Kidney cyst what is it, causes, consequences and treatment

A cyst is a cavity filled with serous fluid, sebum, pus, or air and surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue.

This benign neoplasm can appear on many internal organs of a person, but today we will dwell in more detail on the cyst that occurs on the kidneys.

This neoplasm on the internal paired organ of our body has the shape of a circle or oval. It is more often formed on one kidney, but there are cases of complete defeat of this paired organ. Over time, it begins to grow and can reach a size of 10 centimeters in diameter.

  • Prognosis and outcome of the disease
  • Prevention
  • ICB code 10

    In medical science, there is a register of diseases called the International Classification of Diseases or ICD for short. The formation on the kidneys in the form of cysts goes to the ICD under the number 10.

    Further, each disease has its own code, depending on the group it belongs to. So, the occurrence of cysts is included in the section on congenital anomalies of the urinary system (code Q60-Q64). Cystic kidney formations have the number Q61, which is then subdivided into Q61.0, Q61.1, …, Q61.9, which respectively include a single cyst, polycystic diseases of 3 types (children, adults, unspecified), dysplasia, medullary cysts, others types of cysts, unspecified cystic diseases.

    Acquired cysts are code N28. 1 in ICD 10 and they are included in the group of other diseases associated with the genitourinary system.

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    What types are

    There are several types of kidney cysts, among which are:

    • Congenital and acquired.
    • Simple (single) and complex (several cavities separated by partitions)
    • Solitary, resulting from an injury, which leads to the detection in its cavity of not only serous fluid, but also clots of pus or blood. Most often found in men on the left paired organ.
    • Multicystosis (congenital), can lead to kidney failure,
    • Polycystic disease (hereditary), leads to the degeneration of the kidneys – they look like bunches of grapes. It mainly affects not only the kidneys, but also other internal organs,
    • Spongy kidney (congenital) is characterized by an enlarged condition of the kidney canals, leading to the appearance of many small cysts,
    • Dermoid (congenital), in the cavity of which there is no fluid, but there are fat deposits, particles of skin and hair, and so on.

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    Causes of appearance

    Today, kidney cysts are more often diagnosed in men, and the average age of detection is 40 to 45 years.

    Medical science cannot say for sure what causes cysts on the kidneys – everything is individual for each person. The main factor in the appearance of these formations is considered to be pathological changes in the kidney canals, which are involved in the excretion of urine from the kidneys. So, urine may not be excreted in small quantities from the body, but remain, leading to an expansion of the space between the walls of the kidneys. With such a long process, there is a gradual separation of this formation from the surface of the organ and the formation of a cavity, which is gradually filled with liquid.

    Urinary retention can occur as a result of past illnesses such as:

    • BPH.
    • Syphilis, gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases.
    • Urolithiasis disease.
    • Glomerulonephritis.
    • Kidney tuberculosis.
    • Hematoma formed on the fibrous capsule of the kidney.
    • Tumor-like formations in the tissues of the kidneys.
    • Ischemic or venous renal infarction.
    • Pyelonephritis.
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    Summing up the reasons listed above for the occurrence of cysts on the kidneys, it can be noted that they appear in most kidney diseases, as well as when they are injured. These are the reasons for the appearance of acquired cysts.

    As noted at the beginning, cysts on the kidneys are hereditary (in this case, the renal canals grow together with the formation of cysts), as well as congenital, when the fetus in the womb can receive this neoplasm due to the mother’s consumption of alcohol, smoking, various toxins, and due to the transferred infection.


    Many diseases are asymptomatic in our body. The presence of cysts on the kidneys may also not make itself felt in any way, especially with their small size. In the process of their growth, the following symptoms may appear:

    • The appearance of a tumor, palpable through the abdomen.
    • Dull pain in the lumbar spine.
    • The presence of protein or purulent discharge in the urine.
    • Changes in general health – chills, weakness, fever.

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    If you do not pay attention to the presence of the listed symptoms in time, then after some time a person may develop renal failure in the chronic stage, which provokes the appearance of frequent urination, gradually turning into an inability to urinate, the presence of blood clots in the urine, insomnia or excessive sleepiness, increased pressure.

    In some especially advanced cases, the cyst can become infected, which will lead to its suppuration. At any moment it can burst and, accordingly, lead to peritonitis.


    If you find a manifestation in your body of symptoms characteristic of the presence of cysts on the kidneys, you should immediately consult a doctor who will prescribe a whole list of diagnostic measures to confirm or deny the diagnosis:

    • Expanded urinalysis.
    • Ultrasound of the kidneys.
    • MRI.
    • X-ray.
    • Doppler ultrasound – the degree of vascular compression is checked.

    Treatment and what to do

    When confirming the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe one of the following treatment methods: conservative treatment, surgery.

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    Conservative treatment

    Drug therapy will not get rid of cysts and slow down their growth. Medicines are needed to relieve pain that occurs.

    Most often, doctors prescribe antibiotics, for example, “Ciprofloxacin”, “Levomycetin”. If the cyst is small in size and, accordingly, does not cause much discomfort to its owner, then no medicines are prescribed.

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    Operative intervention

    The operation is prescribed in the presence of a significant size of cysts, leading to compression of the internal organs and causing unbearable pain in the kidney area. In addition, a disturbed urination process, infection of a cyst, and the presence of bleeding in the urine can serve as a signal for sending a patient to an operation.

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    Removal of renal cysts can be done in one of the following ways:

  • Drainage, when a cyst is pierced with a special needle and all its internal contents are pumped out of it, in place of which a drug is then pumped, which includes a sclerosing enzyme that helps to “glue” the resulting void.
  • Low-traumatic laparoscopy, the essence of which is similar to drainage, but the neoplasm is removed completely, namely cut out.
  • A nephrectomy is performed only if there is a cyst that is 5 centimeters or more.

    Treatment with folk methods

    It should be understood that traditional medicine recipes should be used only in addition to the treatment prescribed by the doctor, and not instead of it. The recipes described below will help stop the process of cyst enlargement and prevent suppuration in its cavity.

  • Take 1/2 cup of pine nut shells, pour 1/2 liter of water over it and boil it over low heat for about an hour. Strain the resulting broth and take 3 ml before meals 70 times a day. throughout the month.
  • Take 1 tablespoon of yeast, add 30 grams of chopped elecampane root and 1/3 cup of sugar to them, mix, pour 3 liters of warm water and send to a warm place for a couple of hours. Consume 100 ml during or after meals. three times a day. The repeated course should be carried out in 3 – 4 weeks.
  • Rinse the burdock leaves and rub thoroughly until juice forms. The resulting juice should be taken before meals 3 times a day, 2 tablespoons. You can not squeeze out the juice, but simply pass the leaves through a meat grinder. Take this mixture twice a day, 1 teaspoon.
  • Pour 20 grams of thuja with 1 liter of boiling water, insist and strain. Take 1/2 cup three times daily before meals.

    Before using traditional medicine, you should consult with your doctor about the absence of prohibitions on their use.

    Prognosis and outcome of the disease

    With a small cyst, if it does not manifest itself in any way, you can live at least your whole life. At the same time, there are cases when congenital formations over time turned into oncology. Therefore, in any case, you cannot do without surgical intervention, the main thing is to choose the right time.

    The launched process of removing the cyst can lead to serious complications in the patient, such as: decreased kidney function, which ultimately can lead to renal failure, the development of peritonitis, if the cyst becomes infected and then ruptures.


    There are many reasons for the appearance of cysts on the kidneys. To prevent their appearance, you must remember the following simple recommendations:

  • Timely treat diseases of the genitourinary system, ENT – diseases, toothache.
  • Protect the lower back from various injuries.
  • If you have kidney injuries, you should constantly monitor their condition.
  • Elimination of intense physical activity with increased activity.

    In order to prevent the presence of congenital neoplasms in a child, a pregnant woman must quit drinking, smoking, staying less in the open sun, at the slightest sign of diseases of the genitourinary system, immediately contact your doctor for recommendations on treatment.

  • Tatyana Jakowenko

    Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

    For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

    He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.