Such a simple procedure as giving urine for analysis raises certain questions among patients. How to properly collect urine in the laboratory, do you need special preparation for this, how much urine can be stored for analysis?
There are specially developed rules for the collection of this or that biological material into the laboratory, including the rules for collecting and storing urine. Why stick to these rules, because, it would seem, collecting urine in a jar is quite simple. But, it is the observance of these rules that affects the accuracy of the results of laboratory tests, the correct diagnosis and treatment.
How to store urine
There is a known requirement for urine analysis. It should ideally be fresh, harvested in the morning. How to store urine collected for analysis? Since its composition is 97% water and 3% – products of nitrogen decomposition of proteins and salt compounds, it cannot be stored for a long time due to the instability of these compounds. After 2-3 hours, the composition of urine changes and becomes unsuitable for laboratory research. But, there are situations when it is necessary to preserve urine for several hours, due to the impossibility of conducting the analysis in due time. In these cases, it is allowed to store urine in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 3 … + 4 ° C. At a lower temperature, a salt precipitate is formed in urine, and at a higher temperature, the processes of decomposition of organic substances begin in it. You can store the analysis in the refrigerator, observing the temperature regime, no more than 2 hours before it reaches the laboratory.
To obtain high-quality results of urine analysis, today many laboratories provide conditions for collecting it directly on their territory.
How to properly prepare for urine collection?
There are certain algorithms for collecting urine for analysis in women, men, newborns and young children. They have some differences, but there are general rules:
- It is undesirable to consume mineral water on the eve of urine collection for analysis, as this can affect the results of the analysis – in particular, its acidity.
- It is recommended to switch to a mixed diet with a varied set of foods before passing urine.
- It is not recommended to eat a lot of sweet, smoked, salty foods on the eve of the analysis. You should temporarily exclude from the diet foods that affect the color of urine (beets, blueberries, citrus fruits).
- If possible, stop taking medications: pain relievers, antipyretics, antispasmodics, antibiotics, sulfonamides, diuretics, vitamins, etc.
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Features of collecting urine in women
It should be noted right away that the collection of urine from women during menses is not recommended. The test results will be incorrect due to the high content of impurities that are not characteristic of the normal composition of urine.
Before collecting urine, a woman should properly treat her external genitals with warm boiled water and soap. You should wash them with movements towards the anus. Then, after drying them with a napkin, urinate according to the analysis (collect the middle portion of urine, or the first or the last). Usually, only the middle portion of urine is collected on the OAM. The technology for collecting the middle portion is as follows:
- Start peeing in the toilet
- Then the next portion is collected in a substituted container,
- Finish urinating back down the toilet.
When filling the container, care must be taken that it does not come into contact with the skin and mucous membranes of the external genital organs.
Features of collecting urine in men
In men, urine collection is easier. But this does not mean that they do not need to carry out a hygienic procedure for the penis. It is imperative to wash the penis with soap and water, while pushing the foreskin away from its head. Urine for general analysis is collected from the middle portion.
Collecting urine from a young child
Collecting urine from a baby has certain problems that can be solved with a urine collection bag. This urine collection device can be purchased at a pharmacy. It is a plastic bag that can be easily attached to the child’s torso. If you don’t have a urine bag at hand, you can use a clean plastic food bag secured in the same way as a urine bag. When collecting urine from young children, it is necessary not to forget about their preliminary washing.
Do not donate urine from a diaper, cotton wool used instead of a urine bag, or a diaper.
A prerequisite for the correct collection of urine is the sterility of the container in which it is collected. As a rule, the laboratory provides its sterile containers made of plastic material with lids for analysis. If for some reason such a container is not available, then you can use a glass jar, thoroughly washed and boiled, and then dried. Do not donate urine from a pot, duck, or similar container. Even well washed, they can cause inaccurate test results.