Doppler ultrasonography of veins and arteries of the lower extremities is based on the physical Doppler effect: this is why the second name of the research method is ultrasound dopplerography of blood vessels.
The device records the change in the frequency of the signal, processes it digitally and the doctor makes a conclusion about the correspondence of the blood flow velocity in a certain place of this vessel to normal parameters or the presence of any deviations. USDG is an objective, highly detailed, harmless, painless method for examining the state of blood vessels.
The main goal of the study of the vessels of the legs is to assess the patency of the main arteries and veins in an adult, and using ultrasound, you can check the presence of blood clots in their lumen.
This is important in the following pathologies:
- Stenosing atherosclerosis of the lower extremities.
- Thrombophlebitis of the deep veins of the legs.
- Pulmonary thromboembolism.
- Mesenteric thrombosis.
- Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.
With thrombophlebitis, the flow of blood in the veins slows down, its stagnation develops. As a result of this, the vascular wall becomes inflamed, as a result of which favorable conditions are created for the formation of parietal thrombi.
However, over time they can crumble. Pieces of blood clots with blood flow can enter the lungs, intestines and clog small vessels there, causing acute ischemia and even tissue death. This condition is called thromboembolism.
Entering the room intended for the procedure, the patient removes his outer clothing below the waist, leaving only underwear. After that, the doctor smears the skin with a cool transparent gel, which will help to get the sensor in contact with the body. During the study, the patient takes a supine position. The man lies on the couch, spreads his legs shoulder-width apart. Sometimes, if necessary, the doctor asks the patient to get up to diagnose the state of the vessels under load conditions.
At the time of scanning, the doctor leads the sensor over the area of the skin, images appear on the monitor and replace each other, showing pathology or anatomical changes in blood vessels or arteries and functional changes in blood flow. The examination is decoded by a phlebologist, the data he registers the overall picture in the protocol of ultrasound examination, recommending further diagnostic examination and prescribing medical procedures, medications.
Ultrasound Doppler ultrasound, or vessels of the lower extremities, is a study based on the physical ability of blood particles to reflect ultrasonic waves. A special ultrasound sensor emits waves that, passing through the blood vessels of the legs, are reflected from red blood cells. The frequency of the signal changes, depending on the change in blood flow velocity.
It is these changes that are recorded by the ultrasound machine, processed digitally, and the corresponding color picture is displayed on the screen, which is suitable for analyzing the state of blood vessels. As a result of ultrasound examination, the doctor can judge the blood flow velocity in the vessels of the lower extremities, the state of the vessels themselves and the presence of pathologies.
Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive, painless and harmless procedure. In this regard, it can be prescribed to patients of any age and is carried out with the frequency that is necessary for making an accurate diagnosis or monitoring the condition of the patient’s blood vessels.
Doppler ultrasonography of the vessels of the lower extremities is a type of research using ultrasound, with which you can find out the parameters of blood flow that interest the doctor. The basis of the procedure is the ability of ultrasound, which produces a special sensor, to be reflected with a changed frequency from moving blood cells and return back to the sensor (Doppler effect).
This change in the frequency of ultrasound depends on the speed of blood flow through the venous or arterial vessels. Equipment at this time captures the change in the length and frequency of the ultrasonic wave, processes this information using the digital method and converts it as a picture in color. UZGD is used to study not only veins, but also the arteries of the lower extremities.
In addition to UZDG apply:
- Duplex ultrasound. The procedure consists in identifying and evaluating the parameters of blood movement and the state of the vascular walls during dual-mode operation of the ultrasound apparatus using Doppler and B-mode.
- Triplex ultrasound. Using this technique, all information of interest on the state of vascular tissue, blood flow through the veins is displayed as a color image.
It is worth remembering that all devices for studying the human body have limited power and a minimum frequency of waves. Ultrasound and ultrasound procedures do not lead to radiation exposure and are not able to cause irreversible processes in cellular structures, organs or tissues. Therefore, these types of examinations, unlike MRI or X-rays, are not dangerous for the body.
- Indications and methods for ultrasound and ultrasound of the vessels of the legs
- Main indications
- How to prepare?
- Method of conducting
- What the technique shows
- The importance of regular screening (risk groups)
- Who is assigned
- Stages of
- Deciphering principles and normal indicators
- Contraindications for
- What is dopplerography?
- Where to make and how much does ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities cost
- Description of the method
- Differences from other ultrasound techniques
- What helps to identify ultrasound scan?
- The disadvantages of the technique
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Indications and methods for ultrasound and ultrasound of the vessels of the legs
Ultrasonic angioscanning (UZAS) is performed as a preventive measure for people with a sedentary lifestyle, being overweight, and standing work.
There are direct indications for ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities:
- swelling on the feet, legs;
- the occurrence of frequent paresthesias – tingling sensations, numbness of the lower extremities;
- the expansion of venous vessels, visible to the naked eye, the appearance of spider veins;
- cyanotic discoloration of the skin of the foot, calf muscle (from brown to dark purple);
- the appearance of trophic ulcers, prolonged healing after cuts, wounds;
- the appearance of weakness in the legs, which is felt constantly;
- cooling of the lower extremities compared with other parts of the body;
- cramps, pains in the legs, arising first at night, but later disturbing also in the daytime;
- other trophic changes – the disappearance of leg hair, skin itching without dermatological pathologies, a decrease in the size of the leg, the appearance of lameness.
The listed symptoms can occur with varicose veins. To confirm this diagnosis, the passage of ultrasound diagnostics of blood vessels is mandatory. A neglect of pathology can lead to the development of a formidable complication – thrombophlebitis, because the formed blood clots can come off and clog a vital vessel.
Ultrasound examination will help the doctor in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis of the legs, which sometimes occurs as a complication in the postoperative or post-traumatic period.
Ultrasound investigation is a highly informative diagnostic method based on wave reflection. Penetration through tissues of various densities, ultrasound fights off with unequal strength.
Special sensors detect these vibrations and transform them into a graphic image.
This method of medical examination has no contraindications, with its help you can accurately determine the localization and degree of pathological processes in any organ.
An ultrasound of the leg veins is performed as prescribed by the phlebologist during the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis, obliterating diseases, varicose veins, before surgery.
Two-dimensional ultrasound dopplerography, or ultrasound of the arteries is called non-invasive and absolutely painless examination of the valvular apparatus, deep and superficial veins. This method is based on the Doppler effect – changes in the frequency of ultrasonic waves reflected from moving blood molecules.
The received signals are recorded by ultra-sensitive sensors and transmitted to the Doppler apparatus, which reproduces the picture in graphic or sound mode.
USDG is used to diagnose the early and latent stages of obliterating diseases of the lower extremities. The doctor receives information about the condition of arteries, veins, detects pathological changes in the vascular walls, atherosclerotic processes, thrombotic masses, areas of compression, stenosis, aneurysm.
Ultrasound examination of the veins of the lower extremities accurately allows you to determine varicose veins, its degree, valve failure, retrograde refluxes, to detect blood clots that disrupt the normal movement of the bloodstream.
Diagnostic examination helps to accurately visualize their location, diameter and structure.
Ultrasound dopplerography of the veins of the lower extremities has its drawbacks. These include the fact that the doctor is not able to check the volume and speed of blood flow, the diameter of the arteries, since their volumetric visualization is absent. Research options are limited when examining deep and perforating vessels.
Duplex scanning (SPL) is based on the Doppler signal and the energy mapping method. It allows you to show and evaluate the condition of deep and superficial veins, arteries, their patency, valve consistency, blood flow strength, to identify even very small atherosclerotic plaques, aneurysms, blood clots, inflammatory processes, wall damage.
Based on the results obtained, the doctor accurately determines the obliteration sites and the reasons that caused the narrowing of the lumen of the arteries of the extremities, impaired blood flow.
Triplex ultrasound of the vessels of the legs is performed in the same way as ultrasound, but with the addition of color Doppler. The image is obtained in 3D format using 3 modes, hence the corresponding name.
On the computer monitor, the doctor sees the bright outlines of the veins in blue and red against a background of a general black and white picture. A color, two-and three-dimensional image is obtained by encoding a speed graph.
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UZDG of vessels of the lower extremities is used to diagnose many diseases. The examination is necessary for patients suffering from the following ailments:
- varicose veins;
- inflammation of the venous walls – thrombophlebitis;
- chronic atherosclerosis;
- diabetic angiopathy;
- deep vein thrombosis;
- postthrombophlebic disease.
Indications for the study are swelling of the extremities, spider veins, pain after physical exertion, redness of the skin, the formation of non-healing ulcers, cramps in the calf muscles, deformation of the saphenous vein network, the formation of nodes, heaviness in the legs of pregnant women.
It is necessary to examine patients with complaints of numbness, tingling of tissues, pallor or cyanosis of the dermis, coldness in the feet, intermittent claudication.
Causes of knee and elbow pain
Doppler ultrasound is prescribed not only to identify the disease, but also before surgery, to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. Dynamic monitoring is carried out after the treatment of thrombosis, lumen occlusion, as a screening diagnosis.
How to prepare?
Special preparation before visiting the diagnostic room is not required, therefore, the study is allowed at any time convenient for the patient. The phlebologist sends the patient to the ultrasound scan of the arteries and veins, if desired, you can scan the limbs yourself without a doctor’s direction.
Method of conducting
UZDG and UZDS do in a horizontal position or standing.
The patient is located on a hard surface, resting his feet shoulder-width apart and turning the feet outward. When examining the popliteal and small saphenous veins, the patient turns on his stomach. Examination of the lower leg is carried out in the upright position of the leg; for this, a person stands up or bends a limb in the knee.
An acoustic gel is applied to the skin, providing contact and easy sliding of the sensor, which is applied to the control points in the vascular projection. The sonologist examines the graphic image on the monitor, hears a characteristic sound caused by the movement of blood.
During the examination, use the proximal compression, cough and Valsalva test. To exclude the presence of a blood clot, various segments are squeezed slightly with a sensor.
The patient is asked to hold his breath, cough and tighten the abdominal muscles. In a healthy person, when inhaling, the venous blood flow weakens, and on exhalation it is restored.
With valve fibrosis, retrograde reflux of blood occurs.
The whole procedure lasts no more than 45-60 minutes, does not cause painful or uncomfortable sensations, can be repeated several times.
After performing the primary ultrasound vein ultrasound scan, the doctor makes a decision about the need for duplex, color mapping, the feasibility of CT phlebography, fibrofleboscopy.
What the technique shows
On the ultrasound scan, the iliac and inferior vena cava, femoral, small and large saphenous, deep veins of the lower leg and popliteal veins are examined. Deep veins of the same name accompany arteries of the same name.
- identify asymptomatic initial vascular lesions;
- detect vascular pathologies: atherosclerotic plaques or other pathologies;
- quantify blood flow (e.g., movement speed);
- identify segments of narrowing of the arteries (stenosis) and size;
- determine varicose disease: its cause, severity, whether there is valve failure;
- identify a blood clot in the vessels, measure its size and structure, flotation;
- to study the state of the walls of blood vessels (elasticity, hypertonicity, hypotension);
- diagnose aneurysms.
When determining blood clots in deep veins, you can find out their following properties:
- the percentage of narrowing of the venous lumen;
- parietal or movable blood clot, which is detected by pressure sensor;
- soft or dense blood clot;
- homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Dopplerography is performed to diagnose common pathologies – varicose veins, atherosclerosis of the vessels of the legs, thrombophlebitis, deep vein thrombosis and other vascular diseases.
Dopplerography of the lower extremities will help determine the type of treatment at this stage of the disease, and if there are indications for surgical treatment, perform preoperative vein marking.
- painlessness and non-invasiveness;
- low cost of the procedure and availability;
- no ionizing radiation;
- carried out online time, so you can immediately do a biopsy of the identified formations;
- image detail is much higher than conventional x-ray images.
Unlike UZDG, such highly informative research methods as MRI and computed tomography cannot assess blood flow velocity.
USDG is considered the most informative way to diagnose vascular pathologies of the lower extremities. Using this procedure, you can identify various diseases.
Diseases of the vessels of the lower extremities in the first stages of their development may not “give out” themselves as symptoms. Initial manifestations, such as varicose veins or atherosclerosis of the vessels of the legs, such as fatigue, heaviness, pain, can be attributed by a person to excessive physical exertion at work, stress or other external factors.
Such a pathology as atherosclerosis begins from the moment when cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the arteries of the lower extremities. These deposits narrow the lumen of the artery and begin to interfere with the normal flow of blood. Over time, if a person does not engage in his health, does not monitor the diet, leads a sedentary lifestyle, cholesterol growths increase – atherosclerotic plaques form. They have the appearance of tubercles, in their composition, in addition to cholesterol, calcium is also contained, which gives them strength.
UZDG allows not only to recognize atherosclerotic plaques, but also to determine their size, exact localization, quantity, structure. In addition to plaques, blood clots (blood clots) can also interfere with the blood flow, which are also detected by ultrasound with Doppler.
An important indicator of the health of the vessels of the lower extremities is the speed of blood flow. Ultrasound with Doppler allows you to accurately measure this indicator and track the dynamics of its changes in different parts of the limbs.
Normal blood flow is ensured by the elasticity and smoothness of the inner surface of the vessel – the endothelium. It is also important that the vessel has a normal diameter. For most vascular pathologies, narrowing of the arteries is characteristic and most often this happens fragmentarily, and not throughout the vessel. The task of ultrasound examination is to identify segments of stenosis (narrowing) of the arteries, to determine their exact location, to understand the possible causes of the pathology.
Ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities is a common two-dimensional ultrasound combined with dopplerography.
It shows, in addition to the structure and position of blood vessels, a measurement of the speed of blood flow through the bloodstream.
Doppler ultrasound diagnostics is informative both for examination of arterial and venous blood flow. This diagnosis allows you to successfully detect diseases of the veins and arteries of the legs in the initial stages.
Doppler ultrasound has several advantages: safety and painlessness, the absence of special preparation for the study and the need for a recovery period after manipulation. This allows you to use diagnostics repeatedly to observe dynamic changes during treatment.
The abbreviation UZDG stands for Ultrasound Dopplerography, the principle of diagnosis is based on the Doppler effect. This is a measurement of the reflection of sound waves from moving objects. The information on the ultrasound monitor of the device after processing the received data shows a two-dimensional color image. It shows a system of blood vessels, as well as places of difficulty in normal blood flow.
Above: Doppler ultrasound showing blood flow in the right femoral artery.
With the help of ultrasound of the vessels of the legs, the following veins and arteries can be examined (see table).
arteries of the foot.
In addition to the above
you can evaluate their branches.
envelope of the ilium
venous arch of the foot back,
back arched vein or vein of Leonardo,
On the ultrasound monitor, a sonologist can see:
- vessel walls;
- vessel lumen diameter;
- shape and location;
- condition of venous valves;
- blood flow velocity through the vessels, and places of current obstruction;
- determine reflux (reverse blood flow);
- blood clot and its parameters;
- atherosclerotic plaques;
- arteriovenous malformation (AVM) – an abnormality of vascular development, which is a tangle of intertwined arteries and veins.
Ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities is prescribed to patients who have the following symptoms:
- swelling of the legs;
- constantly cold feet;
- feeling of numbness of the legs;
- pain and cramps in the calf muscles;
- vascular “nets”, “stars”, protruding veins;
- heaviness in the legs when walking for a long time or arising for no reason;
- numbness and sensitivity changes in the limbs (for example, goosebumps);
- when determining the asymmetry in the legs of the patient (one may be thicker than the other);
- bruising with minor damage, long healing abrasions.
In addition to the presence of complaints, the procedure is prescribed to people suffering from diseases such as:
- trophic ulcers;
- arterial aneurysms;
- angiospasm (spasm of arteries);
- obliterating endarteritis;
- varicose veins of the legs;
- arteriovenous malformations.
Dopplerography of the vessels of the lower extremities of the main bloodstream allows you to diagnose the following diseases of the veins and arteries:
- Obliterating endarteritis, urgent treatment is required when confirming the diagnosis.
- Atherosclerosis obliterans, an assessment is made of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, the degree of their development, as well as the effect of existing formations on the bloodstream.
- Vascular aneurysms occur during pathological distension of the vessel wall, leading to its thinning. The risk of rupture of the altered vessel under load and the need for surgical intervention are assessed.
- Varicose veins of the legs. A sedentary lifestyle and overweight contribute to the development of the disease. Overfilling of the vasculature leads to the expansion of veins, and subsequently to the formation of blood clots, which are life-threatening in case of separation.
- Venous insufficiency of the legs is determined by incomplete subsidence of the vein; during the contraction phase, part of the blood is thrown back, which leads to the accumulation of blood in the vein cavity and the stretching of the vascular wall. In the future, this is expressed in malnutrition of the tissues of the lower extremities.
- Thrombosis is a complication of varicose veins; when a thrombus is detected, its location, the degree of vessel filling, a young or old thrombus, and the risk of its detachment are evaluated.
In addition to the diagnosis, ultrasound of the arteries allows you to assess the degree of blood supply to the tissues and identify impaired patency of the deep veins.
Preventive ultrasound of the vessels of the legs is advisable to take place once every six months or a year, if you are at risk. The risk group includes people:
- tobacco smoking;
- age over 45 years;
- people with leg vessel diseases;
- long reception of oral contraceptives;
- heavy physical labor (athletes, movers);
- work requiring constant standing on feet, walking (security guards, waiters, bartenders, sellers, teachers).
The importance of regular screening (risk groups)
Dopplerography is based on the ability of red blood cells to reflect ultrasound waves (Doppler effect).
Serious preparation for ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities is not needed. In emergency cases, they do without it at all. If the examination is planned in advance, before you go, it is better to prepare, following some recommendations:
- for 3 days, if possible, do not take medicines that affect the systemic parameters of blood flow, or warn the doctor about taking them;
- Do not drink alcohol for a couple of days, do not smoke before the test;
- per day, substances that stimulate the work of the heart (coffee, strong black tea, chocolate and others) are excluded from food;
- wash feet, shave off excess vegetation.
Dopplerography of the legs does not require specific preparation, but there are several recommendations:
- carry out full body hygiene, paying special attention to the lower limbs;
- use only a clean, disposable diaper during the procedure;
- Wear comfortable clothing that is easily removed or does not pinch the limbs during examination.
It is also necessary to refrain from smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages at least 3 days before the examination, as this can provoke a distortion of the research picture.
Many people think that the disease of the vessels of the legs affects only their appearance. Yes, for example, with varicose veins, the legs look quite ugly – the veins are dilated, there are a large number of nodes and cones.
But this is far from the worst problem. Pathologies of veins are also threatened by other dangers.
Often, varicose veins lead to thrombophlebitis. With this disease, blood flow is disturbed in the veins, blood clots form in large numbers, which can easily enter other important systems of the body.
A blood clot in the pulmonary system threatens the least resuscitation, the worst option is death.
It is the regular passage of Doppler ultrasound that prevents all these problems, so if the doctor has prescribed an examination, you should not delay it, because not only the beauty and health of the legs, but also life can depend on it.
Also, people who have an increased risk of encountering vascular pathology should think about the study.
This includes people suffering from extra pounds, who have physically hard work, who have been standing for a long time. Also at risk are women during pregnancy and those whose relatives suffer from vascular pathologies.
Who is assigned
If the patient has already been diagnosed with atherosclerosis, for example, of the abdominal region, renal arteries, upper limbs, experts recommend examining the lower extremities for the presence of the same pathology. The fact is that atherosclerosis is a disease that can affect the whole body. It is important to detect it in time and assess the degree of development.
Pain in the calf muscles (sometimes turning into cramps) gives a person serious discomfort. They interfere with normal walking, do not allow you to endure long, intense physical exertion, make it difficult to climb stairs and even at rest constantly remind of themselves. Often the cause of pain in the calf muscles is precisely a violation of the hemodynamics in the vessels of the legs and pathologies such as atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, varicose veins, and ultrasound diagnostics will make it possible to find out for sure.
When a person begins to feel pain in his legs after 10-15 minutes of walking, and intense loads become completely beyond his power (in terms of walking or running), an ultrasound with a Doppler will help to understand what exactly is the cause of the problem. If it is atherosclerosis or venous congestion (varicose veins), the ultrasound scan will show a violation of the speed of blood flow and indicate those segments where patency is impaired.
At the same time, pain during walking can be caused by completely different reasons: osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteochondrosis, that is, diseases that are not related to blood flow. In such cases, ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities allows you to exclude those diagnoses that are associated with impaired hemodynamics, and prescribe other specific studies (for example, X-ray, MRI, CT, and so on).
Swelling of the legs, their redness, blueness, or the effect of “cold legs” are symptoms that can indicate the presence of vascular pathologies of the lower extremities. Such pathologies are atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular inflammation.
When varicose veins enters the active stage of development, it becomes visible with the naked eye. On the legs (most often under the knee) veins appear. On the veins can be visible seals, nodes. Ultrasound examination and dopplerography of the veins of the lower extremities in such cases can be used both for the initial diagnosis of pathology and for planning surgical intervention.
It is necessary to conduct an examination for complaints of pain in the legs when walking, “numbness”, “cooling” of the extremities. The sooner a pathology is diagnosed and treatment is prescribed, the better the prognosis for a full recovery.
Ultrasound of the vessels of the legs is prescribed if:
- other arteries of the body already have atherosclerosis;
- pain in the calf muscles;
- pains appear when loading and walking for short distances from 500 meters to 1 kilometer;
- the legs turn blue and turn cold or redden and swell;
- vascular nodes are visible on the surface and varicose veins appear;
- there are complaints of heaviness in the legs, swelling, numbness of the legs, cramps;
- brown or dark purple seals appeared on the legs;
- stars appeared;
- one of the legs increases in size compared to the second;
- trophic skin changes occur;
- there was an artery injury.
Also, USDG is prescribed to patients with diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases.
Due to the absence of contraindications to this procedure, it can be carried out repeatedly to determine the dynamics of therapy.
Many people today experience circulatory problems.
- excessive loads;
- improper diet;
- passive lifestyle.
It is difficult to list all the causes of such problems, but the fact remains that every second or third modern person suffers from problems of vascular circulation.
You can highlight certain alarming symptoms, which are indications for the diagnosis.
- frequent and prolonged pain in the calf muscles;
- pain in the legs with prolonged walking or physical exertion;
- nodes and varicose veins;
- numbness and cooling of the legs;
- muscle cramps;
- trophic ulcers on the legs;
- swelling, heaviness in the legs, especially in the evening.
It is necessary to understand how ultrasound diagnostics is performed. After entering the office, a person releases his limbs for research, that is, takes off his shoes, as well as clothes to underpants. Ultrasound of the lower extremities is done in a standing position, sitting or lying down, the order of change in posture is determined by a diagnostic doctor.
Before starting, the venue is treated with a special gel to improve the adhesion of the skin to the sensor for UZAS. The doctor conducts the sensor in certain areas. Thus, he receives an image of a vein, records the speed, direction, intensity of blood flow, abnormalities or blockage of the vessel. Ultrasound of the vessels of the legs takes approximately 30-40 minutes.
The study uses different modes of ultrasound of the inferior vena cava system. For example, the color Doppler scanning (CDS) mode allows you to assess the state of the lumen, to identify the presence of a zone of pathological blood flow.
There are different methods of UZAS legs, they differ in the number of functions that can be investigated. To understand what the difference is, it is worth taking a closer look at each ultrasound method of the lower extremities.
If you make an ultrasound scan of the veins of the lower extremities, this will help to analyze the degree of vascular patency, to find out the speed of blood flow. Using ultrasound of the vessels of the legs, the patency of the deep and superficial veins is checked, and the state of the valve venous system is assessed. Also, ultrasound of the veins is used before performing planned operations, because such an examination helps to identify blood clots, prevent thromboembolic complications.
This version of ultrasound has two components – classical dopplerometry and in duplex mode with color mapping. In addition to determining the structure of the vessel, blood flow velocity, and ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities, it is possible to determine the direction of blood flows, which under the action of ultrasound receive different color stains.
Indicators obtained by dopplerography of the vessels of the lower extremities are supplemented by an assessment of the state of the walls of veins and arteries, indicate the presence and placement of blood clots. Using duplex scanning of vessels of the lower extremities, the sonologist receives more complete information about the state of the vein than with Doppler. This helps to diagnose many vascular pathologies, including aneurysms, inflammation and parietal thrombosis in the vessels.
Deciphering principles and normal indicators
Assessment of the venous bed does not have digital values. The sonologist analyzes the vein patency, the condition of the venous valves, the topography of the segment, where the pathology and degree of blood flow disturbance are revealed.
Arterial blood flow has several parameters:
- The ankle-brachial LPI index is the ratio of the arterial pressure on the ankle to the arterial pressure measured on the shoulder. LPI should normally be from an indicator of 0,9 or higher. After loading, the parameter increases. The lower the indicator, the worse the patency of the arteries on the leg. If the initial degree of stenosis is 0,9-0,7, then this is critical – 0,3.
- Peak blood flow velocity in the femoral artery is normal – 100 cm / s, in the lower leg is normal – 50 cm / s.
- The femoral artery resistance index exceeds 1 m / s.
- The pulsation index in the tibial artery exceeds 1,8 m / s. The smaller the last 2 indicators, the narrower the diameter of the vessel.
- Turbulent type of blood flow means that there is an incomplete narrowing of the vessel.
- The trunk type is the norm.
- The trunk altered type means that above the site is stenosis.
- Collateral blood flow is recorded below the site with a complete absence of blood flow.
Thus, based on the study, the doctor can see how the veins and arteries are located, the degree of vascular patency, the length of the narrow segments.
The result of this study is a medical report on the uniformity of blood flow movement, the nature of its change, which occurs due to narrowing, and sometimes even clogging of the lumen, which can occur due to an atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus.
The compensatory possibilities of blood flow, vascular pathology are analyzed:
- the existence of tortuosity, aneurysms;
- severity of spasm;
- the possibility of compression of the artery with nearby scar tissue or, for example, spasmodic muscles.
When deciphering the results of ultrasound scan of arteries and veins of the lower extremities, the doctor evaluates the following indicators of vascular dopplerography:
If a blood clot, atherosclerotic plaque is detected, the doctor should evaluate their structure, size and density.
Dopplerographic examination of the vessels of the lower extremities is not recommended in only a few cases:
- in acute course of diseases;
- in the presence of inflammation in the body;
- with damage to the skin on the legs of medium and severe degree;
- with mental disorders;
- in critical conditions of the patient, which limit the ability to stay in one position for a long time.
All contraindications are associated with the likelihood of a fuzzy picture and data from the study. All restrictions are temporary.
As such, there are no contraindications to the study. General malaise or feeling unwell can be undesirable factors, as well as any special circumstances that prevent the patient from lying calm for some time. Dopplerography of the lower extremities is not able to harm the patient, gives information about possible pathologies.
UZDG, unlike X-rays, does not affect radiation, does not cause pain to the patient and is devoid of any side effects. To take into account all possible factors and achieve maximum accuracy of the study, a neurologist consultation should be preceded by a visit to a specialist sonologist. It is necessary to approach Doppler ultrasound responsibly in patients with diabetes mellitus. They should be pre-screened.
There are no absolute contraindications to the ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities (arteries also). This procedure is used for patients of all age categories, regardless of gender or medical history. Doctors recommend to refrain from ultrasound exposure to the body in the presence of the following negative factors:
- violation of the integrity of the skin in the examined area;
- severe injuries or conditions that complicate the study of veins and arteries on the legs;
- dermatological problems, accompanied by rashes, inflammation of the skin, damage to the epidermis.
Ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities is carried out both to diagnose the pathology of the veins, and to assess the dynamics of patient management during treatment. Any method has its limitations in conducting.
Absolute contraindications to ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities are those conditions or reactions of the body in which the conduct of this diagnostic procedure will be uninformative or will lead to a sharp deterioration in life.
- Acute Infectious Processes
- Any skin disease in which there is a violation of its integrity
- Burns of various etiologies
- Severe condition of the patient
- Mental disorders
- Acute emergency conditions – myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, coronary circulatory failure, bronchial asthma attack, heart rhythm disturbance
In this case, the patient is limited in almost all diagnostic studies. In some cases, ultrasound may cause discomfort to the patient. This is primarily due to the duration of the procedure.
Ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities lasts more than 40 minutes, while the patient is constantly in a horizontal position. In chronic heart failure, the patient is difficult to lie down for such a long time. Increased blood flow causes symptoms of circulatory failure (heart cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness).
There are several conditions of the human body that can disrupt the optimal visualization of blood vessels, which will lead to a distortion of the correct diagnosis.
- Excessive development of subcutaneous fat (obesity)
- Severe flatulence (bloating)
- Severe swelling of the tissues of the legs due to lymphostasis
Relative contraindications to ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities are temporary. If they are eliminated, then an ultrasound scan will be safe and informative.
One of the main contraindications to ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities is the lack of a qualified specialist. Only a competent doctor is able to adequately assess all the parameters of the vascular link.
Such a doctor should combine knowledge of the anatomy of the veins of the lower extremities, the physiology and pathology of the blood flow, have an idea of all diseases and methods of their treatment.
Ultrasound of the lower extremities has no restrictions on age or health. It can be carried out during pregnancy, in childhood.
But if the patient has damage to the skin of the lower extremities by a wound, burn or infectious process, a duplex scan of arteries and veins should be postponed until the affected areas are healed.
What is dopplerography?
Dopplerography is a method for studying and diagnosing the movement of blood through large and small vessels. Doppler ultrasound refers to ultrasound and has the abbreviation UZDG. It is based on the principles of the Doppler effect. The apparatus for examination has a special sensor that emits and receives waves of a certain length.
Dopplerographic examination of blood vessels
When ultrasound is reflected from blood cells, their frequency changes: when moving away from the emitter, the value decreases, and toward the emitter it increases. The sensor detects the difference between the values of the studied and received waves, converting the data into a digital signal.
The data displayed on the computer screen allows you to determine:
- blood flow direction;
- blood flow rate;
- the structure of the walls of blood vessels;
- their cross;
- clearance size;
- general condition of blood vessels.
For different parts of the body, different sensors are used that have different radiation powers.
Doppler examination of blood vessels can be carried out in a medical institution and at home.
Regardless of the location of the procedure, when examining the legs, it includes 8 stages:
- A person takes off his pants, shoes and, if necessary, socks, opening up access to the necessary area for research.
- The patient is in the supine position. In this case, the legs should lie shoulder w />
Dopplerography of the legs is often performed in the standing position. Changing the position of the body during the study allows you to more accurately assess the condition of the main reservoirs, since it passes in a static mode and with additional load.
When diagnosing varicose veins, a specialist can use the Valsalva method, in which:
- compression of the calf of the patient;
- pressure on the forearm;
- serial exhalation with closed mouth and nose.
One of the hallmarks of Doppler imaging is the ability for a specialist to go home. The procedure is carried out by a special portable device with a built-in thermal printer.
|Research type||Average cost, rub.|
|USDG of the main vessels of the legs (veins or arteries)||2100|
|Duplex scan of the legs (veins)||2500|
|Duplex scan of the legs (arteries)||2500|
|Duplex scan of legs (veins and arteries)||3200|
|Triplex scan of the legs (veins)||2500|
|Triplex scan of the legs (arteries)||2500|
|Triplex scan of the legs (veins and arteries)||3500|
|D scan||От 4300|
For the call of a specialist to the house you will have to pay an additional 6000 rubles. behind:
- departure of a specialist;
- decryption of the results;
- examination and scheduling of treatment.
The main advantages of dopplerography are its high availability, informational content in relation to many pathologies and the low price for conducting the study. It is worth remembering that the diagnosis is made only after additional examinations, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography.
Dopplerography of the vessels of the legs can be divided into ultrasound only of arteries or arteries and veins. In the first case, the cost of the examination will be lower and amount to an average of 3 rubles. In the second case, the cost of the examination will start at 500 rubles.
Successful diagnosis of leg vessel diseases is possible only through the use of innovative equipment and careful research by experienced specialists. After completing the study, the phlebologist decides on the need for further diagnosis: phlebography, duplex scanning, CT phlebography, phleboscintiography, etc.
When diagnosing vascular problems, many modern methods are used to determine the presence of any pathologies with maximum accuracy. These include ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities (ultrasound dopplerography), which is performed on the arteries. Safety, effectiveness, high speed research has led to its great popularity. Phlebologists most often prescribe to their patients for the diagnosis of various pathological conditions.
Where to make and how much does ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities cost
To make an ultrasound of the lower extremities, you need to sign up to a diagnostic center (for example, “Hemotest”, “Capital”, “Medline”, etc.). These institutions have the necessary technical equipment, as well as qualified sonologists. According to the policy of compulsory medical insurance and the direction of the attending physician, ultrasound of the lower extremities can be done free of charge in the clinic at the place of registration.
If you have questions or have an interesting personal experience, share them in the comments. Repost entries. All the best.
The average price for ultrasound veins of your lower extremities is from 1000 to 2500 rubles. Often the attending physician gives a referral for such an examination. However, if there is a need or desire to undergo ultrasound veins, then you can contact:
- private clinic (finding out about the prices, specify whether the decryption of the results is included in the price of the service);
- the usual clinic in Moscow, where they do UZDG and there are paid services;
- the clinic at the place of registration (the direction is given by a general practitioner, an insurance policy is required), the service will be free;
- private lab.
Find out how much it costs and where you can make an ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck.
Description of the method
Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities is carried out in comfortable conditions. Before the procedure, do not drink stimulating drinks (coffee, energy, alcohol), smoke, take medications, warming ointments. The patient needs to take off his shoes and free his legs from clothing. During the procedure, the patient is lying or standing. Before the procedure, the doctor learns about the symptoms that bother the person, he must study the patient’s history to determine the specific direction of diagnosis.
Ultrasound dopplerography of blood vessels is carried out as follows:
- Contact gel is applied to the skin of the legs, which is a conductor for better signal transmission from the examined limb to the sensor.
- The specialist moves the sensor along the limb of the patient and looks at the image on the ultrasound monitor of the device, on which constantly changing graphic images of blood flow appear.
- To diagnose the veins of the back surface of the legs, the patient lies on his stomach, a roller is placed under his knees.
- After some time, the patient is given a decrypted result. With him, he goes to a phlebologist who chooses a therapeutic tactic.
The doctor should consider that ultrasound dopplerography of the vessels of the lower extremities is not always effective. Only with its help it is impossible to make a final diagnosis, to choose the necessary treatment tactics. To clarify the diagnosis, additional studies are required.
Ultrasound ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities is a type of ultrasound. With its help, it is easy to identify all the parameters of blood flow that are of interest. The technique is used to determine the condition of veins or arteries, which makes it universal.
The venous system of the human body provides an outflow of blood from organs and tissues
What is ultrasound of the veins of the lower, upper limbs or other parts of the body? The method is based on the effect observed when using a special sensor. It produces ultrasonic radiation passing through the studied vessel. Rays are not displayed equally from blood cells, because they have different speeds.
This information is recorded by special sensors, converted into electrical pulses and reflected on the screen of the monitor, which is included in the kit for the main equipment. Received data is submitted online.
Doppler ultrasound of the arteries and veins of the lower extremities is carried out in the most comfortable conditions for the patient. A person previously removes clothes, shoes that will interfere with the examination. The patient is placed standing or lies down. He independently chooses a comfortable position. Before the examination, the doctor may ask about the disturbing symptoms, ask for a medical card for review. The healthcare provider must know the patient’s medical history to determine the specific direction of the examination.
The procedure of ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities includes the following steps:
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At the end of the scan, the ultrasound doctor issues a conclusion of dopplerography of the veins of the lower extremities
- The doctor applies an ultrasound probe to the characteristic points on the surface of the legs. They correspond to the projections of veins or arteries.
- To examine the veins that are located on the back of the legs, the patient turns over on his stomach. For convenience, he is offered a roller. It is placed under the knees.
The examination lasts a maximum of 40 minutes. After the procedure, the patient is provided with the results in printed form. With them, he goes to the doctor. Based on the results, the phlebologist determines the treatment tactics, the degree of blood flow disturbance, and the need for surgical intervention.
Differences from other ultrasound techniques
What is ultrasound of the veins of the lower or upper extremities? There are several methods for the study of blood vessels, allowing to determine their characteristics. Each diagnostic method has certain features, advantages and disadvantages. In addition to ultrasound of the lower extremities, the following studies are based on the use of ultrasonic radiation:
- UZDS. Using the technique, blood flow parameters and the state of the vascular walls are evaluated. This is possible due to the use of two modes of operation of the Uz-apparatus – using doppler, B-mode;
To avoid the development of the disease, an ultrasound technique using dopplerography – ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities is included in the standard for a comprehensive examination
- CDK. It is called triplex ultrasound. Allows you to get a three-dimensional image that displays all the parameters of interest on the state of blood flow and vascular tissue.
What helps to identify ultrasound scan?
The ultrasonic Doppler method can detect:
- narrowing of arteries, localization of pathology and the degree of reduction of the lumen;
- general condition of spinal arteries, main cephalic, carot />
- causes of high blood pressure and fainting;
- thrombosis in the early stages;
- pathology of the large vessels of the hands and feet;
- pathology of the aortic iliac species;
- causes of numbness of the limbs muscle cramps;
- pre-stroke conditions;
- consequences of traumatic brain injury.
The disadvantages of the technique
When conducting ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities, the circulatory system can be evaluated in a complex.
- no age limit. Ultrasound of the vessels of the legs is prescribed for small and elderly patients;
- security. Ultrasound scanning does not have a negative effect on the human body;
- speed of the procedure. The phlebologist receives the results of the study within 20-40 minutes after the procedure. You can quickly choose the tactics of therapy, establish the correct diagnosis;
- painlessness. Doppler ultrasound is performed without pain relief, as it does not cause absolutely any discomfort to the patient. During the examination, the necessary minimum diagnostic methods are adhered to;
- no need to prepare specially. Ultrasound ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities can be performed at any time when needed. Before the procedure, you only need to free the lower limbs from clothes;
- availability and reasonable price;
- high detail image. Other highly informative research methods, such as MRI and CT can not estimate the speed of blood flow.
Dopplerography of the vessels of the lower extremities has no particular contraindications. This procedure is not recommended in the presence of skin rashes, open wounds, inflammation, injuries, because of which it is impossible to examine the veins.
The ultrasound scan of arteries and veins of the lower extremities has gained popularity because of its advantages:
- the procedure is safe for humans. In the process of exposure to ultrasonic radiation, there is no negative effect on the human body. Also, for research there is no need to use toxic substances, which can adversely affect the patient;
- lack of age restrictions. UZDG of vessels of the lower extremities is allowed to be done both by the smallest patients, and adults, the elderly;
- lack of pain. The procedure is performed without anesthesia, since it does not cause any discomfort to the patient;
- speed of getting results. The phlebologist learns the necessary information about the state of the vessels as quickly as possible (within 20-40 minutes). This allows you to quickly determine the tactics of treatment, to confirm or refute a specific diagnosis;
The most popular and most common type of examination of the venous system of the legs is ultrasound dopplerography of the veins of the lower extremities
- lack of specific preparation for the procedure. Doppler ultrasound of the arteries and veins of the lower extremities is carried out at any time when it may be necessary. Before the procedure, the patient should only take off clothes that cover the skin on his legs;
- availability. Many diagnostic centers are equipped with conventional ultrasound machines, additionally equipped with a doppler. This is an affordable type of diagnostics that does not require large investments.
It should be understood that an examination using ultrasound radiation is not able to fully assess the condition of small vessels. This feature is taken into account if the problem is localized in such parts of the circulatory system. In the presence of atherosclerotic changes on the walls, the diagnostic result is distorted. Neoplasms interfere with the passage of ultrasonic radiation.
Originally posted 2016-12-05 14: 32: 50.
Diseases of the vascular bed often lead to a significant decrease in the quality of life and working capacity of patients. They can also be prerequisites for the development of a number of dangerous complications.
Therefore, there is an active development of preventive measures to identify factors that increase the likelihood of their occurrence. One of the best diagnostic methods is ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities.
It refers to non-invasive procedures, is completely safe and can be performed in most hospitals.
This study is very useful for verifying vascular function in the case of stenosing atherosclerosis of the peripheral arteries. It is also used to search for possible sources of thrombosis and to determine the risk of embolism.
There are a lot of advantages of UZGD over other research methods, but, nevertheless, other more accurate methods, for example, angiography, have now appeared.
Angiography is a more accurate method, but it is not accessible to every average citizen of our country, because it costs a lot. Moreover, there are very few devices with which this method is performed and they are not in every clinic.
Angiography can be simply indispensable and is sometimes performed after an ultrasound scan to clarify the diagnosis.
The fact is that small vessels are unavailable for ultrasound, calcifications that may appear as a result of the development of a disease such as atherosclerosis may interfere with viewing.
If we talk about the advantages of conventional ultrasound vessels, then it is worth highlighting:
- Low cost and availability (one of the most important advantages).
- Examination can be done at any clinic, at any age.
- Non invasiveness
- Absolute safety.
- No preparation required.
- Carrying out in real time (the result can be obtained after 20-40 minutes, which is very convenient).
It is the last item that is the most valuable, because right after the diagnosis, the patient has the opportunity to start treatment without delaying or starting the disease.
Unfortunately, dopplerography will not always be useful.
There are times when it is difficult for a doctor to make a diagnosis, given the results of the procedure, so he can prescribe another diagnosis. This may be tomography, angiography, etc.
In addition, with the help of such an examination, it is impossible to determine the condition of small vessels. If atherosclerotic changes are present, you can get a distorted result, and tumors do not allow ultrasound to pass normally.
The Doppler method has several advantages:
- the study does not require specific preparation;
- reveals specific pathologies of the vascular system;
- Does not bring discomfort to the patient;
- It is absolutely safe, it is approved for use from birth;
- the duration of the procedure does not exceed 40 minutes;
- has a low cost.
The disadvantages of the method include:
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