obesity;
  • herbal medicine;
  • physiotherapy exercises and massage, regular physical activity;
  • physiotherapeutic procedures, water and heat therapy, climatotherapy;
  • other non-traditional methods of treatment and rehabilitation (acupuncture, yoga, hirudotherapy, etc.).

After suffering a microstroke, patients are strictly forbidden to eat salty, fatty, spicy foods, which only worsens the general course of the disease. The nutrition of patients should be high-calorie, containing a large amount of vitamins (potassium and magnesium), necessary to normalize the work of the cardiovascular system.

Forecasts for recovery after a microstroke depend on its causes:

  • If it is on the surface (overweight, stress), then the elimination of provocateurs will be the best prevention of relapse and complications;
  • If the cause was a specific disease, a scheme is being developed for its treatment.

First of all, you need to figure out what exactly happens in the heart and brain with a micro stroke. It turns out that blood vessels and aortas are clogged, a sharp spasm in the small arteries appears, oxygen starvation develops, which does not allow supplying the brain and heart with oxygen and nutrients.

If such a short-term disturbance of the blood circulation of the brain occurs, then serious consequences may not occur. Most often, memory is slightly impaired and the concentration of attention decreases. But the danger is that a microstroke can recur after a short period of time. And with each new manifestation, the risk of complications increases significantly. Therefore, measures must be taken after the first microstroke.

Find out from the video presented the opinion of doctors about all sorts of consequences and the dangers of a microstroke.

All consequences after a micro stroke are conditionally divided into heavy and light. It depends on the degree of damage, the location, the duration of blockage of blood vessels, etc.

  • stroke and heart attack;
  • paresis, paralysis, hemiplegia – control over body movements is lost;
  • difficulty swallowing even saliva;
  • epilepsy attack;
  • cerebral hemorrhage;
  • cerebral edema;
  • enuresis;
  • frequent constipation or, conversely, the inability to restrain feces;
  • severe tachycardia;
  • incoherence of conversation, lack of speech;
  • stuttering;
  • lack of reactions when referring to the patient;
  • the inability to hold even the lightest objects;
  • lack of grasping ability;
  • loss of coordination of movements;
  • death due to cardiac arrest;
  • monocular blindness.

Of particular note is the unilateral transient disorder of the blood supply, in which the visual organs suffer. This is manifested by a sensation of creeping darkness. This is short-term blindness, which can last only a few seconds. There is no pain syndrome, so people do not pay attention to it, although such a manifestation can lead to complete blindness.

  • weakness in the body;
  • slight difficulty in speaking;
  • amimic manifestations – immobility of facial muscles;
  • numbness of the skin in any part of the body;
  • pain in the head and dizziness;
  • blurry images;
  • increase or decrease in blood pressure;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • fainting condition.

The consequences of a microstroke depend on the place of localization – complications affect other internal organs. Thus, the following picture is noted:

  1. If a microstroke occurs in the brain stem, paralysis of a central nature occurs. If trunks are affected on the left, then sensitivity is lost on the right side of the body. That is, the localization of the consequences is on the opposite side.
  2. When the vascular bridge is damaged, the gaze paralyzes, which is directed to the affected side. Only in rare cases, the eyes are turned in the opposite direction.
  3. If the parts of the medulla oblongata are damaged, paralysis is localized in the soft palate, vocal cords. Hemiparesis may also occur, but on the opposite side of the limbs. Therefore, problems with speech and movements are manifested.
  4. If the cerebellum is affected, the head hurts in the back of the head, dizziness is noted, blood pressure decreases, and nausea and vomiting occur. It becomes difficult to breathe, the pulsation decreases, and the muscles weaken.
  5. With an embolic microstroke, motor or sensory aphasia appears. This is when a sick person makes a speech slurred and at the same time he cannot make out his own words. Or he can’t talk at all. In addition, hemiparesis, epilepsy attacks are observed.
  6. With lacunar damage, epileptic seizures also occur, the field of vision falls out.
  7. If the focus of a microstroke is localized in the radial cerebral rim or inner capsule (most often in the leg in the back), then hemigipesthesia and hemiparesis are noted.
  8. With a micro stroke of the vertebrobasilar pool, the motor activity of the visual apparatus is disrupted, the sensitivity partially or completely disappears, motor disorders are noted immediately on both sides. Also, hemiplegia of the contralateral form occurs. That is, due to damage to the cranial nerves, motor ability is lost on only one side of the body. In this case, reflexes intensify, and hypertonicity forms in the muscular system of the limbs, as a result of which it becomes impossible to bend and unbend legs or arms. Read about restoring your hands here.
  9. When the brain is damaged, blood pressure suffers, thinking is disturbed, memory is lost. In short, chronic circulatory encephalopathy develops. These consequences are supplemented by a change in gait, impaired coordination of movement, lack of stability, the development of parkinsonism, spasticity of the muscular system, hypokinesia. In addition, such a lesion affects swallowing and chewing abilities, coarsening of the voice, and slowing down of speech. As complications progress, dementia may develop, which in the initial stages is manifested by causeless laughter or crying. Moreover, the patient does this without realizing it. Further, the functionality of the pelvic organs is impaired, which is manifested by incontinence of urinary fluid and feces.
  10. A particularly dangerous complication is sclerosis, which is localized in the parts of the brain. This leads to neurological deficit, necrosis of cells and tissues (necrosis).

The first signs of a microstroke in women

Among the typical first manifestations of a microstroke in women, the following symptoms are noted:

  • The appearance of sudden severe migraines, sometimes accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Short-term bouts of pain in the head, even in women who are not prone to manifest migraines and who did not know what it was before.
  • Pathological facial asymmetry (the most characteristic sign of a microstroke);
  • Short-term fainting;
  • A stunned state and a lack of response to the environment, disorientation in time and space;
  • Signs of paresthesia, manifested by numbness of the limbs and unpleasant external sensations;
  • Loss of sensitivity in the tongue, which leads to a violation of pronunciation;

If a woman has doubts, you can determine a microstroke on your own, having passed simple tests.

  1. Go to the mirror and smile – the smile will be crooked, and one of the corners of the mouth will remain stationary.
  2. Show the tongue to the mirror – it deviates to one side.
  3. Try to extend your arms outstretched in front of you and hold them by closing your eyes – one hand will surely “go” down.
  4. Slowly raise both hands up – one hand will usually lag.
  5. Try to repeat a long phrase or tongue twister without errors, with a microstroke you will definitely notice a vague speech.

Sometimes the typical signs of transient circulatory disorders may not appear, reminding myself of only insignificant, slightly specific symptoms:

  • a feeling of involuntary circling of the body (signs of Vertigo);
  • a breakdown and a constant feeling of tiredness;
  • diplopia (bifurcation of an object) and flickering of “flies”;
  • lead severity and weakness in the limbs.

Such seemingly insignificant signs of a microstroke are often carried by women on their feet. Unfortunately, most patients do not take them seriously enough, taking them for the consequences of overwork after a busy day. It is necessary to pay attention to the severity of such symptoms, especially if they did not appear earlier. Do not ignore them, this may be the first “bell”, a kind of warning of the development of an extensive process.

Causes

  1. Spasm of the vessels. This picture is most often observed in people with constantly high blood pressure – arterial hypertension. However, a stroke can also occur in a completely healthy person with constantly normal pressure amid stress, taking certain medications, dehydration, shock, and so on. A sharp jump in pressure in such patients can cause both a microstroke and other types of cerebrovascular disorders.
  2. Blockage of blood vessels. Violation of the lumen of the vessel complicates the flow of blood – oxygen starvation of tissues occurs. Blockage of the vessel can occur with an atherosclerotic or cholesterol plaque, thrombus, gas bubble, less commonly with bacterial screenings, metastasis, or a foreign body.
  3. Rupture of the supply vessel. Strokes formed in this way are called hemorrhagic. Blood poured out of the vessel not only does not reach the “destination”, but also impregnates the surrounding tissues, exacerbating the lesion. The cause of a rupture of a vessel can be a jump in pressure, atherosclerosis of the vessels, head injury, impaired venous outflow from the head – for example, an attempt to strangle.

Modern medicine has clearly identified patients whose health status and lifestyle significantly increase the risk of developing cerebrovascular disorders:

  1. Taking combined oral contraceptives in women.
  2. The period of menopause in women, especially against the background of severe menopause.
  3. Strokes and heart attacks in the past.
  4. Hereditary predisposition and family history.
  5. People with diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially those with cardiac arrhythmias and arterial hypertension.
  6. Atherosclerosis of the vessels – the deposition of cholesterol salts on the inner lining of the vessels – the formation of plaques.
  7. Hereditary and acquired coagulation disorders – antiphospholipid syndrome, polycythemia, defect of Leiden factor and so on.
  8. Obesity and eating a lot of fatty and sugary foods.
  9. Diabetes.
  10. Smoking and drinking alcohol in large doses.
  11. A sedentary lifestyle – especially bedridden patients.
  12. Chronic fatigue, stress, emotional distress.

The main reason is the blockage of one of two important blood vessels: the carotid or vertebral artery. They branch out into a series of smaller branches, supplying blood to every part of the brain.

During stress, arteries respond to adrenaline rush by compression of the muscle layer, which leads to a compensatory increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the risk of TIA increases with problems with posture, namely, the cervical spine, as well as with dystonia. Women are more prone to vegetovascular dystonia precisely because of dysregulation of the functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

The risk of TIA increases with atherosclerosis or deposits of fatty plaques on the walls of arteries. With vasospasm against stress, there is a change in the polarity of the endoteria – cells lining the vessels. Then the body begins to restore tissue, increasing platelet activity. To restore polarity, fat molecules are adhered to the overgrown layer of cells. As a result, the lumen of the artery narrows, blood flow is disturbed.

The formation of blood clots is associated with a number of factors:

  • palpitations, heart disease;
  • blood clots on the background of elevated cholesterol, platelets;
  • in the presence of thrombophlebitis and varicose veins.

Studies determine the main factors for the development of TIA:

  1. Increased blood pressure up to 130 / 90-220 / 110 mm Hg 60% of patients with a history of microstrokes.
  2. The use of oral contraceptives for more than 3 months – in almost 18% of cases.
  3. Hormonal stimulation when planning IVF (artificial insemination) – in 9% of women.
  4. Overweight – almost 10% of patients.
  5. 9% have snoring or sleep apnea.

In approximately 10% of TIA cases, prior factors are not established.

The combination of factors classifies some women at high risk:

  1. Occasional increase in blood pressure due to overweight and taking hormonal drugs for contraception.
  2. IVF planning and hypertension in women.
  3. Presence of hypertension, overweight, and snoring or sleep apnea.

A sharp jump in blood pressure occurs with neurocirculatory dystonia, characteristic of young people. The use of oral contraception changes the rheological properties of blood, increases viscosity. At the same time, the elasticity of the walls of the vessels decreases.

Dissection (stratification) of the walls of the arteries is one of the little-studied causes of TIA in young people and women before menopause. The integrity of the arterial wall is impaired by injuries of the cervical spine. But with abnormalities in the development of blood vessels, even a coughing fit and careless movement can cause hemorrhages, leave part of the brain tissue without oxygen.

Injuries to the neck and brain increase the risk of micro strokes due to impaired vascular integrity. Hematomas are associated with microcirculation problems in affected areas of the brain even after concussions.

Common causes of a microstroke are the following factors:

  1. High blood pressure, especially if hypertensive crises have previously occurred;
  2. Atherosclerosis and thrombosis are one of the most common causes;
  3. The hereditary factor is if one of the next of kin has ever suffered a stroke or a microstroke, then it is highly likely that the situation may recur with one of the family members;
  4. Diabetes mellitus – in the case of sharp fluctuations in glucose levels;
  5. Excess weight – overweight helps increase the load on the heart and increase blood pressure, which in turn provokes a microstroke;
  6. Bad habits – alcohol and especially smoking increase the risk of microstroke by 2-3 times, compared with people leading a healthy lifestyle;
  7. A microstroke that has already happened before – if the patient has not eliminated the negative factors – has not changed his lifestyle, has not got rid of bad habits, etc., then the likelihood of a second attack increases;
  8. A sedentary lifestyle – especially if the work is “sedentary”;
  9. Improper nutrition – for example, abuse of fatty foods;
  10. Vasculitis – inflammation of the walls of blood vessels;
  11. Frequent stress and overwork;
  12. Cardiovascular diseases .

First aid

As a rule, women with a microstroke can not cope with the problem on their own, because sometimes they do not see it, unlike others, to whom it is clearly visible from the outside. And to prevent unwanted consequences, the first aid given by loved ones on time with a micro stroke can be done on time.

If, during a conversation with a woman, she suddenly falls silent, and then is not able to clearly state and express an idea, special attention should be paid to this. Having noticed the first signs of pathology, it is important, before the arrival of the doctor, to properly provide assistance:

  1. A woman should be laid with her head raised.
  2. Provide access to fresh air (open windows, turn on a fan, etc.).
  3. To unfasten, the breath-tight clothes.
  4. With high blood pressure, give a medicine that a person uses.

It is not worth prescribing the drug yourself. Better to wait for a doctor.

  1. The condition may improve after a hot foot bath, taking a homeopathic medicine, or a cold compress applied to the back of the head.
  2. Light round head massage will not hurt.
  3. Before the doctor arrives, you should make sure that the patient does not make sudden movements.

The recommendations of first aid for a microstroke are identical to the actions that are performed with ischemic and hemorrhagic types of the disease. After calling the doctors, proceed with emergency assistance, in most cases, it is these measures that help save the patient’s life and increase the chances of further recovery.

Stages of the provision of first aid:

  1. Put the victim on the bed, if the attack occurred on the street – lay directly on the ground, an important point is the head raised 30 degrees, for this use pillows and other devices.
  2. When vomiting, do not just raise your head, but turn it to one side, otherwise the patient may choke, it is also necessary for the normal flow of oxygen into the lungs.
  3. Open the window, unfasten the collar and belt, air should flow freely.
  4. Measure blood pressure, record indicators, with high blood pressure in any case, do not give a person antihypertensive drugs before the doctors arrive.
  5. When cardiac arrest and breathing, perform resuscitation, do not stop until the pulse is restored or the ambulance arrives.

What help do doctors provide before hospitalization:

  • smoothly lower blood pressure;
  • improve heart function;
  • resume cerebral circulation;
  • improve blood flow rates;
  • activate metabolic processes in nerve tissues;
  • eliminate edema.

Hospitalization with a microstroke is a mandatory measure. If the injured person refuses to travel to the hospital, he must be persuaded. Before the diagnosis, doctors can not determine the size, location and type of stroke and prescribe adequate treatment for the patient.

If you suspect a microstroke, you need to call an emergency doctor. Suspicious headache, which does not subside after taking painkillers, is accompanied by weakness in the legs, visual impairment – an occasion to consult a doctor.

Prior to the arrival of the ambulance crew, blood pressure should be measured. In the case of the appointment of antihypertensive drugs, take a dose to normalize blood pressure. Lay the patient on a flat surface, free from tight clothing. Open window for fresh air. Do not leave alone, support.

Aftermath

The consequences after a microstroke will not be long in coming. The more such manifestations, the more the time between an attack and the development of complications is reduced.

According to average statistics, a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke attack occurs within 3 days after a repeated microstroke, but more often during the day.

If the attack is primary, then complications occur within 12 months. In the absence of persistent pathologies of the cardiovascular system and in general any serious pathological disorders, heart attacks occur after 5-6 years.

A microstroke often passes unnoticed by a person. His symptoms are often attributed to fatigue, overwork at work, and depression. However, unfortunately, the consequences of a microstroke are not always so harmless. After suffering a disease, some people may have memory problems, impaired attention span, and distraction.

It also happens that within three days after a microstroke, a person may experience a stroke. Also, in 60% of cases after a microstroke, patients have an ischemic brain attack. And the consequences of these diseases are much worse than the consequences of a microstroke.

Treatment for PNMC is based on drug therapy that restores blood flow in affected brain tissues:

  1. Appointment of vasodilators – “Instenon”, “Pentoxifylline”, “Xatinol”, etc.
  2. Vasoactive drugs that improve blood flow in the vessels of the brain – such as “Eufillina”, “Cavinton”, “Citicalin, etc.
  3. Drugs that improve metabolic processes – angioprotectors “Bilobila”, “Tanakana” or “Nimodipine” and “Mexicor”.
  4. Drugs that prevent thrombosis are Dipyridamole, Aspirin and Ticlopidine.
  5. Funds from the group of nootropics that ensure the resistance of brain cells to aggressive effects, improve brain functions and memory – Paracetam, Cinnarizine and other drugs of this group.
  6. Cardiac functions are supported by Digoxin, Korglikon, Cordiomin.

A comprehensive rehabilitation program helps speed up the recovery process after a micro stroke. It is very difficult, almost impossible to recover independently from the disease. Therefore, everything prescribed according to the rehabilitation program of the procedure must be strictly observed. To accelerate a full recovery help:

  • therapeutic and relaxing massage procedures;
  • specially selected exercises of physiotherapy and breathing exercises;
  • indiv >

Especially important are such procedures for older women, in whom a microstroke can be expressed as a fairly serious lesion.

The prognosis of the further state of women depends on the cause of the disease and the severity of symptoms. As a rule, elimination of the cause and treatment of background pathologies stabilizes the blood circulation in the vessels of the brain and the patients quickly recover.

Tags: stroke brain vessels

Treatment after a microstroke is long. It includes the following methods:

  1. Taking medication
  2. Surgical intervention
  3. Lifestyle changes (to avoid a second attack).

Drug Groups

After a diagnostic examination, the neuropathologist prescribes to the patient some groups of drugs, for example:

  1. Vasodilators (Cavinton, Trental, Cinatropil, etc.) – improve cerebral circulation. The course of treatment is up to 3 months. The required dosage is determined by the attending physician
  2. Nootropic drugs (Piracetam, Vinpocetine, Phenotropil, Pantogam, Glycine, etc.) – with regular use, restore memory and mental abilities. The average course of treatment is 2 months and involves both intravenous use of drugs and in the form of tablets
  3. Means for improving the functioning of the heart (Asparkam, Digoxin, Verapamil, etc.) – restore cardiovascular activity and improve brain function, because they contain useful trace elements. The course of treatment is 2 months
  4. Blood thinners (Aspirin, Cardiomagnyl, Thrombo ACC, Cardi ASA, Kleksan, etc.) – prevent the formation of blood clots, are used to thin the blood. The course of treatment is determined by the doctor (often therapy lasts from several months).

Operation

In the event that drug treatment was ineffective, patients are prescribed surgery. In more rare cases, it is recommended immediately after a microstroke (for example, if the cause of the attack was atherosclerosis of the carotid artery, surgical plaque removal is performed).

In other cases, the patient is shown the following types of operations:

  • Stenting – in the place of narrowing of the vessel, a special design is installed, which creates the necessary clearance
  • Angioplasty – a balloon is introduced into the narrowing site, then inflated and removed, which allows the walls of the vessel to be moved apart.

Both operations are performed under local anesthesia.

Medical and surgical treatment in combination give a good result, but in the absence of positive changes in the lifestyle, it is unlikely that it will be possible to maintain health for a long time (and avoid a repeated micro stroke). Therefore, during the recovery period it is extremely important to observe the following recommendations:

  1. Refuse bad habits (addiction to alcohol, smoking, etc.).
  2. Reduce salt intake (maximum – 1-2 tsp per day).
  3. Exclude fatty foods (lard, smoked sausages, chips, fast food) from the diet.
  4. Eat as many fresh vegetables and fruits as possible.
  5. Engage in physical activity (walking in the fresh air, light physical exercises).
  6. If possible, avoid stressful situations and get enough sleep (up to 8 hours a day).

After a micro stroke in patients, there are consequences such as:

  1. Memory impairment and distraction;
  2. Increased irritability;
  3. Depression and tearful condition;
  4. Unreasonable aggression.

Upon confirmation of the TIA, the patient is hospitalized for several days for observation. Hospitalization is required in the following cases:

  • with increasing symptoms, which lasts more than an hour;
  • with damage to the internal carotid arteries by atherosclerotic plaques by 50%;
  • with atrial fibrillation;
  • increased blood coagulation.

Further treatment is determined by the cause of TIA. Almost all patients require medical treatment. Prescribe antiplatelet drugs (antiplatelet agents), which prevent platelet adhesion and the risk of a new blood clot. Usually, aspirin, clopidogrel, or a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole are chosen. The need for antiplatelet therapy increases in the following cases:

  • when clogging small vessels;
  • against the background of mitral valve prolapse;
  • with revealed calcification of the mitral ring;
  • non-rheumatic lesions of the mitral valve.

Atrial fibrillation in the form of seizures and a persistent, acute coronary syndrome and mitral stenosis are indications for treatment with anticoagulants. First, direct-acting drugs (heparin) are used, and then vitamin K antagonists (warfarin).

Anticoagulants, such as warfarin, reduce blood coagulation. They are prescribed for the complicated course of TIA, but less frequently than platelet preparations. Anticoagulants are necessary for patients with left ventricular thrombosis on the background of myocardial infarction, with atrial fibrillation, rheumatic disease and other diseases that increase the risk of stroke.

In arteriosclerosis of arteries, statins in the highest doses are prescribed immediately after TI. If stenosis of the carotid artery is 70%, then a carotid endarterectomy is performed.

The main complications of microstrokes are:

  • increased risk of re-stroke;
  • neurological symptoms amid neuronal death.

The rapid start of complex treatment with drugs and the surgical restoration of arterial patency reduces the risk of stroke after TIA by 80%.

After TIA, an important aspect of therapy is the preservation of brain tissue in order to avoid neurological disorders. As prevention, cytoprotectors are used to prevent ischemia and cerebral infarction.

With spontaneous restoration of blood flow, which occurs after TIA, there is a problem of reperfusion tissue damage. Because the death of neurons is also observed. In the early or long term, this can lead to a short-term loss of sensitivity, impaired coordination of movements and loss of clarity of speech.

Neurons are damaged due to oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species during ischemia. Damage to cells appears both with a lack of oxygen, and after the restoration of blood flow. Therefore, for prevention, patients are prescribed drugs with antioxidative and antihypoxic effects.

Description of the disease

A microstroke is a violation of the blood circulation of the brain, which has a detrimental effect on small vessels and small areas of brain tissue (unlike, for example, a stroke in which most vital cells are destroyed).

According to medical statistics, if timely assistance was provided to the patient, brain function can be restored almost completely.

Diagnostics

To make a diagnosis of “microstroke”, it is necessary that the data of studies that visualize the brain do not show necrosis (death) of a part of the brain, as happens with a stroke. The brain is checked by tomographic (that is, when inspection is carried out layer by layer) methods:

  1. computer (visualization is carried out by x-ray);
  2. magnetic resonance: in this case, the brain allows you to visualize a large magnet. It better allows you to consider precisely the structure of the brain;
  3. positron emission. This is an even more accurate method. He can even “see” the site of ischemia if it is carried out before the end of the transient ischemic attack.

In addition to tomographic examination, it is important to examine the vessels of the brain for atherosclerotic plaques and blood clots. If they are found, an operation can be performed, and this will be the maximum possible measure for the prevention of stroke.

The list of mandatory studies for a microstroke also includes studies of the veins of the lower extremities (duplex or triplex scanning) and the heart (ultrasound of the heart, ECG in 12 leads), blood tests. They are needed so that appropriate measures can be taken to normalize indicators. Then the chance that a micro-stroke will recur or “outgrow” into a stroke is reduced.

Regardless of whether the attack ended or not, a number of examinations are necessary to determine the exact diagnosis, for example:

  1. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) – reveals even small foci of intracerebral hemorrhage, as well as the main cause of microstroke
  2. CT (computed tomography) – to obtain more reliable data, it is recommended to conduct a study within a day from the moment the first symptoms appear
  3. Doppler ultrasound (Doppler ultrasound of the brain vessels) – the procedure allows you to evaluate the condition and function of the vessels responsible for blood supply, as well as to detect the presence of blood clots.

Prevention

After TIA, the likelihood of a stroke remains at 20%. Lifestyle Correction protects against dangerous vascular problems in the brain. After a micro stroke, health should be monitored more carefully:

  1. Engage in the timely treatment of any disease, including infectious.
  2. Monitor blood pressure and cholesterol, observed by a physician and cardiologist.
  3. Monitor blood sugar, take drugs to regulate it as necessary, eat in accordance with the recommendations of your doctor.
  4. Take anticoagulants as prescribed by your doctor to reduce the risk of stroke. Discuss with your doctor the occurrence of any problems with taking the medication.
  5. Walk 10 thousand steps a day, lead a healthy lifestyle. Refuse bad habits, reduce alcohol consumption to a minimum.
  6. Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases the risk of hypertension and is an independent risk factor for microstrokes.

It is recommended to perform physical activity, which increase the heart rate. Calculate the pulse for aerobic exercise using the formula: (210-age) x 0,6. Walking at a speed of 5-6 km / h is one of the methods of prevention if there are contraindications in the form of chronic heart diseases for running. You can use an exercise bike, a game of table tennis, simple exercises with a rubber expander.

Nutrition must be balanced in favor of healthy fats, lower sugar, increased fruits and fiber. Additionally, take omega-3 fatty acids in capsules, vitamin D3, vitamin E.

Stress factor is one of the most important, which is isolated in the pathogenesis of microstrokes and heart diseases. The release of adrenaline causes the very spasm of the vessels, violates the respiration and blood supply to the brain. You can only protect yourself from stress in a world overflowing with negative information through affirmations and meditations.

It is useful after a stressful situation to “let off steam” – use synthesized adrenaline for action, for example, go for a walk. To reduce spasm, breathing exercises help – proper diaphragmatic breathing. It involves the expansion of the lower part of the ribs on inhalation and the contraction of the abdominal muscles on the exhale.

You can prevent the occurrence of a microstroke if you follow the following rules:

  1. Regularly measure the level of blood pressure (especially hypertonics);
  2. Get rid of bad habits;
  3. Change the diet (exclude fatty, smoked and salty foods, adding more vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes) and do not overeat;
  4. Avoid physical and mental overwork;
  5. Gradually increase stress resistance;
  6. To perform physical exercises;
  7. Examine regularly (especially with frequent headaches and cardiovascular pathologies).

The best way of defense is an attack. To reduce the risk of contracting this terrible disease, it is necessary to carry out a number of preventive measures in a timely manner:

  • It is necessary to regularly measure blood pressure. It is also advisable to keep a special diary in which to note daily your morning and evening pressure indicators.
  • Change the diet and remove fatty, salty and smoked foods from it. It is a salt-free diet that helps lower blood pressure. In addition, you need to fill your diet with fresh vegetables and fruits, beans and fish.
  • Forget about cigarettes. It has been proven that with and frequent smoking in the blood, the risk of stroke doubles.
  • It is necessary to learn how to properly observe the regime of work and rest, as well as develop stress resistance. Regular sports and exercise every day will help you.
  • It is necessary to constantly monitor the state of health and visit doctors during.

Microstroke is a modern disease. This point lesion of the vessels of the brain does not have a clear age qualification today. It can equally occur in young people who are prone to bad habits, in diabetics, those who are obese and just people who have in their track record a diagnosis of hypertension.

Despite the fact that a microstroke is easier to tolerate than a regular stroke, it must be treated in a timely manner, without delay and only after hospitalization in a specialized medical institution. Home methods in the case of damage to the vessels of the brain can be not only ineffective, but also destructive.

Thus, in order to protect yourself, you should simply adhere to the correct lifestyle. This is especially important for people who have crossed the age of forty, because after all, with the onset of maturity, the risk of suffering a microstroke also increases due to worn out vessels.

Risk of re-brain stroke

The main risk groups for TIA include:

  1. Menopausal women with a stable increase in blood pressure or tachycardia.
  2. Overweight young women taking hormonal contraceptives.
  3. Women who undergo hormone therapy to stimulate IVF.

Sharp increase Blood pressure during stress or physical stress is considered an isolated risk factor.

As part of the study, patients undergoing TIA were questioned about pains that were observed a week before circulatory disorders or 24 hours before the event. It turned out that throughout the year before the microstroke, patients had migraines with an aura, which means changes in vision, hearing before an attack of a headache.

Because of the approach of a microstroke, migraines with an aura, an increase in headache attacks can indicate.

Repeated microstroke or stroke is the No. 1 problem both for patients and for medical institutions. The thing is that, as shown by numerous practice, a second attack is more dangerous, unlike the first, because it leads to more serious consequences (up to a fatal outcome).

Therefore, if the patient adheres to the previous lifestyle, including bad habits and poor nutrition, then a repeated microstroke, or even a stroke, which periodically happens too, is a matter of time.

Conclusion

A microstroke is a dangerous disease that entails a lot of unpleasant consequences. Therefore, the key to recovery is a timely visit to a doctor and the implementation of all the prescribed recommendations.

Remember, the main thing in the recovery phase is personal motivation to maintain health and eliminate provocative factors (concomitant diseases, bad habits, malnutrition, etc.) that led to the disease. Then the therapy will take less time and be more effective.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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