Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

Massage is a traditional recovery method that is used at any stage of the disease. In this case, the technique should be different from classic massage. At first, intensive actions cannot be performed, because the patient does not have a high muscle tone (hemiplegia).

Massage at home can be performed by both the patient’s relatives and a qualified specialist. The cost of the services of the latter ranges from 350 to 900 rubles per session. Usually a massage therapist is hired to conduct the first course of procedures.

Massage begins with special exercises to achieve relaxation of muscle tissue in the affected areas. The limbs should be in a natural position to reduce muscle contracture.

A pronounced positive effect from the procedure can be obtained only if the patient’s skin is preheated. For this purpose, you can use a warm heating pad (with caution). Rehabilitologists recommend a massage after hygiene procedures. It is necessary to combine massage movements with passive, and then with active exercises.

Massage for stroke plays a big role. Thanks to it, you can revitalize atrophied muscles, relax, normalize their tone. Massage will help improve lymph and blood circulation, which will, in turn, exclude the formation of blood clots.

It is advisable to start the procedure while the patient is still in the hospital, but therapeutic massage can also be effective at home.

Massage therapy for stroke is not only possible, but also necessary. The main thing is to follow all the doctor’s prescriptions

Rehabilitation after a stroke depends on the degree of damage to the body. Patients need to do therapeutic exercises, take walks in the fresh air.

Having decided to carry out the procedures at home, the following factors should be considered:

  • Invite a specialist for therapeutic massage;
  • We ourselves will master the technique of conducting the treatment and prophylactic procedure under the supervision of a rehabilitologist.
  • Having decided to personally do the massage, you need to take into account your strengths and capabilities. After all, now the health of a loved one is in your hands.

Recovery after a stroke largely depends on how the patient lies. The correct position will help to avoid many complications, such as pneumonia, bedsores.

From the first hours of the disease, it is necessary to adhere to several principles of positioning:

    The patient must be placed on either s >Kak provesti vosstanovitelnyj massazh posle insulta - Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

  • Respiratory functions are positive;
  • The “healthy” side has retained its activity;
  • It is possible to stimulate the affected side.
  • Increased risk of pressure sores.

Modern medicine, in the case of stroke patients, uses the “verticalization” method. Assign it from the second day of the disease.

This rehabilitation method consists in smoothly transferring the patient to an upright position. It can be carried out using special beds or tables on which the head part, the whole body is lifted.

Why early verticalization is needed:

  • The swallowing process improves;
  • Communication becomes full, the patient gets the opportunity to take part in the surrounding life;
  • Blood is saturated with oxygen, due to improved respiratory function;
  • There is an opportunity to make a wash, a toilet, a meal on their own;
  • The risk of pneumonia, bedsores is minimized.

For a massage at home, the patient also needs the correct position. He should lie on his back, a roller is placed under his knees, and a flat pillow is placed under his head. If the patient has heart problems, then the procedure is carried out in the “lying on its side” position.

To avoid hypothermia, the patient is covered with a blanket, leaving open the necessary body area.

Massage therapy must be carried out in conjunction with drug therapy.

Massage sessions after an attack, which is prescribed to the client during late rehabilitation, as well as recovery, makes it possible to prevent the occurrence of other complications and to some extent improves his well-being. The session must be performed only with the confirmation by the doctor – neurologist of the complete absence of contraindications.

Massaging for the first time after a stroke is possible on the second day, if the client has good health. The session favorably affects the motor centers and paths that have been damaged due to the disease. Manipulations help to recover after a hemorrhagic or ischemic disease, namely:

  • symptom of friendly movements;
  • increased muscle tone;
  • pathological reflexes of tendons;
  • pain during movements caused by muscle cramps;
  • involuntary movements of the arms and legs;
  • impaired limb movement, paralysis and paresis.

The session is performed immediately after normalization of the patient’s well-being. Manipulation after an attack is done at home, after discharge from the hospital.

By all means, a professional massage therapist performs sessions from the very beginning, and continues to conduct them at home at the convalescent. Close people, relatives, as well as the patient will be able to continue massaging the house with a gradual improvement in his well-being.

Only a qualified massage therapist should perform the prescribed massage, which is an indispensable component during the rehabilitation of patients recovering from an attack of a stroke. Unprofessional manual actions can worsen the patient’s well-being

Only the gentle effect of the massage technique is prescribed by specialists, categorically prohibiting any aggressive movements. If you wish to recover, it is possible to prescribe manual therapy, as well as acupressure or main massage and more.

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Usually perform the following techniques:

  • Collar zone – prescribed very carefully if osteochondrosis was the cause of a hemorrhagic or ischemic attack.
  • Neck – aggressive as well as gross movements are prohibited. If you have complaints of dizziness during manipulations and headaches, you must immediately stop them, and also seek advice from a neurologist.
  • Backs – massage lying on his side, there is a permission of the attending physician – on the stomach, scrubbing a pillow under his head. During therapy, it is possible to apply existing standard techniques. A qualified massage therapist must watch the condition of muscle tissue. Before massage it is required that they relax.
  • Hands – commit in a lying position all the time the appointed bed rest. With the improvement of motor functions, the session is allowed to be done while sitting. On the table near the client, place his hand.
  • Brushes – massaging begins to do from the back. Stroking, rubbing and kneading.
  • Legs – first stretch the thigh, moving gradually to the muscles of the buttocks. The lower legs are massaged at the end.
  • Stop – do at the end. The sole muscles are always in good shape. The effect is performed purposefully: from the fingers smoothly move to the heel.

At the beginning of the manipulation, you need to perform a professional specialist resuscitation specialist. The prescribed massage after discharge from the medical institution is entrusted to the masseur.

Both at home and in the clinic, massage should be carried out only by specialists. If the patient is on home bed rest, then the relative who will be involved in the recovery must undergo special courses and consult a doctor. Improper exposure, too strong or weak pressure, inability to feel muscle tissue can lead to complications.

It is not recommended to carry out acupressure at home, since improper study of the point will provoke a deterioration.

You can do massage after a stroke at home at the stages of rehabilitation after discharge from the hospital. The best time is after an evening bath or shower: water warms the body and prepares the muscles for working out. At home, the sessions take place in a more relaxed and familiar environment for the patient, and this has an additional positive effect. The patient relaxes, trusts the masseur and the healing process is faster.

Another difference is the surface on which the procedures take place. If in the conditions of the clinic they use a special table, then at home they often conduct massage on a sofa or bed.

Home restoration massage also differs in duration: if the patient has a good reaction, then the session can last up to 70-90 minutes. Often, home treatments are accompanied by pleasant and calm music, which also positively affects the patient’s condition.

In a hospital setting, massage sessions are accompanied by a physiotherapist or attending physician. They are limited in time, but are more intense than home treatments. Their goal is to start the work of the centers of the brain, restore flexibility to the joints, lower the tone of muscle tissue. Home procedures continue and develop what has been started.

Massage after a stroke or myostimulation will allow the muscles to return to their normal state. For the late stage of recovery, you need the services of a massage therapist. The specialist will be able to conduct sessions taking into account the characteristics and changes of the affected arm or leg. Proper massage will achieve good results:

    in the body, especially on the damaged s >Kak provesti vosstanovitelnyj massazh posle insulta 2 - Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

15-20 days after the impact, it is necessary to begin the rehabilitation rehabilitation course in order to eliminate the consequences

  • with a violation of the nervous system, massage improves its condition, brings calmness;
  • there is a stimulation of the digestive tract, constipation is prevented;
  • After a stroke, massage helps eliminate muscle cramps and discomfort.
  • It is best to complete this procedure before lunch.
  • Because the muscles quickly get tired, the massage should not exceed 10 minutes.

Kak provesti vosstanovitelnyj massazh posle insulta 3 - Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

Massage after a stroke refers to therapeutic and preventive measures, therefore the course should be started on the recommendation of a doctor

  • If the patient has signs of fatigue: increased heart rate, shortness of breath, pallor – the session must be stopped.
  • Over time, the duration of the session can be brought up to 30 minutes, which will allow a better effect on the body.
  • For 30 days, a person completely undergoes a massage course. After this, you need a week’s rest.
  • After 3 months, the duration of the massage can be an hour.

Massage for stroke: recommendations for

The actions of the masseur contribute to the rehabilitation of tissues in the paralyzed area. This is important because non-moving muscles weaken. Daily exercise will help restore tone and improve health. If it is not possible to hire a specialist, you should purchase a special massager. Use the technical device in accordance with the program developed by the doctor. Over time, the massage technique changes, as the patient will recover.

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Depending on the type of stroke, the timing for starting massage therapy will vary. With the ischemic type, you can start the procedure on the 2-3rd day. If the patient has a hemorrhagic stroke, recovery should begin on the 6-7th day. The duration of the first procedures should not exceed 5 minutes. Before starting the massage, the specialist should receive recommendations from the attending physician regarding a specific patient.

Each session should begin with an assessment of the patient’s state of change and response. The specialist pays attention to the dynamics, mobility, muscle tone, atrophy. This allows you to choose the optimal massage technique at this stage.

Massage sessions allow you to influence not only the physical, but also the psychological state of the patient. It is important for the patient to get support from others in order to overcome the disease faster. When performing the massage, the patient should be in a supine position. It is strictly forbidden to turn it over on the stomach in the first sessions!

Frequency of sessions

As soon as the patient’s condition stabilizes, they consider the need for manipulation and determine the areas that will be subjected to manual therapy. Sessions are first recommended for five to ten minutes. After some time, increase its duration to twenty minutes or half an hour.

It is required to strictly observe the duration and intensity of the manipulations. If the procedure is exceeded, fatigue of the muscles and the entire patient’s body will appear. As a result, the onset of a bad condition is possible.

For hemorrhagic stroke, sessions are recommended for use at 6-8, and for ischemic damage – for 2-4 days.

The manipulation zones immediately after the attack are not extensive. The procedure is limited to massaging the immobilized shoulder, as well as the hips, and the client is not allowed to lay on his stomach.

The technique of execution changes over time, manipulations go to the lower back and back. Twenty to thirty procedures are performed each day. The frequency depends on the well-being of the patient. Between series, they take a break for about one and a half or two months.

Massage is best done immediately after hygiene procedures. First, each massage technique is repeated 4 times. Then, after a couple of weeks, you can increase the load. Gradually, the intensity will increase from stroking to rubbing. Also, the duration of each session will be regulated depending on the patient’s indicators. If muscle tone has appeared, massage should be performed more intensively in this area.

Among other things, separately, it is necessary to make movements aimed at preventing the formation of pressure sores. For this patient try to “stretch.” Stacked on the back, turned on its side. Bend limbs in all joints, breaking up salt deposits. Over time, rehabilitation will give results, and mobility will return to the person.

Loss of speech and vision, paresis of limbs, impaired functioning of internal organs are serious complications that lead to a stroke. Recovery after a seizure is not only in intensive drug therapy, but also in physical impact. Massage is of great benefit. Properly selected technique allows you to speed up the process of restoring motor activity.

It is important to follow the rules of massage and monitor the condition of the patient. For the procedure, it is necessary that the body is in the correct position: the upper body should be slightly higher than the lower. The patient may be in bed or on a massage table. Manipulation can be done only a few hours after a meal.

Massage begins to do with the upper body. The specialist should work out the cervical muscles. Massaging the arms, back and legs is necessary from the center to the periphery in order to avoid an increase in blood pressure. If the patient does not suffer from high blood pressure, massage is carried out according to the standard method – from the limbs to the center.

Where to start?

Massage for strokes begins with warming up the body. In this case, the specialist’s hands should also be warm. This will avoid the appearance of hyperkinetic reflexes in paralyzed limbs. It is forbidden to tap, press or rub massaged parts of the body. Special exercises aimed at relaxation begin to be carried out on a healthy part of the body, gradually moving to the affected one.

Experts recommend to carry out movements only in the course of blood flow. It is necessary to start massaging the hands with the hands and gradually move to the shoulders. From the chest, the specialist gradually moves to massaging the shoulders, then the armpits. The back begins to work out from the shoulders, moving to the lower back.

Proper movements should not bring pain to the patient. The appearance of pain indicates too intense massage. Each technique must be repeated at least three times. With a daily massage, the symptoms of the disease will begin to recede rather quickly. The duration of the recovery period after a stroke will depend on the severity of the brain lesion. If medical care was provided on time and rehabilitation began in the first days after the attack, the chances of returning to your previous life are significantly increased.

Localized massage

Restorative massage of the arms and legs is carried out in order to achieve the following main goals:

  1. An increase in the speed of lymphatic and blood circulation in paralyzed arms and legs, as well as throughout the patient’s body.
  2. Help in restoring limb movement.
  3. Obstruction of contractures.
  4. Decrease or complete cessation of pain.
  5. Reduce the likelihood of congestive pneumonia.
  6. Prevention of pressure sores.
  7. Improving the psycho-emotional state.

After an attack, a localized massaging of paralyzed limbs is prescribed for the first time. Manipulations are often performed, only the damaged side is subject to massaging strictly. With the onset of a right-sided stroke, it lies on the left side, massaging the thigh, as well as the shoulder.

It is not possible for the client to be on his stomach while undergoing a course of rehabilitation therapy during early rehabilitation. With a concurrent disease of the cardiovascular system, when massaged, it is on the back. During recovery after the occurrence of a left-side attack – lay it on the right side.

Contraindications to massage

Massaging the right or left side is considered normal when performing sessions. In conditions that dangerously threaten human health and life, manual therapy can not be done. Of particular danger is the massaging of a paralyzed person.

  • heat;
  • headache in the heart;
  • dysfunction of the respiratory system;
  • hypertension;

The rules for performing limb massaging after an attack recommend that no manual sessions be carried out for the entire duration of the exacerbation. Self-massage at this time is strictly prohibited.

Most patients after a stroke are prescribed massage sessions. However, there are some contraindications to this type of rehabilitation. First of all, this applies to the period of exacerbation or acute condition. Therefore, in a hospital, massage can only be performed by a specialist, after consulting with the attending physician of the patient.

Contraindication to performing manipulations is fever, headache or heartache, disruption of internal organs, coma, breathing problems.

Massage is carried out only with the permission of the doctor and under the supervision of a specialist. The appointment should indicate muscle groups and joints for study, the intensity of the procedure, the duration of the session and course.

Making an independent decision about visiting a massage after a stroke is dangerous for health.

Massage is prescribed for:

  • Decreased reflex excited state of spasmodic muscle fibers;
  • Increased joint mobility;
  • Restoration of motor functions;
  • Metabolic recovery;
  • Restoring tissue nutrition.
  • Increased body temperature;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Headache;
  • Labored breathing;
  • Oncology;
  • Exhaustion of the body;
  • Mental disorders;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Cramps;
  • Pain in the heart;
  • Diseases of the blood.

For 2-4 days after an ischemic stroke in the absence of a serious condition, the attending physician may prescribe a limb massage. With hemorrhagic stroke, massage is prescribed no earlier than after 7-9 days. With ischemia, paralysis of the legs and arms, a gentle massage begins to be performed after 21-28 days.

The duration of the session, the intensity of the intake and the strength of the effect increases gradually. A full cycle of restorative massage is carried out no earlier than a month after the first procedure.

What can not be done?

The main goal of therapeutic massage is to establish blood circulation and eliminate pain in the paralyzed part of the body. Therefore, tapping and intense rubbing of paralyzed areas of the body should be excluded. It is also forbidden to do squeezing using weights. It is not permissible to strike with the edge of the palm of the hand.

Squeezing movements are allowed to be performed in a minimum amount, so as not to provoke an increase in pressure in the vessels. It is forbidden to lay the patient on the paralyzed side or on the stomach for the first time after an attack.

Massage technique

Before the procedure, it is necessary to warm up the patient’s arms and legs with warmers or warm salt baths. Massage is accompanied by movements that mimic the natural flexion of the joints of the arms and legs, which stimulates the activity of muscle tissue and reduces increased tone. Joint bending is done slowly and smoothly. For the first sessions of the amount – no more than 5, then increase to 10. Exercises can be performed twice a day – once with massage, one without.

The session always begins with light stroking movements. Their goal is a direct effect on the skin. This is a gentle but effective method of working with the skin and subcutaneous layers, in which there are many nerve endings and blood vessels. Direct exposure to them enhances metabolic processes and improves skin condition.

The next step is rubbing. This technique eliminates stagnation and suggests a stronger effect. During grinding, subcutaneous fat is worked out. The correct pressure is judged by the skin: it should gather in a dense fold. Rubbing with ribs or the base of the palms.

After grinding, they pass to kneading. It affects deep muscle tissue. After a stroke, the muscles are in a compressed state, blocked, so the performance of any physical exercises is accompanied by painful sensations. Kneading allows you to remove blocks, smooth and relax muscle tissue. Even the right massage technique can cause pain in the patient – this is normal and necessary for recovery.

A few tips on how to do massage after a stroke:

  • The skin is smoothed with palms in different directions – this improves blood flow;
  • Rubbing is carried out with the edge of the palm where the subcutaneous fat layer is thicker, and with the palm where the skin is adjacent to the bone tissue, joints;
  • During grinding, tingling is allowed. They are performed with three fingers;
  • Any massage session ends with an energetic stroking.
  • No more than 2 minutes are allotted for each effect, and the session begins with massaging the thigh and lower leg, foot, and only then – the chest, arms, shoulder surface, and back.
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Kak provesti vosstanovitelnyj massazh posle insulta 1 - Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

After an attack occurs, along with a standard massage, reflex is often used.

This is a popular healing method in Tibetan medicine. Due to this effect, the functioning of the muscles and the whole organism improves.

According to the Tibetan technique, the use of acupressure makes it possible to improve the patient’s condition. This method has several advantages, the main of which are safety, availability, and efficiency. Only qualified specialists perform reflex massage at the client’s home. Unprofessional performance can immediately lead to a deterioration in well-being!

Auxiliary means

During massage it is important to prevent body rubbing. To do this, you can use special tools – ointments, massage oils, which will provide glide and help reduce irritation of the massed areas.

Ointments are allowed to be used only as prescribed by your doctor. This can be a means to reduce the swelling of paralyzed parts of the body, prevent pressure sores and diaper rash.

As auxiliary agents, massage oil is most often used. It helps to significantly reduce friction during the procedure.

Using electric massagers

An electric device having the function of a vibratory massager can be effectively used during restoration of the patient’s motor functions. Using it, the client has the opportunity to perform self-massage.

It is impossible to fully control the degree of manual exposure. Use the vibro massager carefully. If you experience pain in the muscles and irritation, you need to reduce the intensity.

Massage applied after an attack

There are many types of medications that reduce irritation of the skin during manual therapy.

The medicine can not be used if diaper rash and pressure sores occur. The drug is recommended by a specialist, based on the testimony and well-being of the person.

If necessary, provide decongestion, apply Lazonil heparin ointment. If there is insufficient blood supply, use medications to cause tissue hyperemia.

Very carefully massage the hands and feet with the use of medicines. The effect of inappropriate drugs has a negative effect on the heart rhythm, disrupting it.

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Regular, as well as reflex massage is considered necessary for the recovery of the patient, therefore, is one of the necessary rehabilitation measures.

Hand massage

Doctors note that the early start of rehabilitation allows you to quickly restore lost motor functions. At the same time, resuscitation should be provided on time. Medication should be started within the first hours after the attack. In the first stages, massage for strokes is carried out only under the supervision of a neurologist. The doctor determines the time of the procedure and the intensity.

To restore the function of the affected arm, massages are performed daily. The course of physiotherapy is 15-20 sessions. If the patient has an ischemic stroke, massage of the arm and other affected parts of the body is indicated on the second day. You can start physiotherapy when the patient is in a supine position. As you recover, massage your hands in a sitting position. The paralyzed arm should be on the table.

Particular attention is paid to the palm, which needs to return both motor and tactile functions. Massage of the forearm begins from the outside. With smooth movements, the rehabilitologist moves toward the inside. Massage triceps begin from the elbow joint, gradually moving to the shoulder. Relatives of the patient can master the massage at home after mastering the technique.

Massage Techniques

All massage procedures are carried out from a prone position. To do this, use a special table, put a pillow under the neck, and a roller under the knees. In post-stroke patients, the healthy side of the body is massaged first, while the paralyzed ones are warmed up. When exposed to the sides, it is allowed to turn the patient over only to the healthy side. If a person lies on his stomach – the roller is placed under the shin to achieve maximum muscle relaxation.

Kak provesti vosstanovitelnyj massazh posle insulta 6 - Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

If the condition is accompanied by heart disease, then all actions are carried out in the supine position or on the right side. When diagnosing friendly movements of the limbs, a bag of warm salt, sand or rice is placed on it to fix a healthy leg or arm.

Massage of the limbs is carried out on the back, if they work with the front and side surfaces, and on the abdomen – if from the back. To avoid hypothermia, during the session, the patient is covered with a plaid, and only the massaged area of ​​the body is opened.

The movements of the masseur’s hands are stroking, with a slight pressure. During the study of the legs, the direction of movement is from hip to knee, from knee to hip. Circular and lateral movements are permissible only from the knee to the groin. From the foot to the lower leg, the energy of movements should increase. The pectoralis major muscle is massaged from the center to the periphery.

The collar area and neck are missed with light movements, amplification is unacceptable. After a hemorrhagic stroke, massage the neck is allowed only if osteochondrosis was the cause.

Start massaging your hand with a stroking technique. The masseur gently slides his hand over the patient’s skin. This allows you to achieve relaxation of muscle tissue and enhance metabolic processes. Deep stroking improves blood circulation in a paralyzed area.

Rubbing consists in mixing the skin of the patient in various directions. Skin folds should form. The movements of the masseur can be rectilinear, circular or zigzag.

Kneading allows you to increase the tone of muscle fibers. During administration, the muscle is grabbed, lifted (pulled) and squeezed. Such manipulations provide an effect on the deep muscles.

To relax the muscles perform a technique such as vibration. Light oscillatory movements, shaking are carried out within 7-10 seconds.

Before proceeding to massage the lower extremities, it is necessary to reduce the excitability of spinal motor cells. For this, they begin to affect the paravertebral zones of the thoracic region (lower part). Then proceed to massage the legs.

It is necessary to work out the lower extremities from a healthy thigh. For a paralyzed leg, massage begins with stroking and light rubbing with the fingertips. Movements are performed from the popliteal fossa, gradually moving to the gluteal fold.

The lower leg is massaged more intensely. The direction of movement is from the ankle to the knee (when massaging the front). To remove the tone from the back surface of the lower leg, it is necessary to move from the calcaneus to the popliteal fossa. For the foot, stroking, light grinding and kneading are indicated.

In the first time after a stroke, it is allowed to do only local massage with the involvement of paretic and atrophied limbs. It is allowed to carry out the procedure in the lumbosacral zone, in the chest area from the side of the injury.

In the early stages, when bed rest is still maintained, stroking techniques are performed for tightened muscles. With a decreased muscle tone, rubbing techniques are added to stroking.

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During massage therapy, it is necessary to observe the correct sequence, namely:

  • Massage begins with the front surface of the damaged limb. This is due to the fact that with a unilateral lesion or hemiparesis, the lower part of the body is less affected than the upper.
  • Massaging the large muscles of the chest.
  • Hand massage – from forearm to fingers.
  • Work with the back of the leg starts from the hip, followed by the lower leg and foot.
  • On the back, massage is performed through the passage of lymph flow.

In addition to stroking, massage therapy methods include light, continuous vibration in the form of shaking. In places where the muscles are not compressed – the surface of the arm, the back of the foot, stronger rubbing, deep stroking, kneading is carried out in front of the lower leg.

Important! Receptions in the form of striking, patting or chopping are contraindicated.

Due to the fact that each area of ​​the body of a patient who has had a stroke is massaged differently, they should be considered separately.

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Foot massage method

Consider the technique of lower limb massage.

reabilitacyja ins 4 - Rules and techniques for restorative massage after a stroke

The specialist, before starting the massage, puts the patient in the correct position:

  • To work with the outside of the thigh and lower leg, the patient is placed on a healthy side. The neck, knees are located on the roller, the head lies on the pillow.
  • When massaging the back of the leg, the patient lies on his pillow with his stomach. This prevents a spasm of the lower back. Under the feet you need to put a roller.

Massage begins with kneading large muscles, passes to small ones and ends with fingers.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.