How to recognize diabetes at an early stage – symptoms in men and women

Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with a malfunction in the endocrine system. The emergence and development of this disease provokes the absence of the hormone insulin in the human body. Due to a lack of insulin, the blood sugar level rises, and the primary signs of the development of a disease such as hyperglycemia appear.

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Diabetes mellitus: impaired glucose-insulin balance.

Hyperglycemia or diabetes (sugar) is a chronic disease. With hyperglycemia, a malfunction of the pancreas appears. The functionality of the gland is the production of this hormone. With hyperglycemia, metabolic functionality is impaired.

Classification of hyperglycemia

Diabetes can develop in several types:

  • Type 1 diabetes. This is insulin-dependent diabetes. The initial stage of insulin deficiency and the initial level of development of hyperglycemia. The reason for this type is a deviation from the norm of the pancreas,
  • Debit Type # 2. This is not insulin dependent diabetes. The amount of the hormone is within the normal range, and sometimes exceeds the prescribed rate. But adipocytes become insensitive to this hormone. For this reason, the blood glucose index rises rapidly.

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Comparison scheme of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus in women at the time of pregnancy (gestational) and diabetes, which is a consequence of genetic diseases, or a deviation from the norm of the endocrine sphere, are classified separately.

Hyperglycemia is divided according to the degree of development of the disease:

  • Diabetes degree No. 1 (mild) sugar index on an empty stomach does not exceed 6 8 mmol/l. The glucosuria index for one day is not higher than 18-20 mmol/l. Therapy of this degree consists in the correct diet and taking medications,
  • Diabetes degree № 2 (average) index on an empty stomach does not exceed 8-10 mmol/l. The glucosuria index for one day is not higher than 35-40 mmol/l. Therapy is diet and drugs that lower the glucose index. In this degree of diabetes, the first signs of the disease are already showing: eye diseases, pathologies in the activity of the heart, kidney disease, nervous disorders, problems with the vessels of the legs,
  • Diabetes degree 3 (severe) index on an empty stomach does not exceed 12-14 mmol/l. The glucosuria index for one day is not less than 40 mmol/l. Protein in urine is diagnosed. Signs: progressive eye disease, the nervous system is in a state of overexcitation, malfunctioning of the kidneys and the heart system. Increased pain in the lower extremities. Blood pressure coefficient is higher than normal. Therapy at this stage is a special diet and hormone injections,
  • Diabetes degree 3 (super-severe) sugar index on an empty stomach does not exceed 20-25 mmol/l. Glucosuria index one day at least 40-50 mmol/l. Signs of the disease: all internal vital organs are affected. The body constantly loses its protein index by excreting it with urine. A patient with this degree is prone to frequent diabetic coma. The body’s work is supported only by injections of the hormone insulin and in a sufficiently large dosage of at least 60 OD.

Type I diabetes mellitus: symptoms and signs of the disease

Signs of type 1 diabetes mellitus:

  • High appetite and constant feeling of an empty stomach. A person consumes a large amount of food, and there is no increase in body weight, and a person loses weight for no reason. The reason for this weight loss is glucose is not absorbed by the body,
  • Frequent urination and increased body fluid output. Polyuria occurs due to the strong filtration of glucose into urine, which increases urine pressure,
  • Increased fluid intake due to intense thirst. The volume of fluid consumption is more than 5 liters per day. Thirst develops due to polyuria in order to make up for water deficit, and thirst also develops due to irritation of the hypothalamic receptors,
  • Signs of the development of acetonemia in a patient. Acetone is diagnosed in urine, the patient has a smell of acetone from the oral cavity. Acetonemia is provoked by ketones in the blood and urine, which are toxins. The consequence of their effect on the body is poisoning with toxins: nausea, turning into vomiting, cramps in the stomach and cramps in the intestines,
  • Body fatigue and weakness of the whole body. Increased fatigue and drowsiness after eating. This fatigue occurs due to a malfunction in metabolic processes and the accumulation of toxins,
  • Disturbance in the work of the eyes and decreased vision. Objects in the field of view become indistinct, with blurred outlines. A constant process of inflammation in the eyes, conjunctivitis. A feeling of clogging in the eyeball,
  • Itchy skin, skin rashes. Which turn into small ulcers and erosion and do not heal for a long period of time. The mucous membrane is also affected by ulcers,
  • Intense hair loss on the scalp.
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes occurs sharply and with distinct symptoms. With diabetes, ketoacidosis manifests itself in a severe form and its transition to a diabetic coma is possible. On these grounds, type I hyperglycemia is diagnosed.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus: symptoms and signs of the disease

Diabetes mellitus symptoms in the second type:

  • The first sign is increased thirst. The volume of fluid consumption is more than 5 liters per day. In older people, severe thirst develops due to loss of sensitivity to thirst,
  • Nocturnal polyuria. Polyuria occurs due to the strong filtration of glucose into urine, which increases urine pressure. The volume of excreting biological fluid is equal to the volume of fluid entering the body,
  • An increase in body weight is considered a sign,
  • Constant hunger and increased appetite. Great desire to eat foods high in sugar,
  • Body fatigue and weakness of the whole body. Increased fatigue and drowsiness after eating. This fatigue occurs due to a malfunction in metabolic processes and the accumulation of toxins,
  • Itching on the mucous membrane and on the genitals. After itching, microtrauma and erosion appear, which are very difficult to heal and the healing process takes a long time,
  • Neuropathy manifests itself. Signs of neuropathy: numbness of the palms and feet, paresthesia of the lower extremities,
  • Cold hands and feet, fatigue of the legs when walking,
  • Skin lesions, skin candidiasis, non-healing wounds for a long time,
  • Periodontal disease, stomatitis with relapses of the disease,
  • Partial loss of vision, cataracts. These signs arise from a high accumulation of glucose in the body,
  • Relapses of the chronic form of pyelonephritis, infectious diseases of the urinary system and genital area.


Signs of diabetes

Initial symptoms of type II diabetes

Type 2 diabetes develops mainly in older age and with increased body weight. With the accumulation of fat in the body, cells increase in size and their perception of insulin changes. These fat cells become insensitive to the hormone insulin, and therefore glucose is not absorbed in the cells.

At the early stage of type 2 hyperglycemia, the pancreas intensively synthesizes the hormone, but with the intensive development of the disease, the hormone reserve decreases and insulin deficiency develops.

It is almost impossible to recognize type II hyperglycemia at an early stage. The sick person associates poor health with age-related changes in the body, severe overwork. The delayed visit to the doctor is explained by the fact that the symptoms are not pronounced than in type diabetes.

You can find out that you are sick with diabetes by chance during a routine examination.

What are the signs of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and during breastfeeding

Gestational diabetes during the period of gestation is often asymptomatic.

But in most cases, symptoms appear:

  • Constant hunger
  • Increased appetite
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Large volume of biological fluid excreted from the body,
  • Dizziness when changing head position,
  • Headache,
  • Abrupt mood swings
  • Increased irritability
  • Increased heart rate
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue,
  • Drowsiness.

As soon as signs of incipient gestational diabetes appear, you should immediately consult a doctor for an examination.

How does the development of diabetes mellitus begin in children?

It is possible to detect type diabetes in children in the early stages when the child develops ketoacidosis. At the first attacks of cyclic vomiting, it is necessary to examine the child. Such seizures develop in children whose body is prone to childhood acetonymic syndrome.

An exacerbation occurs at the time of colds, viral diseases, infectious diseases. This syndrome causes dehydration due to frequent vomiting. With age, the child’s acetonymic syndrome disappears.

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Symptoms of diabetes in children

If ketoacidosis occurs in a child under the age of 12 months and its symptoms do not disappear until the age of 9, then an endocrinologist’s consultation is necessary.

With the manifestation of acetonymic syndrome, the pediatrician recommends taking a blood sugar test.

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Initial signs of high blood sugar in children:

  • Frequent urination nocturnal polyuria
  • Polydipsia,
  • A sharp decrease in body weight.

If it was not possible to diagnose diabetes in a timely manner, then the child develops ketoacidosis.

The characteristic features are:

  • Pain in the stomach and intestines
  • Nausea that turns into vomiting
  • Dry skin of the body,
  • Rapid breathing
  • Head spin
  • Drowsiness,
  • The presence of acetone in urine,
  • Fainting.

At the first symptoms of ketoacidosis, an ambulance should be called.

How is diabetes mellitus manifested in men?

The manifestation of hyperglycemia in the male reproductive system occurs due to neuropathy and a violation of the normal flow of blood to the genitals.

Sign of a failure in the reproductive system:

  • Decreased libido
  • Weak erection
  • Itching in the genitals and perineum,
  • Inactive sperm,

Due to the high accumulation of glucose in the body, most of the sperm cells die and these are the main causes of male infertility in diabetes mellitus.

How does hyperglycemia manifest itself in women?

Manifestations of hyperglycemia in women affect reproductive function and the state of the genital area:

  • Weak sex drive
  • Failure of the menstrual cycle
  • Itching in the genitals and perineum,
  • Candidiasis of the genital organs, as well as the vagina,
  • Abortion,
  • Female infertility.

The causes of diabetes

The main causes of the onset and development of diabetes mellitus in adults, as well as in children:

  • Heredity,
  • Age-related changes in the hormonal background,
  • Increased body weight
  • Constant tension of the nervous system,
  • Pathology in the work of the pancreas,
  • Infectious hepatitis,
  • Viral diseases
  • Hypersensitivity of the adrenal glands,
  • Neoplasms in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • Cirrhosis of the liver,
  • Hyperthyroidism disease,
  • A small percentage of the body’s assimilation of carbohydrates,
  • Short-term, but frequent increase in glucose.

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The main causes of diabetes

Also, the cause of high glucose levels can be unhealthy diet, with a predominance of foods high in sugar.

Diagnosis of the disease

It is very difficult to detect hyperglycemia at the initial stage.

Therefore, to establish a diagnosis, you need to conduct a number of diagnostic studies:

  • Determination of the degree of glycemia by sugar analysis,
  • Glycemic profile fluctuations in glucose ratio within 24 hours,
  • Insulin hormone measurement test,
  • Hormone testing for glucose sensitivity,
  • Test for the density of hemoglobin in the blood (glycosylated),
  • Biochemical analysis,
  • Checking urine for the concentration of leukocytes in it,
  • Urine for glucose content in it,
  • Study of urine for the presence of protein,
  • Rehberg test,
  • Ruffle ultrasound,
  • Examination of urine for the presence of acetone in it,
  • Diagnosis of blood composition,
  • Examination of the eyeball,
  • ECG.

At home, you can identify deviations from the normative glucose indicators yourself, using the device for measuring the sugar of the glucometer.

Can diabetes be completely cured?

Treatment for diabetes mellitus depends primarily on the type and stage of the disease. Today it is impossible to completely cure this disease. Pharmaceutical companies have not invented drugs for the complex treatment of this disease.

Today, the drugs used in therapy are aimed at preventing the transition of the disease to a more severe stage and preventing complications of this disease. Diabetes mellitus is a very insidious disease and it is dangerous for its complications on the organs and vital systems of the body.

The use of insulin therapy is intended to slow down the destruction processes.

A doctor-adjusted diet helps in the treatment of type diabetes. Quite often, the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of hyperglycemia ends for a patient with diabetic coma.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.