Violation of heart rhythm causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Usually, when they talk about the pulse, the contractile ability of the heart, they mean sinus heart rate.

A small number of muscle fibers, which are located in the sinus-atrial node, in the right atrium, determine and control its frequency.

In case of any violations or damage, other parts of the conducting system can perform this function. As a result, a heart rhythm failure occurs from the norm, which in adults is in the permissible range from 60 to 90 beats per minute, in babies up to 6 months – from 90 to 120-150.

Children from 1 year of age to 10 years of age are diagnosed with a heart rhythm disorder if its indicators exceed 70-130 beats.

In adolescents and the elderly, the pulse should be no more than 60-100. Otherwise, careful study of the problem and subsequent treatment will be required.

Causes of heart rhythm failure

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About 15% of all diagnosed cases of diseases of the cardiovascular system, which provoke disturbances in the heart rhythm, are caused by arrhythmias.

It is represented by a whole complex of pathological conditions, united by the mechanism of conduction, functional features and the formation of an electrical impulse.

Arrhythmia attacks can occur against the background of ischemic disease and clinical syndrome of myocardial damage, acquired and congenital heart defects, due to functional impairment of the mitral valve, which provides blood supply to the left ventricle and aorta.

One should not exclude such reasons as changes in the water-electrolyte and acid-base balance, endocrine disorders, which are the source of disturbances in the rhythm and conduction of the heart. In rare cases, this group includes diseases of the biliary system, the hematopoietic system and the digestive system, ulcerative lesions of the duodenum.

In women, very often not associated with pathologies, the causes and treatment of arrhythmias caused by hormonal changes are not provided. Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with premenstrual syndrome, menopause, and the postpartum period. In adolescent girls, there is a rapid heart rate during the transition period.

Incorrect intake or excess of the indicated dosage of antiarrhythmic, diuretic and herbal cardiac glycoside medications and psychotropic substances has a negative effect on the heart rate.

Bad habits such as smoking, alcohol, drugs and even coffee, an abundance of fatty foods containing preservatives can also affect the heart. Frequent stress and vegetative disorders, mental disorders, hard physical work and intense mental activity.

Types of heart rhythm disorders

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The question of how to correctly classify and determine cardiac arrhythmias, to highlight their main types remains ambiguous and contradictory. Today, there are several factors that are taken into account in order to distinguish between the types of possible heart rhythm disturbances.

First of all, the pulse is associated with a change in the automatic, natural formation of an impulse, both in the sinus node and outside it. With sinus tachycardia, the heart rate per minute exceeds 90-100, while with bradycardia, the pulse decreases to 50-30 beats.

Sick sinus syndrome is accompanied by heart failure, muscle contractions up to 90 beats, can cause cardiac arrest. This also includes the lower atrial, atrioventricular and idioventricular rhythm.

The source, driver of the heart impulse is not the sinus node, but the lower parts of the conducting system.

Functional changes in the excitability of the heart muscle are associated with the manifestation of extrasystole, when an extraordinary strong impulse occurs, and paroxysmal tachycardia, in which the pulse is traced up to 220 beats.

Disorder of the conduction system is expressed by a congenital anomaly, WPW syndrome, with premature ventricular excitation and so-called blockade. Among them, sinoauricular, intra-atrial, AV, blockade of the bundle of His bundle are noted.

The mixed or combined type of arrhythmia is considered separately. Atrial flutter and fibrillation, atrial and ventricular fibrillation. The heart rate reaches 200-480 beats.

It is accompanied by impaired function and conductivity, myocardial excitability.

Signs of a lost rhythm

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At a consultation with a cardiologist, patients most often complain of fear and anxiety, when such characteristic symptoms of heart rhythm disturbances as squeezing pains and tingling in the chest area, shortness of breath and lack of oxygen appear. They can occur intermittently or constantly.

Many feel the rhythms in the heart suddenly freeze and resume. Cough and suffocation accompany a decrease in the performance of the left ventricle, sputum may be released. During an attack of bradycardia, dizziness, impaired coordination of movements, weakness and even fainting appear.

With self-monitoring of the pulse in the wrist area, an unnatural violation of the heart rhythm per minute is pronounced. The number of contractions, in this case, either does not reach 60, or exceeds the rate of 100 or more beats.

Diagnostics

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A single heart rate change or prolonged heartbeat failure can be assessed by a treating physician, neurologist, or cardiologist. Rhythm is usually measured while the patient is at rest by counting the shocks delivered to the arterial region over 12 or 30 seconds.

If there is a deviation from the norm, the specialist is obliged to prescribe an additional examination.

Not everyone knows what modern diagnostics using “Tilt-test” is and what it is intended for. It is carried out in a specialized cardiological clinic using a special table. During the procedure, the patient, fixed in a horizontal position, is moved to a vertical position.

At the same time, a person experiences the necessary load, which allows us to conclude how much blood pressure changes and whether the heart rhythm is disturbed.

Traditional screening tests are performed by placing electrodes in the chest area during an electrocardiogram procedure. Possible cardiac arrhythmias are recorded graphically.

Modern rhythmocardiography with subsequent computer processing of the results obtained and their analysis is also widely used. Identifies the affected area in the heart, projects the alleged breakdown or complications of the disease.

This method allows you to identify the type and nature of arrhythmia, select the appropriate treatment and make a prognosis.

Preparations for restoring heart rhythm

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Basic, preliminary measures to create favorable conditions include the appointment of “Sanasol” and a mixture of insulin, glucose and potassium under the supervision of a physician. Further, in order to start treatment and cope with malfunctioning of the cardiovascular system, including heart rhythm disturbances, several groups of antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed.

Class I. Represents the category of quinine analogs. They are widely used to treat atrial fibrillation. This also includes the “Lidocaine” substitutes, which do not affect the frequency of sinus rhythm, but have a local anesthetic effect. They are used for ventricular arrhythmias.

“Novocainamide”. Reduces the excitability and automatism of the myocardium, atria, ventricles, normalizes blood pressure. The daily intake is 0,5-1,25 grams every 4-6 hours.

Allapinin. Reduces intraventricular conduction, has an antispasmodic and sedative effect. Dosage per day – 25 mg 3 times.

Class II. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers stop attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia, are recommended for extrasystole. Reduce the pulse rate with sinus tachycardia and atrial fibrillation.

“Bisoprolol”. Inhibits conductivity and excitability, reduces myocardial contractility and oxygen demand, eliminates the symptoms of arterial hypertension. A single daily intake is 5-10 mg.

“Obsessed”. Stimulates peripheral vessels, reduces the need for oxygen in the myocardium, and, therefore, reduces the frequency of heart contraction, helps to increase the muscle fibers of the ventricles. The daily norm is from 20 to 40 mg 3 times.

III class. Directly themselves antiarrhythmic intensive drugs of a wide spectrum of action. They do not affect the heart rate, they lower the sinus rhythm.

Amiodarone. Expands coronary vessels, increases blood flow, lowers pulse and blood pressure, and provokes bradycardia. The norm per day is 0,6-0,8 grams 2 times.

Class IV drugs are effective in preventing and treating supraventricular arrhythmias.

“Verapamil”. Reduces myocardial tone, prevents vasodilatation, blocks calcium channels, suppresses the automatism of the sinus node. Daily intake – 40-80 mg no more than 3 times.

Diltiazem. Reduces the amount of calcium in blood vessels and smooth muscle cells, improves myocardial circulation, normalizes blood pressure, and reduces platelet aggregation. The norm per day is from 30 grams.

Restore blood circulation, reduce pressure in the ventricles, weaken the load on the myocardium and drugs such as ACE inhibitors, vasodilators, Prednisolone, magnesium sulfate. Additionally, it is advised to drink sedatives and strong sedatives that do not affect blood pressure.

Restoring heart rhythm with folk remedies

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It is dangerous to ignore the disorders associated with the work of the cardiovascular system and refuse to treat them.

Severe consequences and complications, which a seemingly small deviation in heart rate may entail, will manifest themselves with myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, chronic heart failure, extensive cardiosclerosis and death.

Therefore, if the contractions of the heart are wrong, then what to do in such a situation will be prompted by proven and reliable folk remedies.

To reduce high heart rate, it is recommended to make a tincture of 1 teaspoon of motherwort or rose hips.

Pour 200 ml of boiling water and leave for about 3 hours. Take a glass throughout the day. For tachycardia, you can use valerian root, fennel, chamomile and caraway seeds. Stir and take 1 teaspoon of the mixture.

Pour a glass of boiling water over it. After an hour, drink in small sips throughout the day.

If the pulse is weakly felt, you can increase the rhythm and normalize the functioning of the heart with the help of mustard plasters. They are placed in the area to the right of the heart for 2 minutes. Chocolate and strong tea and spicy foods will help with bradycardia.

With increased pressure, it is better to refuse these funds and massage the earlobe for about 5-10 minutes.

Alcoholic tincture of a liter of vodka and 25 grams of ginseng root will increase the heart rate if you drink 20 drops daily in the morning.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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