In order to study the lipid spectrum of the blood, a venous plasma analysis is performed. Blood sampling takes place in the morning. In this case, the subject must adhere to strict restrictions before the procedure.
- On the eve of the study. It is necessary to abandon fatty foods, alcohol and smoking, avoid physical exertion, and eliminate stress. If you had to drink alcohol, it is better to immediately transfer the examination to another day.
- 12 hours before the examination. Do not eat. Drinking only clean water is permitted.
- In the morning before analysis. It is advisable to completely relax and calm down. It is imperative to warn health workers about regularly taken medications, as they can greatly affect the result.
The values of the analysis will vary for people from different age groups, as well as depending on gender. The lipid profile in women and men can be compared using the data in the following table as an example.
Table – Reference interval by gender
|Index||Norm (mmol / liter)|
|Cholesterol||3,2 – 5,6||3,2 – 5,6|
|Low density lipoproteins||2,2 – 3,38||1,9 – 3,5|
|High density lipoproteins||0,9 – 1,7||1,15 – 2,3|
|Triglycerides||0,4 – 1,7||0,4 – 1,7|
|Atherogenic coefficient||2,2 – 3,5||2,2 – 3,3|
Depending on age, the content of the main types of lipids in the body also changes. According to statistics, at the age of 30, the total amount of cholesterol in women is 3,4-6,3, and after 50 years old it reaches 4,0-7,2. After 60 years, the norm of cholesterol should be 3,5-7,1. The content of all lipoproteins changes in a similar genus.
Thus, the lipid profile is one of the most important places in the diagnosis of general health. With the help of this analysis, it is possible to determine with great confidence the development of many diseases. It is important to consider the presence of many factors: gender and age of the patient, weight and the presence of bad habits or special conditions.
The lipid profile is sensitive to many external factors. For example, if on the eve of the analysis a person walked well at a friend’s birthday, the level of lipids will be predicted to be increased. To get adequate results before submitting a lipid profile, you must:
- 1-2 weeks do not break the usual diet;
- donate blood in the morning on an empty stomach from 8 to 10 hours;
- observe a hungry diet for 12-14 hours. You can only drink water;
- a day before the lip >
So, it became clear that a lipid profile is what it is. And why is such a study carried out?
• The lipid profile first of all makes it possible to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease.
• The analysis is used to monitor the state of the body during treatment for atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, kidney ailments and diabetes.
• A lipid profile should be tested regularly if one of the relatives suffered from hypercholesterolemia, there were cases of strokes, heart attacks. This will help prevent the development of such health problems.
• A lipid profile allows you to control your body during the hypolipedymic diet, as well as during treatment.
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- Healthy lifestyle
- How to properly prepare for the analysis of the lipid spectrum
- How to pass a blood lipidogram?
- How to improve performance? Diet
- What foods can increase cholesterol in the blood?
- What pathology reveals
- Who is appointed
- The coefficient of atherogenicity (CA)
- Determination of lipids in feces
- Deciphering the lipid spectrum
- Causes of deviations
Now we know the lipid profile – what is it. We begin to bring its indicators back to normal.
• Regarding physical activity, start small – daily walks for short distances. Then you can go to Nordic walking with sticks, this will allow you to train the whole body. Very useful cycling and swimming.
• Do workouts at home, do not forget about yoga, it strengthens not only the body, but also has a beneficial effect on the psyche. Move more, be it cleaning the house, dancing, working on the site. Proper nutrition in tandem with sports effectively reduces weight.
• Smile more often, no matter what.
• Listen to your favorite music, do meditation, read interesting books.
• Spill out negative emotions.
• Do your favorite things (everyone has their own).
• Communicate with loved ones and family.
• Get rid of bad habits.
• Change the environment if you feel uncomfortable.
Stick to our tips. Change your own lifestyle, nutrition, and you will see how health begins to change for the better. All indicators of your lipid profile will return to normal.
How to properly prepare for the analysis of the lipid spectrum
Before the study, you need to properly prepare. Before analysis for a lipid profile in three days, it is necessary to exclude animal fats, alcohol from the diet, to avoid emotional stress and physical exertion. Before research, dinner should be as light as possible. The next morning, do not drink anything (except water), do not eat, do not use toothpaste, chewing gum, and in no case do not smoke. It is very important to remain completely calm. Deciphering the results of the lipid profile depends on age and gender. In children, the indicators are different.
An accurate determination of the lipid spectrum of the blood will be ensured by preparations for the analysis. Failure to comply with certain rules before the study can lead to incorrect diagnosis and false prescription of drugs.
To obtain accurate results, you must:
- make the last meal 12 hours before blood sampling;
- exclude fatty foods, spicy, spicy and salty from the menu the day before the analysis;
- refuse to drink alcohol in 24 hours;
- do not smoke for half an hour before visiting the treatment room;
- avoid physical exertion and emotional stress for an hour before taking blood;
- stop taking daily medications 48 hours before blood sampling.
Important! If the patient uses drugs, the termination of the intake of which is unacceptable must be notified to the attending physician, then he will take into account their influence on the testimony of the blood lipid spectrum.
Deviation of the results from the norm is possible if a person experienced heavy physical exertion the day before, in traumatic conditions, pathology of the liver and kidneys, during pregnancy and the use of beta-blockers, statins, androgens, fibrates and estrogens.
The normal indicators of this study are given in the table below.
|Cholesterol||3,0 – 5,2||mmol / l|
|HDL (women)||gt; 1,4||mmol / l|
|HDL (men)||gt; 1,69||mmol / l|
|LDL||lt; 3,9||mmol / l|
|Triglycerides||0,14 – 0.83||mmol / l|
|The coefficient of atherogenicity||lt; 3||—|
This table shows that in a study such as a lipidogram, the norm in women differs only in the high-density lipoprotein index, and all other data have no gender differences.
How to pass a blood lipidogram?
So, a lipid profile – what is it and why is such a study necessary?
- Allows you to assess the degree of risk of cardiovascular disease.
- To monitor the course of treatment in the dynamics of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and kidney disease.
- If the genus had problems with hypercholesterolemia, heart attacks or strokes, it is desirable to periodically take an analysis for a lipidogram to prevent the development of such health problems.
- This study allows the control of lipid-lowering diets and treatment.
This analysis is done in a biochemical laboratory. The blood for it is taken from the vein in the treatment room. Blood is given in the morning on an empty stomach. On the eve it is advisable not to eat fatty foods, salads with mayonnaise, dinner should not be too late.
How to improve performance? Diet
No need to look for spells and magic potions to normalize your lipid profile. The price of the right food and a visit to the sports complex will be significantly lower than if you have to treat your “bad” cholesterol and its negative consequences. The old phrase “We are what we eat” comes to mind.
Limit primarily the use of fried foods, pastries, animal fats, sweets, salty foods. Include in your diet more fiber (legumes, vegetables, cereals, fruits), these products take away excess bile from the intestine, and prevent it from entering the bloodstream. As you know, bile is the “daughter of cholesterol.” Eat more often, but in small portions. So the correct metabolism starts in the body, excess weight will go away, cholesterol level will decrease.
What foods can increase cholesterol in the blood?
In the bulk, these are products of animal origin. These include:
- All sausages.
- Meat of fatty varieties (goose, duck, pork, etc.).
- Strong and rich broths.
- Eggs chicken, duck, etc. (especially rich in cholesterol yolk).
- All kinds of mayonnaise (even the so-called lean mayonnaise).
- Fatty dairy products (cream, butter, sour cream, milk).
- Black and red caviar of noble varieties of fish.
- All the buns (cakes, pastries, cookies, etc.).
The method of cooking also affects the level of cholesterol in foods. So, the dishes cooked on pair or baked in an oven, contain much smaller quantity of harmful cholesterol, rather than fried on a considerable quantity of butter or fat.
What pathology reveals
Most often, in the case of pathology, decoding a lipid profile in adults reveals a high level of blood cholesterol – hypercholesterolemia. If cholesterol levels are elevated, this may indicate the presence of the following diseases and conditions:
- lung diseases
- excess weight;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- megaloblastic anemia;
- kidney disease.
But most often hypercholesterolemia reflects the presence of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cause of its occurrence is not only malnutrition. Since 80% of cholesterol is produced by the body itself, most often it is endogenous lipid metabolism disorders that are inherited or acquired during life and cause a high level of the substance in the blood.
When the concentration of triglycerides in the blood is more than 2,3 mmol / l, this often reflects developing atherosclerosis. Values from 1,8 to 2,2 mmol / L indicate that the body is in order. The level of triglycerides is high with the development of diabetes. An excess or decrease in the level of these substances relative to the norm may also indicate:
- the presence of lung diseases;
- viral hepatitis;
- nutritional errors;
- coronary heart disease;
If an analysis of HDL cholesterol found that the indicators are lower than normal (below 1,0 mmol / L), this means that the person is sick with atherosclerosis and, probably, coronary heart disease. HDL lipid profile may also indicate symptoms of hyperthyroidism, hereditary metabolic disorder of HDL (Tangier syndrome), hepatic encephalopathy (Reye syndrome), anorexia, diabetes mellitus, kidney and liver diseases, chronic anemia, excess fat-containing foods.
Pathology can also be determined by an analysis of LDL cholesterol. This type of lipid profile helps to identify:
- heart attacks;
- infectious diseases in the acute stage;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- kidney disease;
- intestinal tumors;
If a value of less than 3 is obtained, therefore, the HDL content is large – the development of atherosclerosis is unlikely. If the coefficient falls into the range from 3 to 4, the occurrence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is predicted with a high probability. If the coefficient is greater than 5, then the risk of developing diseases becomes critical.
Who is appointed
All healthy adults are advised to undergo a lipid profile at least once every five to six years. Cardiologists and endocrinologists study is appointed in the following cases.
- Observation by a cardiologist. The study is almost always prescribed to people who are seen by a doctor about cardiovascular disease. It does not have to be atherosclerosis – a lipid profile is also shown for patients with heart defects or impaired vascular structure.
- Metabolic disorders. Using this analysis, we study the dynamics of the condition of patients with diabetes mellitus, thyroid gland pathologies, and the pituitary gland.
- Smoking and alcoholism. These dependencies can aggravate all metabolic disorders and themselves lead to metabolic pathologies.
- Arterial hypertension. Disorders of lipid metabolism increase the risk of vascular catastrophes with high blood pressure.
- Obesity, physical inactivity. These risk factors for the development of vascular diseases increase the negative effect of lipid imbalance on the vascular wall.
If the patient suffered a heart attack or stroke, then the passage of a lipid profile is recommended several times a year. For people with a genetic predisposition (stroke, heart attack in close relatives or hereditary lipid metabolism disorders), doctors advise to undergo an examination annually after 30 years.
The coefficient of atherogenicity (CA)
This factor allows to determine the degree of risk of possible development of atherosclerosis and IHD. It shows the ratio of blood fractions of atherogenic and anti-atherogenic. To calculate the SC, it is enough to distinguish the difference between total cholesterol and the LBWH by dividing it into LHWH.
In the form of blood biochemistry for the lipid spectrum there is an indicator of the coefficient of atherogenicity. The value is calculated using a special formula. Its norm ranges from 2-3 conventional units. Indicator 3-4 indicates the dysfunction of ongoing biological processes. If the value exceeds 4, then the patient needs a fat-lowering diet, periodic monitoring of this indicator on the lipid spectrum, and possibly medical treatment.
The ratio of “good” to “bad” cholesterol also includes a lipid profile. Decoding in adults (the norm is indicated below) gives an idea of the degrees of risk of developing atherosclerosis. The atherogenic coefficient is calculated as follows: the difference between cholesterol and LDL is taken and divided by HDL.
• Less than 3 is a minimal risk of developing atherosclerosis, as well as its further unpleasant consequences.
• From 3 to 4 – unfavorable prognosis. The risk is moderate. You need to adjust your lifestyle and diet.
• 4 and above. Violations of lipid metabolism were detected, and the process is already chronic, which requires treatment. High risk of stroke, heart attack.
Determination of lipids in feces
|Пол||Norm mmol / L||Atherosclerosis Risk||Disease exists|
|Women||More 1,42||0,9 – 1,4||Until 0,9|
|Men||More 1,68||1,16 – 1,68||Until 1,16|
|Index||Norm mmol / L||Atherosclerosis Risk||Disease exists|
|Total cholesterol||3,1 – 5,2||5,2 – 6,3||More 6,3|
|LDL||Less than 3,9||4,0 – 4,9||More 4,9|
|TG||0,14 – 1,82||1,9 – 2.2||More 2.2|
Low density lipoproteins easily break down releasing cholesterol. The higher the concentration of these fractions, the greater the likelihood that they will decay along the way to the liver and lose cholesterol in the bloodstream. “Thrown” fat, wandering around the vessels, settles on their walls. Over time, the remaining “lost” compounds accumulate, forming an atherosclerotic plaque.
This study includes:
- Total lip >
Test title Normal value Units Lipids common 605 – 673 mg / dL Non-esterified (free) fatty acids 17,0 – 20,5 % Triglycerides 10,2 – 13,4 % Monoglycerides 0,0 – 0,0 % Diglycerides 3,6 – 4,6 % Phospholipids 13,6-! 5,5 % Choleston 33,3 – 35 % Coproperol 0,0 – 0,0 % Coprostanone 18,0 – 21,0 %
- Insufficient production of lipase by the pancreas. Under the influence of lipase, fats (lipids) are split in the large intestine.
- Insufficient intake of bile in the large intestine. Bile activates the enzyme lipase and thus participates in the cleavage of lipids in the large intestine.
- Poor patency of the lymphatic tract, through which fat is absorbed, can also cause an increase in lipid levels in the large intestine.
Reinforced intestinal peristalsis can also cause increased levels of fats in the stool. In this case, undigested food passes too quickly the small intestine, and lipids, like other food components, simply do not have time to be absorbed into it.
The feces for this study are referred to the laboratory, while the medications taken by the patient are indicated, which can affect the result of the study. The admission of these medications is coordinated with the doctor.
Lipidogram – what is it? We found. Now we know that a lipid profile can be not only blood, but also feces. Let us dwell a little on the cost of these studies.
Deciphering the lipid spectrum
A medical blood test that gives an idea of the state of the body’s fat metabolism, as well as the risk of damage to blood vessels and the heart is called a lipid profile. It is a comprehensive study and carries a number of meanings:
- blood cholesterol;
- atherogenic coefficient;
- HDL (high density lipoproteins);
- LDL (low density lipoproteins);
- VLDL (very low density lipoproteins).
A typical lipid profile includes the following indicators:
Total cholesterol (OX) – the total content of sterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like alcohol that does not dissolve in water. For its transportation through the vessels, the sterol molecule is packaged in a protein cover. So the lipoprotein is formed. There are 4 >
Separate laboratories, instead of the atherogenic coefficient, include the ratio between total cholesterol and HDL in the lipid profile. To determine the risk of cardiovascular complications, it is considered more accurate. If the result of the analysis of your lipid spectrum does not contain this indicator, it can be calculated independently by the formula: OH / HDL.
It is recommended to trust a doctor to decipher the lipid profile. Indeed, in order to answer the question why this or that indicator is lowered / increased, it is necessary to take into account the patient’s medical history data, as well as the results of other analyzes. Without practical experience, specific clinical knowledge, this is impossible. It is important to understand that different laboratories use different methods to determine the same indicators. Therefore, their standards may vary.
Most lipid profile indicators depend on gender and age. Unsensitive to gender differences VLDL, atherogenic coefficient. The norm of spacecraft is:
- 2,0-2,8 – for young people (up to 30 years old);
- 3,0-3,5 – for patients older than 30 years.
The ratio of total cholesterol, HDL should not exceed the value of 1-3,5.
With age, the level of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, HDL increases. It is higher in men than in women. This is due to the low content in their body of female sex hormones that inhibit cholesterol growth. When determining the concentration of VLDLP age, gender is not taken into account. The norm is considered to be in the range of 0,26-1,04 mmol / L.
Table 1. Lipid profile of a healthy person.
Causes of deviations
Violation of fat metabolism is observed with an unhealthy lifestyle, diseases, taking certain medications. Each of the indicators of the lipid profile has its own list of reasons leading to its increase or decrease.
An increase in the atherogenic coefficient indicates a violation of the balance between good and bad lipoproteins. The degree of risk depends on the size of the AC:
- moderate risk – CA 3-4;
- high risk – CA over 4.
If your lipid profile contains an atherogenic coefficient that goes beyond the lower limit of normal, this is not a cause for concern. This means that your blood vessels are healthy.
A high CA indicator indicates various degrees of risk of cardiovascular diseases:
- the average risk is 4,4 for women, 5,0 for men;
- high risk – 7,0 for women, 9,6 for men.
|Increased (hypercholesterolemia)||Decreased (hypocholesterolemia)|
|Family heterozygous, homozygous hypercholesterolemia||Starvation|
|A diet containing excess saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol||A diet containing insufficient amounts of saturated fat, cholesterol|
|Pregnancy (considered normal)||Malabsorption syndrome|
|Liver pathology||Liver necrosis|
|Bile duct obstruction||Severe infections (including sepsis)|
|Coronary heart disease||Hereditary hemoglobin synthesis disorder (thalassemia)|
|Growth hormone deficiency||Rheumatism|
|Reception of cyclosporine, diuretics, androgens, ergocalciferol, amiodarone|
|Hyperlipidemia 3,4,5 types||Has no clinical significance|
|Pregnancy (norm for the last trimester)|
|Kidney disease (chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome)|
|Systemic lupus erythematosus|
|Hyperlipoproteinemia types 1A, 2B||Hypo-a-beta-lipoproteinemia|
|A diet containing excess cholesterol, saturated fat||A diet containing insufficient amounts of saturated fat, cholesterol|
|Pregnancy (considered normal)||Acute stress|
|Kidney disease (chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome)||Arthritis|
|Bile duct obstruction||Chronic lung disease|
|Reception of beta-blockers, diuretics, oral contraceptives, progestins, androgens, glucocorticoids||Tangier’s disease|
|Lecithin cholesterol acyl synatase deficiency|
|Reception of cholestyramine, lovastatin, neomycin, interferon, thyroxine, estrogen.|
|Chronic liver disease||Hypo-a-alpha lipoproteinemia|
|Moderate alcohol consumption||Chronic hepatic pathology|
|Insulin treatment||Kidney disease (chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome)|
|Non-standard in duration, intensity physical activity||Diabetes|
|Reception of beta-blockers, danazol, diuretics, progestins, androgens|
|A diet containing excess cholesterol, unhealthy fats||A-beta lipoproteinemia|
|Coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction||Starvation|
|Pancreatic inflammation||Malabsorption syndrome|
|Kidney disease (chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome)||Hyperparathyroidism|
|Gipotireoz||Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease|
|Glycogenosis||Reception of ascorbic acid, heparin, cholestyramine, progestins|
|Pregnancy (considered normal)|
|Reception of beta-blockers, catecholamines, corticosteroids, diazepam, diuretics, cyclosporine, estrogen, interferon, retinol, miconazole|
If the parameters of the analysis of the lipid spectrum are outside the normal range, additional studies may be prescribed to the patient to confirm the diagnosis, determine the severity of the disease. For example, if you suspect a thyroid disease, they donate blood to hormones. Cardiovascular pathologies require an ECG, dopplerography.
Higher medical education. Kirov State Medical Academy (KSMA). The local therapist.
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