Due to a violation of the normal balance between mature and immature blood components, accompanied by an increase in average volume, the following symptoms are observed:
- the occurrence of skin itching, which cannot be eliminated by taking antihistamines;
- frequent nosebleeds;
- spotting from the ears;
- subcutaneous hemorrhages (bruises) that occur without visible factors contributing to their formation;
- bluish or reddish tint of the skin;
- general weakness, malaise;
- hypersensitivity to changes in atmospheric pressure;
- lethargy, drowsiness, apathy.
The described manifestations are not observed at the initial stages of pathological processes, therefore, a violation is often detected accidentally during routine examinations.
In order to avoid a neglected condition in which the treatment process will be longer, it is necessary to do a blood test twice a year to determine MPV.
The sampling of biomaterial for a blood test is done from the finger.
The study is carried out under a microscope using hematological analyzers. A deviation in the direction of increasing or decreasing the average volume indicates serious diseases.
- Normal values
- What are the indicators talking about?
- Why can there be an increased platelet volume in the blood?
- The average platelet volume is lowered: what is below normal, mpv in a blood test, what is it, in an adult, what it says is low, the reasons
- Why is the increase dangerous?
- Necessary precautions
- Possible complications and consequences
- Different platelet characteristics
- What will the doctor think?
- The average platelet volume is lowered: what is below normal, mpv in a blood test, what is it, in an adult, what it says is low, the reasons
Like all elements, platelet count is measured in thousands per 1 μl of blood. The norm is a relative concept, it depends on many factors. Sometimes indicators are above normal or lower. This is gender and age. Values in adults differ from those in children.
In men, the norm is considered an indicator of about 200-400 thousand units / μl. In women, normal indicators range from 180 to 320 thousand. In addition, women may experience a temporary decrease in the index, which is most common during pregnancy (100-310 thousand) and menstruation (up to 75-220 thousand). This is considered normal and no treatment is required.
In children, the platelet norm is distributed by age:
- in newborns – 100-420 thousand units / μl,
- in a child from 2 weeks to 12 months – 150-350 thousand
- from 1 year to 5 years – 180-380 thousand
- from 5 to 7 years – 180-450 thousand
A blood test for adults and children should be taken annually. This is necessary in order to determine the number of blood plates in the biomaterial and in case of a deviation from the norm in time to prevent this process. So you can prevent the development of increased or, conversely, decreased blood coagulation.
Active bone marrow production of a large number of platelets becomes the result of a compensatory reaction of the body.
It helps stop bleeding, but leads to an imbalance between mature and young cells. The reason for the increase in such situations is associated with restorative physiological processes in the body.
Such deviations are considered normal, they do not talk about pathology. Among them, the following situations are noted:
- after surgery;
- in women during the menstrual cycle;
- multiple injuries accompanied by heavy bleeding;
- the use of drugs that stimulate blood formation;
- features of processes in children caused by the inferiority of the hematopoietic system.
The absence of a natural increase in platelets against the background of the described situations indicates bone marrow failure and necessitates further examination and correction of the condition.
What are the indicators talking about?
Exceeding the average volume of platelet plates requires specification of its provocateurs. If a high rate is caused by an increase in immature cells, this indicates the likelihood of internal bleeding or the consequences of external.
Old platelets are enlarged with oncological pathologies. Such diseases are accompanied by a significant violation of the imbalance between mature and young platelets.
Blood is a substance that contains many enzymes.
They play important roles, protecting the human body from infections, transferring oxygen, eliminating pathogenic bacteria and responding to emerging pathologies. Platelets are one of the most important elements of the blood.
They are formed in the bone marrow and are the smallest elements that are responsible for the coagulation process, nourish blood vessels and cause tissue healing.
Platelets quickly merge one with one, fixing themselves to a vessel, if it has broken integrity. Due to the fusion of the bodies, a small blood clot forms, which stops the bleeding and saves the patient’s life from massive blood loss. In situations where the volume of these blood elements begins to fall, dangerous bleeding can begin.
Average platelet volume lowered: causes and treatment
Attention! During the day, a person can decrease the number of bodies by 10% of the total volume without the presence of any problems. Especially often this occurs during menstruation in women, when blood is lost for natural reasons.
The main causes of the appearance of pathology include the following:
- hypoplasia of megalocaryocytic germ (congenital pathology and acquired disease, (aplastic anemia also enters this group of megalocaryocytic hypoplasia);
- X-linked recessive thrombocytopenia with platelet microcytosis (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome);
- sepsis (for example, with septic endocarditis);
- myelodysplastic syndrome;
- the development of malignant cancerous tumors, including in the bone marrow;
- inflammatory diseases;
- infectious diseases (measles, rubella, flu) in children;
- myocardial infarction;
- some kidney disease;
- severe damage to the liver parenchyma (cirrhosis);
- cytostatic therapy;
What cells make up blood
- taking certain medications;
- pregnancy pathology, indicating a possible miscarriage.
Attention! The exact cause of the pathology can only be identified by the attending physician after a complete examination and assessment of the general condition of the patient with the help of analyzes, ultrasound and other necessary studies.
If there are problems with blood coagulation, it is important to establish proper nutrition. For this, the patient is advised to completely abandon such products as alcohol of any strength, spicy dishes, smoked meats, especially in-store production.
To achieve a quick therapeutic result, the patient should significantly enrich the diet with products with a high content of vitamin A.
It is found in beef liver, fish oil (it can be replaced with vitamins), black mountain ash, sweet pepper. Be sure to eat green vegetables and fruits.
It is recommended to drink freshly squeezed juices from carrots, to cook compotes from rose hips, grapes and lingonberry leaves. It will not be superfluous to eat peanuts, walnuts and hazelnuts every day. The table shows the foods with the highest amount of vitamin A.
Product Image Vitamin A per 100 g in mcg
Attention! Without fail, you should also abandon heavy physical exertion, avoid stress and observe the regime of day and night.
Why can there be an increased platelet volume in the blood?
The increase in the average platelet volume at the initial stage is imperceptible, it can be detected only with the help of a blood test. But if the average platelet volume is increased, then there are pathologies in the body that need to be eliminated. What does this mean if the average platelet volume is increased? The causes and symptoms of this condition will be described below.
To find out about an increase in the level of platelets in the blood is possible only by taking a blood test
The average platelet volume is an indicator that is calculated with a detailed blood test. It is designated MPV. This indicator gives an idea of the qualitative characteristics of platelets: it allows you to determine the number of produced blood cells and their usefulness (mature or immature bodies), which part is susceptible to adhesion.
Note! The analysis is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach, in the evening it is undesirable to eat fatty foods and alcohol. The study is conducted no later than two hours after blood sampling – otherwise the result will be unreliable.
- Shift of the graph to the left side – old platelets predominate in the blood;
- On the right side are young.
Young blood cells are larger in size, so if there are more in the blood, the average volume will be increased. If older cells with a smaller size prevail, then the average platelet volume will be reduced. The average platelet volume in the blood is from 7 to 11 femtoliters.
Important! An increase in platelet volume indicates an increased production of blood cells by the bone marrow, which do not have time to be excreted from the body.
As a result, the viscosity and density of blood increases. This condition may be a variant of the norm (if the volume is increased slightly or is located on the upper boundary of the norm), or indicate the presence of diseases.
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The average platelet volume in the blood can be increased for physiological and pathological reasons. In the second case, this condition requires treatment. In the initial stages, it is often enough to change the habits and lifestyle, to support health with traditional medicine methods. And with the progression of the disease, drug therapy will be needed.
Platelets contribute to blood coagulation
Platelets play an important role: they contribute to blood coagulation, prevent significant blood loss, thanks to them, tissue healing is faster. Therefore, in some cases, an increase in the average volume is justified and is positive, indicating the proper functioning of the blood formation organs.
In what cases is the increase normal?
- In newborns due to the immaturity of the blood forming organs.
- After trauma or surgery, accompanied by a large loss of blood.
- During menstruation in women, especially with heavy discharge, accompanied by anemia.
- After hematopoietic stimulation treatment.
- After bleeding.
The increase in blood cell volume in these cases is due to the desire to restore blood loss, and is compensatory in nature.
Often, platelet count rises due to various diseases requiring treatment. This happens in such cases:
- Enlarged spleen, hypersplenism.
- Blood diseases, in which there is an increase in myeloproliferative processes.
- Macrocytic dystrophy of platelets Bernard-Soulier. With this pathology, mature platelets have the wrong size and shape.
- May-Hegglin anomaly, in which the platelet count is reduced, and the cells are inferior.
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages.
Frequent alcohol consumption can increase blood platelet count
Important! A slight increase in platelets is possible with acute respiratory infections. This is normal, after recovery, everything will return to normal.
But only a doctor can judge the presence of pathology after additional research and examination. Most often, a re-analysis is prescribed. This comprehensive approach allows you to establish the cause of the increase in blood cell volume and make the correct diagnosis.
Symptoms of increasing the average platelet volume at the initial stage are practically absent, therefore, the presence of pathology can be found only from a blood test. As the disease develops, signs appear that can be used to judge the increase in volume.
Note! An increased average volume and an increase in quantity are not equivalent values. In certain conditions, the platelet count may be reduced, in other cases – increased.
Symptoms are quite diverse, and some are signs of other diseases:
- Hemorrhage. Occur most often in the event of a decrease in platelet count. Manifested by causeless bruising. On palpation, these bruises can be painful.
- Bleeding. There are bleeding from the nose and ears, in women there may be discharge from the genital tract, bleeding of the gums is observed. Bleeding occurs spontaneously.
- Itching of the skin, which persists after taking antihistamines, can also indicate an increase in the average platelet volume.
- Soreness and numbness at your fingertips. They become sensitive, with pressure, pain is felt. This condition occurs with an increased platelet count.
- Change in skin color: it acquires a bluish or reddish tint, or pronounced pallor is noticeable.
- Fatigue, drowsiness, meteorological dependence.
One of the symptoms of elevated platelets is fatigue
Other symptoms are visual impairment, blood pressure spasms, thrombosis, and frequent migraines.
It is important to understand that an increased average platelet volume is a serious pathology that should not be left to chance. It provokes stagnation and blood clots. And this, in turn, can lead to heart attacks, strokes, thromboembolism.
It is important to understand that a high average platelet volume is not an independent disease, but only a concomitant symptom of the underlying pathology. Therefore, before starting treatment, you need to find out the reason for the increase.
With a slight deviation from the norm, you can correct the situation with the help of proper nutrition. It is important to adhere to such principles:
- Observe drinking regimen. You need to drink at least two liters of clean water per day.
- Replace animal fats with vegetable fats: preference should be given to olive and linseed oils.
- Fatty meats should be replaced with dietary ones – rabbit, poultry.
- Eat lean fish.
- Eat foods that promote blood thinning: blueberries, cranberries, tomatoes, ginger, green tea.
Hormonal contraceptives, any alcoholic beverages, diuretics are strictly prohibited – they contribute to blood clotting, and only exacerbate the problem.
To reduce platelet count, medication is used. Acetylsalicylic acid preparations are used.
Important! With increased platelet volume, self-medication is unacceptable. Be sure to consult your doctor. He will find out the cause of the pathologists and prescribe suitable medications.
Proper nutrition is the key to successful treatment for elevated platelets
To eliminate the problem, it is important not only to lower the increased platelet volume, but also to influence the underlying disease that provoked it. Here are some examples:
- Thrombocytosis. The platelet level is increased, so all efforts are aimed at lowering it. Diet and proper drinking regimen must be followed. But it is important to understand that thrombocytosis is just the tip of the iceberg, it can be caused by another disease. The doctor’s task is to find the root cause and choose the right treatment.
- Thrombocytopenia. In this condition, the platelet count is lowered. For the treatment of pathology, medications are prescribed that prevent the destruction of platelets, strengthen the walls of blood vessels and have a hemostatic effect.
- Diabetes . It is not completely cured, but it is corrected with the help of a special diet, and in severe cases resort to insulin injections.
- Atherosclerosis The treatment is aimed at lowering blood cholesterol with the help of a diet and medications.
An annual preventive physical examination will help you notice the problem in time and take steps to eliminate it. An increase in the average volume of platelets is a serious pathology that can lead to sad consequences, even death. Therefore, timely measures taken will help maintain health and save lives.
The average volume of platelets is one of the components of a detailed blood test, indicating the maturity of small, red, blood plates. It is characteristic that old particles decrease in volume, while young ones, on the contrary, increase in size. It should be noted that the life expectancy of such shaped parts of the main biological fluid is not more than 10 days.
The level of such substances can be lowered or increased – any deviation from the norm indicates the occurrence of any ailment. However, there are several physiological conditions that lead to a change in normal values.
Both excessively low and very high platelet counts have their clinical manifestations. The main signs are considered to be weakness and decreased performance, excessive uterine or nosebleeds, as well as the appearance of bruises even with the slightest pressure on the skin.
The average mpv platelet volume is determined only by the results of a general clinical blood test. However, additional diagnostic measures may be required to identify the sources of deviation.
Correction of the content of small blood plates is carried out only during the treatment of a basic ailment. Values less or more than the norm are dangerous to human life.
The average platelet volume is measured in femtoliters. Valid values range from 7.5 to 10 fl, however, the parameters may vary slightly depending on the age of the person.
|Age category||Norm (x10 ^ 9 / l)|
|Infants up to 1 month old||100 – 400|
|Kids up to a year||150 – 350|
|Men and women of any age||150 – 400|
|In pregnancy||150 – 380|
Indicators may also vary depending on the degree of laboratory equipment and the quality of the study. A detailed interpretation of the results is carried out by a hematologist, who passes the information to the attending physician.
Platelets are the smallest blood cells that perform very important functions.
The average platelet volume is lowered: what is below normal, mpv in a blood test, what is it, in an adult, what it says is low, the reasons
The indicator rises in the presence of predisposing factors such as:
- diabetes mellitus against the background of pancreatic dysfunction;
- hyperthyroidism, provoking a violation of the hormonal background;
- infectious and inflammatory diseases;
- posthemorrhagic anemia caused by large blood loss during injuries and internal bleeding;
- liver disease;
- splenomegaly (enlarged spleen);
- oncological diseases;
- autoimmune diseases.
It is possible that the MPV will rise above normal as a result of spleen removal.
In addition, indicators may be exceeded due to the uncontrolled intake of drugs that can activate excessive platelet production. Therefore, you should warn your doctor before conducting a blood test about all medications used. In this case, when decrypting this situation will be taken into account.
A high average platelet volume is an alarming sign that indicates the development of dangerous diseases
If the average platelet volume is increased, this indicates that large young platelets predominate in the blood. This does not always indicate increased thrombosis, since immature cells are rapidly and constantly produced, but can die quickly.
The reasons for increasing the average platelet volume can be physiological and pathological:
- Injuries and operations. If a person has recently undergone serious abdominal surgery or multiple injuries, the body begins to actively fight blood loss and produce more young platelets, which leads to an increase in MPV levels.
- Menstruation. Sometimes with heavy menstruation, a woman suffers from anemia. During this period, the body begins to make up for the loss of blood with the production of new immature platelets, so the average volume rises. To avoid an incorrect result, it is better to take an analysis after the completion of menstruation.
- Thrombocytopenia. With thrombocytopenia, the platelet count in the blood decreases. This is often due to the fact that a large number of young immature bodies are produced, which increase the MPV, but quickly die and do not fulfill their function. Immature platelets cannot quickly adhere to form a blood clot. All this leads to various bleeding and hemorrhage.
- Alcoholism. Alcohol can cause a lot of problems and cause disturbances in blood counts. For example, ethyl alcohol causes the death of blood cells, which causes the spinal cord to produce immature cells in large numbers.
- Atherosclerosis. In this disease, fats settle on the walls of blood vessels, forming plaques. The lumen of the vessel narrows and the blood supply to organs and tissues becomes insufficient. Due to the accumulation of fats, the walls of the vessels become less elastic and more fragile. This is a dangerous disease that can be fatal when clogging vital arteries. At the same time, atherosclerosis and thrombosis are often related.
- Diabetes . Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease associated with metabolic disorders. With this disease, hormonal failure occurs, all body systems, including blood vessels and the hematopoietic system, suffer.
The signs and consequences of elevated levels of MPV depend on the reasons for the increase, diagnosis and severity of the patient’s condition. Not always increased platelet volume is associated with an increase in their number.
Therefore, the symptoms can be very different:
- Hemorrhage. Small hemorrhages on the skin and mucous membranes are also called purpura. They often occur with thrombocytopenia, when the platelet count decreases, and the vessels become more fragile. Thrombocytopenic purpura can occur with minor strokes, injections, injuries. They can be different: from small spider veins to large bruises. Sometimes such skin hemorrhages are painful on palpation.
- Frequent bleeding. This is a common sign of a violation of the number or average platelet volume. Bleeding often occurs spontaneously. Usually these are nosebleeds and bleeding gums, which appears even when brushing your teeth with a soft bristle brush. In rare cases, blood can be detected in the urine. In the presence of an anal fissure or hemorrhoids, the healing process lasts a very long time.
- Sore fingertips. This symptom is observed with increased MPV, which is accompanied by thrombocytosis, that is, an increase in the number of platelets, and not a decrease. The fingertips become very sensitive and hurt when pressed.
- Weakness in the body and pallor of the skin. As a rule, these are signs of anemia, internal bleeding, which can also be accompanied by an increase in the average platelet volume.
- Visual impairment. With problems with platelets, visual disturbances and hemorrhages on the sclera of the eyes often occur.
- Itchy skin. This is a rather indirect sign, which can occur with various diseases, dermatitis, allergic reactions, therefore, it is recommended that you first go to a dermatologist and take a blood test.
The most serious consequences are heart attacks, strokes, thromboembolism. They occur if elevated levels of MPV are associated with an increase in platelet count and a tendency to thrombosis. In this case, blockage of important arteries and blood vessels is possible, which leads to severe complications and sometimes death.
The method of treatment depends on the diagnosis
An increased average platelet volume is a symptom, not an independent disease. Therefore, first, the doctor will prescribe an examination, identify the cause of the increase in MPV, and then prescribe the treatment.
The test results cannot be interpreted independently and self-medicated. This indicator increases during pregnancy, in which case any treatment can be dangerous.
- Thrombocytosis treatment. The treatment of thrombocytosis depends on the severity of the disease. With an increased platelet count, it is recommended to follow a diet and a drinking regimen, eat more fruits, especially citrus fruits, berries, eat tomatoes and drink tomato juice, which has a beneficial effect on blood coagulation, as well as take fish oil and drink natural olive oil (spoonful per day) . Very often, thrombocytosis is a complication of another disease, so treatment should begin with a search for causes.
- Thrombocytopenia treatment. With moderate and severe thrombocytopenia, drug therapy is required. Prednisolone is often prescribed, which prevents the destruction of platelets in the spleen and strengthens the walls of the capillaries, as well as immunoglobulins, which block the formation of antibodies and have an antiviral effect. Hemostatic drugs are often prescribed, for example, Ethamsylate, Dicinon.
- Diabetes treatment. This is a serious and often hereditary disease that cannot be completely cured. With diabetes, a diet is prescribed, special diabetic products without sugar, on fructose. For mild forms of diabetes, diets are sufficient. In severe forms, regular insulin injections are required.
- Atherosclerosis treatment. When treating atherosclerosis, it is important to lower blood cholesterol. This is also done with the help of a diet (exclusion of fatty foods, fried meat) and drugs belonging to the group of statins. However, drugs are more aimed at removing the inflammatory process. Lowering cholesterol to a greater extent contributes to the diet and rejection of bad habits.
It is worth remembering that the MPV level and platelet count are two different indicators. The average platelet volume can be increased both with an increased platelet count and with a reduced one.
The main areas of therapeutic effect on the level of the average volume of platelets are:
- The use of drugs that promote blood thinning. This allows you to significantly improve its movement within the body and thereby facilitate the functioning of the heart muscle.
- Normalization of platelet production using hormonal drugs.
The therapeutic course is carried out only in a hospital after a series of additional diagnostic tests.
Attempts to decipher the results of the tests yourself, and even more so to treat deviations from the norm without the recommendations of a doctor, lead to a complication of the situation. Therefore, the use of any drugs is allowed only after consultation with specialists.
Proper nutrition will help lower average platelet volume MPV. The main thing is to observe the following principles:
- abundant water intake is needed;
- it is necessary to exclude animal fats from the diet with replacing them with vegetable oil (preferably olive);
- fatty meat should be replaced with dietary varieties (chicken, rabbit);
- eat only low-fat fish;
- There are products that contribute to blood thinning (blackberries, tomatoes, sorrel, etc.).
Hormonal substances, alcohol and diuretics are strictly prohibited, because they thicken the blood. You can lower the index using Aspirin. Self-medication is unacceptable, because the correct diagnosis can only be made by a doctor. And this will require not a simple blood test, but an additional, more in-depth examination.
Why is the increase dangerous?
Passing an annual preventive examination helps to identify the existence of deviations in the volume of platelets and to choose treatment methods. Care should be taken to all deviations from the norm of the blood composition. An increased average platelet volume is not just an indicator, but a pathology.
It can harm the human body, and can lead to the worst – fatal outcome. Timely detection of deviations from the norm and the factor that provoked this condition, treatment and prevention of this disease will preserve not only health, but also life itself.
Significant deviations from the norm of the average platelet volume become a prerequisite for such negative phenomena as:
- decrease in muscle mass;
- weakened immunity;
- chronic breakdown;
- relapse of nosebleeds;
- causeless appearance of hematomas, bruises;
- violation of cardiac activity.
These manifestations become an indication for examination and correction of the condition.
Particular care is required when choosing medications for the treatment of diseases of a viral and inflammatory nature.
Their components can cause a significant release of young platelets into the bloodstream and upset the balance of the average volume of red blood cells.
The presence of diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid disease in a patient requires a mandatory analysis to determine the average volume of blood platelets at least once a quarter. This will eliminate the likelihood of exacerbation of existing pathologies and the development of other diseases against their background.
Possible complications and consequences
Blood clotting caused by an excess of platelet count is a serious prerequisite for such negative consequences as:
- a tendency for platelets to adhere to the walls of blood vessels and the development of thrombosis;
- myocardial infarction;
- iron deficiency anemia due to the predominance of platelets in the blood of mature age.
In order to prevent the development of complications, a preventive examination should be performed at least once a year. This will make it possible to identify the problems in the body and eliminate them, resorting to qualified assistance of specialists.
Different platelet characteristics
Fragments of megakaryocytes, giant bone marrow cells, nuclear-free blood platelets – platelets (PLTs), circulating in the blood, look like biconvex discs with diameters from 1,8 microns to 4 microns. Young blood platelets are larger than mature cells, and older platelets are the smallest. In blood smears, platelets are painted in a pale blue or lilac color and are often grouped.
In an inactive state, platelets have a round or oval shape, but if they “smell” a violation of the integrity of blood vessels and bleeding, they change shape almost instantly, increase in size by 10 times, “acquire” pseudopods and begin to stick together (platelet aggregation) . Blood plates produce all these actions in order to rush to the place of accident in the form of a conglomerate, where platelets that arrived earlier are already waiting.
Therefore, platelets are very prone to change their size, because they have a very important function in the human body – participation in vascular-platelet hemostasis or, more simply, these blood platelets help blood coagulation with various injuries in the microcirculation zone.
In the automatic processing of blood samples, platelets are counted in the same channel as red blood cells – red blood cells, so the hematology analyzer can separate the particles according to the height of the signal in accordance with the volume, which allows the device to immediately differentiate them:
- Macrothrombocytes (elements from 1,8 to 30 femtoliters fall into this group – in principle, these are cells that are currently of interest to us);
- Red blood cells;
- Fragments of red blood cells – schizocytes;
- The remains of the cytoplasm of white cells – white blood cells or, as they call it – cell debris.
a – platelets are normal; b – platelets of various volumes (pronounced anisocytosis) c – huge macro platelets
Meanwhile, this information alone to characterize the state of platelets is very small.
MPV = [PCT,% x 1000] / [PLT x 103 / μl]
In addition, the device also attaches a histogram to its calculations – it is subsequently studied by the doctor when deciphering the results.
The average platelet volume – MPV is expressed in femtoliters – fl, fl (1 femtoliter = 1 cubic micron – μm2), depends on the person’s age (data are shown in the table below) and normally ranges between 7,0 – 10,0 femtoliters. And in children from one to three years of age (on average), MPV in a general blood test performed by an automatic device gives higher rates.
Age, years MPV norm, fl
|Breasts up to a year||7,1-8,0|
|Children from 1 year to 5 years||8,1-8,9|
|Children, adolescents and adults 5 to 60 years old||7,4-12,0|
|Older than 60 years||9,5-12,0|
Meanwhile, all these norms and the table are very arbitrary. The reader himself can verify this by looking for the limits of normal values in other sources.
The thing, as always, is at reference intervals, which differ significantly in different laboratories, where the norm falls within the range of 6,0 – 13 femtoliters, somewhere narrows its limits (7,4 – 10,4), so before you start to worry Regarding our own analyzes, it is useful to ask what values are used by the CDL, which calculated these indicators.
What will the doctor think?
After reviewing the first results (calculating platelet indices), the doctor can already imagine different situations regarding the behavior of platelet representatives in the bloodstream, the state of hemostasis and bone marrow hematopoiesis, given only one indicator – the average platelet volume:
- MPV within normal limits. In the circulating blood: mature, but not old, full-fledged cells that have not changed their volume, capable of performing their functional tasks at the proper level. The coagulation system and bone marrow are operating normally.
- MPV increased. Along with normal platelets, increased blood platelets circulate in the bloodstream, as well as giant platelets, which, although they try, but lacking the qualities of full-fledged mature cells, have not acquired their capabilities, and therefore are not able to fully take assume the responsibilities of “healthy” platelet elements. In the bone marrow – abortion, blood coagulation is impaired.
- MPV is below normal. In the blood: cells of normal sizes are practically absent, the platelet link in the bloodstream is represented by small aged blood plates that have lost their functions. In hemostasis, obvious deviations from the norm, bone marrow hematopoiesis is inhibited. Thrombopathy?
Based on studies of the morphological features of blood platelets, as well as on the calculations of an automatic analyzer and a histogram, one can find a relationship between their volume and functional abilities (the adhesive aggregation function of platelets due to the content of biologically active substances in their granules).
With “growing up and aging” the volume of the plates decreases, which can be traced to the histogram. The presence in the circulating blood of the vast majority of young forms gives a shift of the histogram to the right, and the predominant distribution in the bloodstream of old blood platelets to the left.
- Each element in the human circulatory system must have its own norm, so it is important to know what is the characteristic platelet norm in the blood for a healthy person, and what does the deviation of indicators in the analysis signal?
- The very first and necessary procedure that is carried out when contacting a doctor is a blood test.
- This analysis helps to identify various diseases, to determine the quantitative characteristics of platelets and other particles.
Platelets are particles that form in the bone marrow and do not have a nucleus. Elements circulate in the human circulatory system, have very small sizes and weights.
Moving cell fragments form a thin layer inside the vessels – the endothelium. This unique layer does not allow particles to adhere to it, and in case of violation of the integrity of the endothelium, platelets immediately respond to this.
On the back wall of the endothelium is a fibrous coating to which platelets are attached. Due to the structure of cells, the elements “stick together” between themselves and prevent the leakage of blood through damaged vessels.
The uniqueness of platelets lies in their composition. There are proteins on the surface of the elements, due to which the fragments stick to each other.
Proteins contain granules that are capable of producing other elements necessary for blocking damaged sections of blood vessels.
Depending on the needs of the system, platelets can change shape, as they contain substances that are ideally similar to muscle proteins.
These blood particles are directly involved in the coagulation process. But still, most of the time they are inactive.
When the unity of the walls of the vessels is broken, the elements immediately rush to the site of damage.
At this point, they stick together, connecting the walls of the deformed vessel. In a mobile state, the fragments of cells change their shape, facilitating the ability to glue.
- If these blood elements are normal, then there is a balance between the production and destruction of fragments.
- When the indicator has deviations from the norm, then a person has a tendency to excessive blood clots or bleeding.
- Blood plates “grow” during the period of their existence: the older the cell, the larger it is, having a size of 2 to 5 microns.
- Elements are able to take a round or oval shape, and they are destroyed in the liver, lungs or spleen.
- Nuclear-free blood cells circulate through the circulatory system and do a very important job.
When platelets are normal, their number during the day changes up or down by 10%. The percentage fluctuation in women during menstruation increases by 25 – 50%.
To determine the norm of platelets, a general blood test is usually performed. The study allows us to evaluate the ability of coagulability of serum.
The analysis gives doctors a result that determines the body’s ability to respond and deal with bleeding.
The content of elements in serum is calculated in units per liter or microliter.
Doctors have established the following norm of these elements in the blood:
- in the female body – 150-400 * 109 per liter of blood;
- in the body of a pregnant woman – 100-420 * 109;
- in men, the norm is 180-320 * 109;
- in newborn babies, the platelet norm varies from 150 to 350 * 109.
When the cell level is normal, platelets can easily cope with their tasks. The most important work of particles is participation in the process of blood coagulation.
Hemostasis is a necessary protective effect of the human body, which stops bleeding and reduces the amount of blood loss in wounds.
To ensure the function necessary for human life, the level of blood platelets should be normal.
If the vessel is damaged, platelet movement is activated, granules of blood cells open. At this moment, coagulation factors are triggered.
Then, substances of serotonin, calcium ions and platelet growth factor enter the circulatory system.
When the functioning of the circulatory system is normal, when a platelet moves towards a vessel with impaired integrity, a clot forms that prevents blood loss.
Another task of platelets is the supply of blood vessel endothelium. More recently, scientists have shown that in addition to feeding the endothelium and stopping blood loss, platelets have a healing effect on the affected areas.
Blood plates regenerate areas with integrity violation. Due to the active work of the particles, a growth factor is released from the granules of the cell.
It is this substance that accelerates the synthesis of blood cells. When the platelet function is normal, the formation of various groups of polypeptide molecules that have a unique structure and perform a specific job is performed.
Platelets, like all structural units of the circulatory system, take part in tasks vital to human health.
When the level of nuclear-free plates is below normal, thrombocytopenia occurs. This condition is directly related to difficulties in stopping bleeding and increased bleeding.
A decrease in platelet norm can manifest itself, both as a single disease, and as a sign of a pathological condition.
How is the decrease in platelet norm manifested:
- in humans, nosebleeds occur systematically;
- bleeding gums;
- hemorrhages in the eyeballs with normal blood pressure;
- a person has prolonged bleeding after superficial wounds;
- small hemorrhages appear on the body, resembling a rash and, over time, able to merge into large areas;
- hematomas and bruises occur with small strokes.
If any signs of pathology are detected, the patient together with the doctor should establish the possible causes of the deviation from the norm.
What precedes the development of thrombocytopenia:
- leukemia and anemia;
- taking various medications;
- the entry of various infections into the body and HIV infection;
- alcohol abuse;
- bone marrow damage;
- trauma with a large loss of blood;
- hereditary factor and autoimmune diseases.
Platelet norm may be lowered in women due to physiological characteristics. Thrombocytopenia causes pregnancy or heavy menstruation.
Therapy involves eliminating the cause of the disease and eliminating the damaging agent. So, for example, with sepsis, antibiotic therapy is used to destroy the virus.
- To normalize platelet levels, steroid drugs are used that reduce the activity of the immune system.
- The use of gamma globulin makes it possible to increase the number of platelets in the blood, and Anti-D blocks phagocytes in the spleen, which destroy blood plates.
- In the absence of positive dynamics from the use of drugs, spleen removal may be prescribed.
An increase in platelet count in medicine is called thrombocytosis. This condition signals a malfunction of the circulatory system or may be an independent disease.
- An excessively high level of the norm of blood elements leads to an active and rapid formation of blood clots in the vessels, as a result of which they become clogged and become impassable.
- Blood plates are produced in the bone marrow under the influence of a concentrated number of megakaryocytes – these are very large bone marrow cells with an internal nucleus, from which platelets are split off.
- What types of thrombocytosis exist:
- clonal – develops due to a stem cell defect;
- primary – it is often caused by dysfunction of bone marrow cells. In this condition, the growth of several hematopoietic zones in the bone marrow itself is characteristic, therefore an excessive amount of platelets is released into the circulatory system;
- secondary – caused by infectious diseases, tumor growth and other external influences.
The causes that cause an increase in platelet count include meningococcus, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Thrombocytosis can develop against a background of iron deficiency in anemia, cancer, after surgery.
What symptoms can a person experience with an increase in the norm of blood platelets:
- internal and nasal bleeding;
- hemorrhages under the skin;
- blue skin;
- development of vegetovascular dystonia and venous thrombosis.
The presence of platelets in the blood ranges from 800 to 1250 * 109 per liter of serum. In this state, the elements reach huge sizes. The formation of blood clots begins in the veins, arteries. According to a blood test, an increase in hemoglobin and red blood cells is observed.
Depending on the form of thrombocytosis and the level of abnormality of the blood cell count, the appropriate medication is prescribed by a specialist.
An additional diet is recommended. It is advisable to eat foods saturated with iodine, calcium, iron and B vitamins.
In childhood, deviations of the blood test indicators from the norms make parents worry, because developing pathologies can threaten the life of the child or adversely affect health.
To correctly determine the platelet norm, children undergo a general blood test. The material is taken from a vein or finger, in the baby – from the heel or toes.
- Before the study, the child should reduce physical activity and reduce stressful situations, as well as stop taking antibiotics or other drugs.
- Severe hypothermia on the eve of blood sampling can affect the response of the analysis.
- When the level of particles in the blood is above normal, it can be a consequence of:
- acquired or congenital diseases of the circulatory system;
- transferred infectious diseases and inflammatory processes;
- transferred operations.
- Adolescent children are experiencing severe stress and physical restructuring of the body.
- As a result, the hormonal background has a strong effect on the psychoemotional state of the child, causing malfunctions in the hormonal system, which leads to thrombocytosis.
To treat the condition, drugs are prescribed that eliminate the first cause of the disease. They also recommend a special diet.
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