For various pathologies of the heart, doctors prefer to start therapy with conservative methods of treatment. Arrhythmia is no exception – a violation of the innervation of the heart and the conduction of electrical impulses.
However, in some cases, arrhythmia cannot be cured conservatively – then an operation is used to cauterize the heart with arrhythmia.
Varieties of therapy for arrhythmia
There are several types of arrhythmias, and each of them requires an individual approach to therapy. Most often, doctors meet with atrial fibrillation. Pathology manifests itself in a spontaneous contraction of the atria, which is not coordinated with the work of the ventricles, and when cauterizing, the work of the heart is normalized.
If the disease is not treated, then patients feel compression behind the sternum, soreness in the heart area, and with thrombosis there is a high risk of developing a stroke and heart attack. With this type of arrhythmia, cauterization of the heart – ablation – gives good results. However, many patients unreasonably refuse to undergo the intervention due to insufficient information about this procedure.
How to eliminate the pathology
For the operation, doctors use local anesthesia. The procedure is carried out absolutely painlessly, and after its completion, patients do not have serious consequences, as with an intervention under anesthesia.
For the purpose of treating arrhythmia, one of the types of intervention is performed:
- cryodestruction – during the procedure, the catheter supplies liquid nitrogen to the required place,
- moxibustion – the procedure is performed with a laser.
It should be noted that both procedures are quite effective, but the cost of cryodestruction is slightly higher than the cost of a radio wave procedure. After the end of the intervention, a scarring focus appears on the heart muscle, due to which excessive muscle contractions stop.
A distinctive feature of such therapy for atrial fibrillation is minimally invasiveness. That is, there is no wide open access to the heart, which undoubtedly provokes the emergence of serious complications in the treatment of pathology.
When carrying out surgical intervention, a catheter is placed in the place of accumulation of blood vessels – all manipulations are carried out by acting directly on the focus of pathology.
Preparing for the procedure
If, with atrial fibrillation, doctors decide to resort to surgery, then this requires a certain preparatory stage.
Before doing the operation, patients must do:
- Holter electrocardiogram,
- magnetic resonance imaging,
- stress test,
- blood test for syphilis, group, Rh factor, hepatitis virus.
This is necessary in order to correctly calculate the dosage of the pain medication. Also, the initial data allow you to monitor the patient’s condition during the procedure. Before the intervention, food or drink is prohibited twelve hours before the procedure, patients are given an enema.
Initially, the patient is given an anesthetic. As soon as it reaches the required level of action, the doctor pierces a large vessel, slowly inserts a catheter there and directly reaches the heart muscle.
When arrhythmia foci are found, they are treated with an electrode. In fact, a small trace of a thermal burn remains on the heart muscle – a focus of necrosis, which, when restored, leaves a scar in its place. Here, already uncontrolled impulses will not arise.
After the operation, patients remain under the supervision of a doctor for some time. Patients’ feedback on the intervention is positive, since it is painless and highly effective. This is very important, because the doctor monitors the work of the heart muscle, evaluates the results and predicts possible complications.
The place of introduction and installation of the catheter is bandaged with a bandage as tight as possible, and cold is applied on top of it. A couple of days later, as soon as the patient’s condition stabilizes, he is discharged home.
At first after the intervention, the operation can give uncomfortable sensations, but this is due to the place of insertion and installation of the catheter, but the heart itself does not cause a negative reaction.
At the stage of rehabilitation after cauterization, patients are prohibited from lifting heavy, active sports, and carrying weights. Correctly performed rehabilitation is an excellent result in more than 90 percent of cases.
After the operation, patients do not have scars or scars on their chest – only the heart muscle has such marks. A small dot remains at the site of the skin piercing, indicating that there was a cauterization of the arrhythmia focus on the heart.
It should be noted that moxibustion is a fairly effective way to treat pathology. However, it is used in the event that conservative therapy does not give positive results.
Pros and cons of conducting therapy
The main goal of the intervention is to restore the normal contractility of the heart.
In addition, the therapy has other positive results for the patient’s treatment:
- during the operation, even seriously ill patients who have not been helped by the methods of conservative therapy receive hope for treatment,
- the operation is quite simple, it is performed with minimal access and is extremely easily tolerated by patients,
- as statistics show, during such an operation, the risk of medical negligence is very low,
- local anesthesia allows the entire procedure to be carried out painlessly from start to finish,
- a positive psychological moment during the procedure – the preservation of consciousness in the patient,
- cauterization of the heart minimizes the risk of infection through the blood.
Cauterization of the heart also has negative aspects, but they are relative. Doctors note that it is not possible to treat a large area of the heart muscle at a time, so several procedures may be required.
The negative aspects of the operation include possible complications after its implementation:
- Bleeding from the catheter site.
- Injury to the vessel wall at the time of catheter advancement.
- Deterioration of the patient’s condition.
- The formation of blood clots, and as a result – heart attack or stroke.
Note that such complications are extremely rare, so do not tune in to the negative.
When can and can not carry out the operation
As with any procedure, ablation has clear indications and contraindications to be performed.
Doctors prefer to do it when:
- advanced stage of arrhythmia,
- ventricular tachycardia,
- cardiomegaly, against the background of which most patients develop heart failure,
- if conservative treatment of pathology does not give the expected results,
- disorder of the myocardial conduction system,
- in patients with arrhythmias who have previously treated heart valves by surgery,
- other violations of the heart rhythm, in which the operation becomes an effective means of solving the problem.
Contraindications for the procedure are as follows:
- myocardial infarction,
- infectious pathologies,
- inflammation of the heart bag,
- heart failure,
- significant disorders of the urinary system and respiratory system,
- angina pectoris,
- severe forms of hypotension or hypertension,
- allergy to medicines used during the procedure,
- left ventricular aneurysm,
- pathology of hematopoiesis.
In patients with diabetes mellitus and over the age of 75 years, the issue of ablation intervention is decided individually.
Doctors take into account not only the effectiveness of the results, but also the possible negative consequences of the intervention. If the state of health of patients allows, then the operation must be performed.
By removing the foci of innervation after the operation to cauterize the heart with arrhythmia, it is possible to save the patient from a serious illness that can lead to death.
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