If the disease progresses, the risk of developing cardiovascular pathologies increases. Due to the constantly reduced vascular tone, internal organs experience hypoxia. First of all, the brain suffers, which is fraught with diseases of the central nervous system and dementia. With severe hypotension, patients often lose consciousness, and falls can result in injuries, bruises and fractures. In older people, acute hypotension can trigger an ischemic stroke. If first aid is not provided in a timely manner, the patient will die.
Perhaps the development of a hypotonic crisis. The crisis is provoked by neuropsychic overstrain, significant physical exertion. It lasts from 10 minutes or more, may be accompanied by pain or a feeling of freezing in the heart, a feeling of lack of air, dizziness. The skin is pale and wet, blood pressure is lowered, and the pulse rate may also decrease. After the end of the crisis and the normalization of pressure, pronounced weakness, lethargy, and drowsiness persist for some time.
An acute decrease in pressure is dangerous by the development of shock – this is a condition when low pressure and impaired blood circulation in the tissues lead to the development of serious disturbances in the functioning of cells. It manifests itself as pallor of the skin and mucous membranes. The skin becomes cold, wet. The patient feels dizzy, dark in his eyes, thirst, dry mouth, growing weakness, anxiety, sometimes fear. The state of a sharp drop in pressure requires emergency medical attention.
With hypotension, the following can develop:
- cerebral hypotonic crisis;
- cardiac hypotonic crisis;
- cerebral stroke;
- myocardial infarction;
- vascular thrombosis.
Hypotension – types, signs, treatment
Conditionally hypotension can be divided into the following types:
- acute, in which there is a drop in pressure, developing suddenly,
- chronic, characterized by low blood pressure, existing for a long time.
In addition, hypotension happens:
- primary – there are no obvious diseases that cause low blood pressure,
- symptomatic – low pressure is one of the symptoms of another disease.
represents a sharp decrease in pressure, life-threatening. Requires immediate specialized medical care. Thus, low blood pressure is often a concomitant symptom in acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, severe arrhythmias, intracardiac blockade, as well as allergies and blood loss.
The disease is often diagnosed in young people as a manifestation of impaired regulation of normal vascular tone (we are talking about vegetative-vascular dystonia). Due to impaired nervous and endocrine regulation, blood vessels begin to expand, thereby slowing down blood flow, causing a weakening of the flow of essential nutrients, primarily to the brain. Bottom line: a feeling of weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, nausea.
Chronically lowered blood pressure can occur due to diseases of the endocrine system (with hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency), due to a decrease in the contractility of the heart.
Let’s talk about primary and secondary hypotension.
It is an independent disease, the causes of which often become a hereditary predisposition of a person and his constitutional features. These are mainly women with a thin-boned physique (asthenic type).
- Neurocirculatory – characterized by an unstable reversible course or a pronounced form with stable manifestations. Most often found in the form of a manifestation of impaired regulation of vascular tone.
- Idiopathic orthostatic – there is a sharp decrease in blood pressure with a rapid change in body position from horizontal to vertical.
the form of the disease can develop against the background of other diseases, for example, hepatitis, ulcers, anemia, allergies, poisoning, not to mention the result of side effects of certain drugs. In such cases, hypotension is considered as a symptom that disappears after the cause is eliminated.
- acute – a sharp drop in pressure,
- with pronounced orthostatic syndrome – a pathological condition that is observed when the body position changes from horizontal directly to vertical.
There is another form of the disease noted in athletes, it is hypotension training. And reduced vascular tone in this case has nothing to do with it. The fact is that the body of such people with increased loads used to function in the “economical” mode, in which the heart beats less often, and, consequently, the pressure decreases.
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Types of Hypotension
Hypotension, as well as hypertension, can be physiological, that is, due to natural causes, such, for example, is hypotension in residents of high mountain regions due to adaptation of the organism, and it can be pathological, resulting from various diseases.
In general, there are many variants of hypotension, in particular, it can be an independent state, that is, primary, and can only be a symptom of a disease, such is secondary hypotension, can be generalized (central hypotension), and can be fixed only on one arm (with Takayasu syndrome )
Central hypotension may be acute or chronic. Acute occurs with a sudden violation of cardiac output, a sharp decrease in blood volume, which happens with trauma with blood loss, as well as with orthostatic shock.
Orthostatic shock, or orthostatic collapse is a short attack of acute hypotension due to a sharp change in body position.
Chronic hypotension as an independent pathology may be one of the manifestations of vegetative-vascular dystonia or be explained by another nervous or cardiovascular pathology, but in most cases it has no definable causes. In this case, doctors associate its origin with a hereditary factor.
Signs of Hypotension
How to understand if you have hypotension without resorting to a tonometer? The most common signs of hypotension are general lethargy, drowsiness, pallor of the skin, hypersensitivity to cold (“freezing”) and less often to heat, weather dependence, frequent dizziness.
They say about such people that they barely drag their legs, and indeed, this is how hypotonic people usually feel. Those suffering from hypotension do not tolerate physical exertion very well, responding to it with an increased heart rate.
In men, a persistent decrease in blood pressure is often accompanied by a decrease in sexual desire and potency; in women hypotensives, various menstrual irregularities are not uncommon.
The languid young ladies from old romances, pale, talking in weak, quiet voices, and for any reason strove to faint, can also serve as a training tool for hypotension, from which we can conclude that this condition has been known to people for a long time.
It is not difficult to make a diagnosis of hypotension, for this a description of the clinical picture and a simple measurement of pressure are sufficient. It is much more difficult to establish the cause of low pressure. It is necessary to find out whether this state is primary or secondary.
Secondary hypotension is considered more closely by doctors, because often many common diseases often manifest themselves in this way. First of all, diseases of the cardiovascular system are excluded, then nervous.
In addition to them, secondary hypotension can be a sign of many diseases, from chronic tonsillitis to renal pathology, therefore, diagnosis may require quite extensive studies.
Primary hypotension, especially the one that accompanies a person for many years, and sometimes all his life, is usually considered as one of the options for the norm.
How is hypotension treated?
The treatment of hypotension is necessary, again, if its pathological nature is established. Since in this case it always acts either as a sign of a serious disorder or as a symptom of the underlying disease, all attention should be focused on the general condition of the body, and the pathology that affected the decrease in blood pressure should be treated.
As for acute hypotension, then everything is clear – it is necessary to eliminate its cause as soon as possible.
Orthostatic shock is not considered a serious pathology if a medical examination does not show any deviations, and therefore it does not need special treatment.
The treatment of hypotension, which accompanies a person all his life and does not have any detectable causes, is usually not required, since it does not lead to any disturbances in the body. There is such a medical expression that hypertensives live well, but not for long, and hypotensives last long, but badly.
This should be understood so that hypertension is a much more serious pathology from a health point of view, but at the same time, hypertension is usually active and alert, sometimes even too much.
Hypotension, unlike hypertension, is not a life-threatening condition, there is even evidence that, on the contrary, a decrease in pressure contributes to an increase in life expectancy by almost 10 years compared to the average, but the usual state of hypotension is fatigue, heaviness and fatigue.
Physiological hypotension is just the case when tonic drinks are not just harmless, but rather useful. A cup of natural coffee in the morning, and one or two cups during the day for hypotension is more a necessity than a pleasure. Coffee can be replaced with strong tea, and black and green tea are suitable.
Hypotonics often experience seasonal deterioration in early spring and late fall. During these periods, plant stimulants of the nervous system, such as ginseng, eleutherococcus, golden mustache, aralia manchurian, etc. can be prescribed.
Despite the fact that people prone to hypotension do not favor physical activity, it is they who are shown it, like no other. Nothing contributes to the fight against hypotension as moderate exercise is moderate, since in professional athletes, by contrast, adaptive hypotension often develops in response to excessive physical exertion.
A good result can be achieved with a massage course.
Hypotonic lifestyle is of great importance. It is necessary to get enough sleep, but not fall into excessive drowsiness, setting yourself an optimal sleep and rest regimen. Nutrition should be balanced, with a sufficient content of vitamins and minerals, it is very important not to overeat.
We must try to lead not only physically, but also emotionally active lives, meet people, take an interest in current events, participate in public life – vitality is also supported by emotions.
How to treat hypotension?
In most cases, drug treatment of hypotension is not required. The most common causes of low blood pressure are abnormal lifestyles and stress. Physiological hypotension should not be treated, but it must be remembered in order to prevent pressure surges. If any one symptom of hypotension is worrying, for example, drowsiness, then, first of all, it is worth adjusting the daily regimen. This alone is enough to cope with an unpleasant condition. You can call for the fight against hypotension folk medicine.
- With endocrine diseases, the doctor will prescribe hormonal drugs.
- In case of anemia, they will be advised to take iron preparations and (or) vitamins.
- With heart defects, it may be advisable to operate on the patient. Low pressure occurs with aortic insufficiency and with mitral valve stenosis (narrowing of the opening that connects the left atrium and ventricle).
- Initially, you should adhere to general recommendations, then connect the sport.
- If the effect is insufficient, then doctors recommend the use of aromatic oils, herbal remedies.
- With the ineffectiveness of these therapeutic measures, the doctor can prescribe medications.
If the treatment of the underlying disease is insufficient, or the hypotension is primary, then the doctors prescribe the groups of drugs that are presented below:
|Drug group||Effects||Feature of application|
|Caffeine preparations||Increase blood pressure|
Stimulates mental and physical activity.
|Apply in small doses|
|Medodrin-type drugs||Increase pressure. Do not affect heart rate||Actively used for orthostatic hypotension, for the treatment of children and adolescents|
|Nootropic drugs||Combined actions: psychostimulant and sedative||Improve brain cell nutrition|
|Group of cerebrovascular agents||Improve blood supply to the brain||Used for injuries of the central nervous system|
Treatment of the disease
What is arterial hypotension? Hypotension in translation from Greek literally means a decreased tone, both muscle and in blood vessels, which leads to low pressure.
If we talk about hypotension in the muscles of the blood vessels, then this condition is usually called arterial hypotension. In this case, there is a regular decrease in blood pressure by 20% or more from the normal value of 110/70 mm RT. Art.
The main signs of hypotension: darkening in the eyes, general weakness of the body.
The main danger of arterial hypotension is oxygen starvation of tissues, organs and the brain, because blood circulates very slowly, not having time to deliver nutrients in a timely manner.
Hypotension is more a female disease. There are also positive aspects, people suffering from this disease live on average 15 years longer than an ordinary person. Since the chronic or congenital form does not allow atherosclerosis of the vessels to develop.
Let us consider in more detail what it is – arterial hypotension. Symptoms and treatment will be presented below.
- Acute hypotension.
- Arterial hypotension (chronic).
- Primary chronic hypotension.
- Chronic hypotension (secondary).
Acute hypotension is very dangerous, because it is associated with a sharp drop in pressure and, accordingly, it decreases the flow of oxygen to the brain, which can cause a stroke. A sharp drop in pressure requires medical treatment.
Causes of acute arterial hypotension: poisoning, large blood loss, infections, sepsis, dehydration.
The chronic form of hypotension is called physiological, because it accompanies a person throughout his life. Usually it is met among residents of highlands, tropics, athletes. This is an adaptation of the body to a certain lifestyle. In such cases, arterial hypotension is not considered a disease.
The main danger lies in hypotension in the elderly, as the risk of ischemic stroke increases.
Arterial hypotension (ICD 10 I95) in a chronic form often does not perform well for young people, because it is impossible to work productively due to a constant loss of strength, and, accordingly, it is difficult to achieve career progression.
Essential hypotension (primary) is attributed to the disease. How it originates is currently not exactly known, but most doctors are inclined to believe that this disease develops due to prolonged overstrain or stress.
Secondary hypotension is a side effect of other diseases, including cervical osteochondrosis, arrhythmia, circulatory disorders, diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal tract diseases.
Orthostatic hypotension is also identified in medical guides. In this case, usually hypotension is temporary and appears when you get up sharply after squatting or lying on the bed. Such arterial hypotension in children more often.
This syndrome accompanies many neurological and somatic diseases. When a horizontal position is taken from a vertical, blood begins to accumulate in the veins of the limbs and organs that are located in the lower part of the body, under the influence of gravity.
As a result, the volume of blood that returns to the heart becomes smaller, this leads to a drop in blood pressure.
The pathological causes of a persistent decrease in blood pressure can be various factors, which can be very difficult to establish. This is how primary hypotension develops.
The presence of this form is explained by:
- hereditary predisposition;
- constitutional features (asthenia);
- adverse pregnancy and childbirth;
- the nature of the patient (hypochondria, depression, negative attitude to life);
- social factors (stress, violation of the daily regimen, overwork, decreased physical activity).
Let’s try to figure out what can provoke arterial hypotension in adults.
- Diseases of the circulatory system: cardiac arrhythmia.
- Gastrointestinal diseases: poisoning, stomach ulcer.
- Immune system abnormalities.
- Vitamin deficiency, lack of vitamins C, E.
- Neurology. Depression, mental overwork, chronic fatigue.
- Some other diseases: injuries of the spinal cord or brain, sepsis, allergic reactions, hepatitis, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
- Adaptation of the body to new climatic conditions: cold, humidity, highlands.
- Adaptation to loads. In athletes, hypotension is a protective reaction to overload in order to reduce the rhythm of the heartbeat.
- Pregnancy. Reduced vascular tone during this period also leads to arterial hypertension.
The causes of arterial hypotension are important to determine in a timely manner.
What is it and how to determine it?
The main symptom is blood pressure below 90/60 mm Hg. Art.
Other signs include:
- fatigue, weakness;
- drowsiness, morning breakdown;
- pale skin, dark circles under the eyes;
- frequent dizziness;
- ringing in the ears, noises;
- irritability due to the inability to perceive the incoming information;
- poor tolerance of any changes: heat, cold, humidity, increased physical exertion;
- distraction, the inability to process a large amount of information;
- untimely menstrual cycle;
- violation of potency;
- limb cooling (feet, hands);
- cold sweat on the palms and feet;
- motion sickness;
- frequent nausea, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- yawning due to lack of oxygen in organs and tissues.
This is what arterial hypotension is. Symptoms are rather unpleasant and can manifest themselves in different ways.
With any form of hypotension, pregnant women should pay special attention to their condition, since a lack of oxygen in the blood can lead to poor fetal growth or improper formation of organs and limbs.
Rarely, with improper or self-medication of hypotension, this disease can turn into hypertension (arterial hypertension), and it will be extremely difficult to return the initial state back.
In acute arterial hypotension, a person’s pulse may be weakened, leading to fainting. If you know that a person has hypotension, he becomes ill and does not have pressure, then before the ambulance arrives, you need to put the patient in a horizontal position, open the windows.
The most serious complication of hypotension is a stroke or heart attack, leading to death.
Arterial hypertension and hypotension can succeed each other.
There are the following methods for diagnosing arterial hypotension:
- initial examination, interviewing the patient, identifying the cause of the disease;
- definition, hereditary hypotension or acquired;
- daily analysis of blood pressure;
- referral of the patient to an ECG;
- Doppler echocardiography.
Hypotension treatment is a whole complex, including lifestyle correction with minimal use of medications aimed at maintaining vascular tone. If nevertheless hypotension is a consequence of some disease, then they try to eliminate the cause, that is, the primary disease.
Lifestyle changes include:
- regular working day with stable time for rest;
- restorative sleep;
- proper nutrition;
- getting rid of bad habits;
- being outdoors in park areas;
- hardening or contrast shower.
Step 1: Work / rest. Bringing to a clear rhythm the ratio of working hours to rest is the basis for the treatment of hypotension.
If the body is in constant stress, overwork is a load on the heart, circulatory and nervous systems.
If you do not restore strength during sleep or rest, depletion of the body slowly occurs, and, accordingly, a decrease in resistance to various diseases.
Step 2: Full sleep. The problem with hypotensives is that 6-8 hours are not enough for them to recover, for them the norm is 10-11 hours, especially if the off-season or low atmospheric pressure.
After waking up, you should not jump out of bed, you need to lie down for several minutes, stretch and sit for several minutes on the edge of the bed.
In this order, there are no sudden changes in pressure, so it is possible to avoid dizziness, darkening in the eyes.
Step 3: Timely Nutrition. It should be 3-5 single meals in minimum servings. Before bedtime, eating is undesirable.
It is necessary to eat foods rich in vitamin C, E and group B, calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus.
People with arterial hypotension are even recommended to use spicy, spicy, salty dishes. Salt, yeast, coffee, strong tea, dog rose, dogwood, citrus fruits are especially recommended.
This is also true for orthostatic arterial hypotension.
Step 4: Quitting bad habits. Nicotine addiction and alcohol further aggravate the situation by weakening the walls of blood vessels.
Step 5: Physiotherapy exercises with moderate loads. It improves the body’s metabolism, which contributes to the rapid removal of all toxins. In addition, oxygen is supplied to the organs in large quantities, and the work of the entire cardiovascular system improves.
Recommended morning exercises, jogging, preferably in the evening, swimming without loads, walking, sports, a bicycle in a forested area.
Step 6 and 7: Slow walks and hardening of the body are the best measures in the fight against arterial hypotension. They strengthen the walls of blood vessels and protect the body from environmental influences and various bacteria and viruses.
You must still be able to properly temper. To begin with – a contrast shower, ending with warm water. Then you can add morning dousing with ice water along with your head, this includes a bath and a sauna. The temperature difference should not exceed 20 degrees, otherwise there may be strokes.
Doctors prescribe with arterial hypotension (ICD 10 I95) “Cofetamine”, “Citramon”, if the decrease is accompanied by headaches and tinnitus, “Saparal”, “Ascaphene”.
The optimal dose of caffeine is 0,2 g / day. In case of an overdose, the opposite process can go – poor sleep, anxiety, heart palpitations, frequent urination.
Nootropic drugs are used in case of memory impairment, mental decline. They reduce the need of cells and tissues for oxygen, and also restore all vital processes for the normal functioning of the brain and the body as a whole. These drugs include “Tanakan”, “Caviton”, “Niceroglyn”, “Nootropil”.
Signs of Hypotension
Treatment with folk remedies for hypotension is very effective. There are many herbal preparations that enhance vascular tone and thereby improve the well-being of hypotensives. These plants include:
- Chinese magnolia vine;
- Rhodiola is pink.
It is worth taking these herbal preparations in the absence of contraindications according to the usual schemes indicated on the package.
It is believed that freshly brewed coffee saves from reduced pressure. Indeed, the invigorating effect of caffeine is proven. But, firstly, it is much more found in green tea, and secondly, addiction to caffeine quickly enough, therefore, the therapeutic effect will disappear.
With a general decrease in tone and the so-called spleen, a slight antidepressant effect, sufficient to treat hypotension, can have St. John’s wort.
Causes of development and symptoms of various forms of hypotension
Depending on the form, hypotension may be caused by the following reasons:
- In trained athletes (physiological hypotension)
- Adaptation to high altitude conditions (physiological hypotension), as well as hot shops, tropics and subtropics (in these cases it may be associated with excessive sweating)
- A sharp decrease in the volume of circulating blood (blood loss, burns)
- Heart failure
- Reduced vascular tone (anaphylactic shock, septic shock)
- Brain and spinal cord injuries
- Neurosis, psychological trauma, chronic lack of sleep, chronic fatigue due to an imbalance in the ratio of hours of rest and work, stress, depression and other lethargic and depressed conditions.
- Orthostatic hypotension is a sudden drop in blood pressure, manifested when a person gets up after prolonged squatting or lying down.
- Violation of the normal functioning of the endocrine system.
Fluctuations in resting blood pressure up to hypotension levels are usually considered as a separate hypotonic type of somatoform autonomic dysfunction of the heart and cardiovascular system (a disorder in which the autonomic regulation of arterial vascular tone is disturbed), but can also be a manifestation of panic disorder and other neuroses and mental disorders.
Secondary chronic arterial hypotension occurs against the background of diseases such as brain injury, decreased thyroid function, adrenal gland, pheochromocytoma, etc., intracranial hypertension (may be the result of not only head injuries, but also rotational subluxation or dislocation of the C1 cervical vertebra (with (old) birth, obstetric injuries due to accidents in children and adults, including somersaults, sometimes just a careless sharp turn of the head)).
Arterial hypotension can occur during pregnancy, characterized by a low tone of the arteries.
Hypotension is a condition caused by a decrease in blood pressure. For each person, the norm Blood pressure is individual, but if values below 100–95 / 60 mm Hg appear on the tonometer scale. Art., the patient worsens. They cause the development of an ailment of a malfunction of the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine system.
Manifestations of hypotension are not a separate disease, but occur against the background of concomitant pathologies of internal organs, metabolic disorders, with hormonal imbalance.
Distinguish the symptoms of primary and secondary hypotension, the primary form is found in neurocirculatory dystonia. Stress, chronic fatigue, lack of sleep, nervous system disorders, and prolonged drug treatment can trigger a decrease in blood pressure.
Causes of hypotension of the secondary form:
- adherence to a strict diet, fasting;
- low physical activity;
- stomach ulcer;
- brain and spinal cord injuries;
- intracranial hypertension (high blood pressure);
- renal pheochromocytoma;
- severe allergic reactions;
- Dumping syndrome;
- osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
- heart failure;
- overdose of drugs;
- arterial stenosis;
- diabetic neuropathy.
The chronic form of hypotension can be considered a normal option, low blood pressure is often diagnosed in athletes, during adaptation to the conditions of the highlands, tropics, in people with a hereditary predisposition working in the pharmaceutical industry.
In such cases, a person does not notice vivid signs of malaise. In professional athletes, the body goes into a gentle mode during intense training, while slowing down the heart and lowering blood pressure.
With chronic hypotension, there are malfunctions in the regulation of blood pressure caused by various reasons. People are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular complications, the symptoms are not so pronounced. During the examination of the patient, the doctor takes into account the provoking causes, and prescribes treatment based on the data obtained.
Most often, hypotension is diagnosed in young women 30-40 years old, engaged in mental, intellectual work. At a more advanced age, atherosclerosis, laxity of the heart muscle, and medication can provoke a decrease in blood pressure.
Symptoms of hypotension vary depending on the form and severity of the pathology.
In acute hypotension, body tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen, so the following symptoms appear:
- pallor of the skin;
- deterioration of vision;
- unsteadiness of gait;
- flatulence, heartburn;
- low blood pressure;
- bursting headache;
- muscle aches, joints;
Signs of chronic hypotension are manifested by lethargy, drowsiness, frequent headaches, fatigue, irritability, coldness of the hands and feet, blood pressure is constantly lowered.
After sports training, other physical exertion, shortness of breath appears, palpitations speed up, sweating increases. There is a deterioration in memory, concentration, meteorological dependence. Patients suffering from hypotension do not tolerate closed rooms, public transport, they are motion sick.
Hypotensives are difficult to wake up in the morning, lethargic during the day, have trouble sleeping at night. For a good rest, they need more time than people with normal blood pressure, sleep should last 8-12 hours.
Orthostatic hypotension is a decrease in blood pressure with a sharp change in body position. It darkens in a person’s eyes, dizzy, tinnitus, fainting may occur. Such symptoms are observed in patients after prolonged lying, bed rest, and medication.
Tinnitus is characterized by reduced pressure.
Arterial hypotension can develop in several ways:
- Reduction of minute and shock discharge of blood by the heart.
- Reducing the volume of circulating blood.
- Reducing the resistance of the walls of peripheral vessels.
- Decreased venous current to the heart.
Violation of the ejection of blood is observed with myocardial infarction, myocarditis, arrhythmias, high doses of β-blockers. The deterioration of the resistance of the vascular walls occurs with symptoms of infectious or toxic collapse, anaphylactic shock. The volume of circulating blood decreases with gastric, internal, uterine bleeding, rupture of the aneurysm.
Arterial hypotension caused by a decrease in the flow of venous blood to the heart is diagnosed against pleurisy, ascites (accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity).
In case of hormonal disruptions, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is disturbed, the sensitivity of the vascular receptors to hormones produced by the adrenal cortex decreases, and the reflex arc of transmission of nerve impulses is disrupted. As a result, blood pressure decreases, the risk of developing cardiovascular complications increases.
There are several types of hypotension.
Physiological arterial hypotension:
- as a variant of the norm;
- training hypotension in athletes;
- compensatory hypotension in residents of highlands.
Pathological arterial hypotension:
- essential or primary;
- hypotonic disease;
- arterial hypotension with orthostatic syndrome.
Secondary or symptomatic hypotension:
- hypotension with orthostatic syndrome.
Depending on the degree of circulatory disturbance, arterial hypotension occurs without cerebrovascular dysfunction or with dynamic failures.
Given the severity of clinical signs, hypotension is acute and chronic. The acute form is characterized by a rapid decrease in blood pressure, an increase in the symptoms of collapse, leading to inhibition of vital body functions. Chronic hypotension has an unstable, reversible course.
Patients measure blood pressure, conduct daily monitoring of blood pressure. The examination allows you to determine the degree of hypotension, to record fluctuations in the tonometer values during the day.
Hypotension is diagnosed at 100/60 mm Hg. Art. in men, 95/60 in women and the presence of several characteristic symptoms of malaise. To confirm secondary hypotension, a comprehensive examination of the organs of the cardiovascular, endocrine and central nervous system is carried out.
Patients with low blood pressure take a biochemical, a blood test for electrolytes, do an ECG, brain encephalography, echocardiography, and a cortisol test.
Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, blood vessels, computed tomography, chest x-ray may be necessary.
In the case of physiological and asymptomatic hypotension, special treatment is not required. It is enough to correct the lifestyle, sleep and wakefulness, normalize physical activity.
When finding out the cause that caused the symptoms of hypotension, its elimination, symptomatic therapy is required. The acute form of the disease begins to be treated with glucocorticoids, cardiotonics, vasoconstrictors, saline solutions are administered intravenously. These drugs quickly increase blood pressure and allow it to stabilize.
Drug treatment of hypotension is carried out by the following means:
- Nootropic drugs restore metabolic processes of the brain, increase respiratory activity of tissues, accelerate blood circulation. Cavinton, Aminalon, Piracetam, Vinpocetine improve mental processes, have an anticonvulsant effect, normalize heart rate, blood pressure.
- Treatment with calcium ion antagonists for hypotension stimulates cerebral, peripheral and coronary blood circulation, dilutes blood, relieves vascular spasms, and prevents hypoxia symptoms.
- To treat hypotension, patients take vitamins: B₅, A, B, C, E;
- Antidepressants, tranquilizers, sleeping pills;
- Adaptogens (Ortho Taurin Ergo, Dibazole) with hypotension have a cardioprotective effect, increase blood pressure, normalize sleep, blood glucose, and heart rate. Plant adaptogens include tincture of ginseng root, rhodiola, chaga, rosehip extract.
- General tonic agents are necessary to excite the central nervous system, improve performance, and eliminate headaches. This pharmacological group includes Citramon, Caffeine, Askofen, Saparal.
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