Eos vertical position

· In the vertical position of the EOS RIII gt; RII gt; RI (Fig. 20).

Choose one or more correct answers.

1. THE BASIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC SIGNS OF SI-NUSA NORROAD

1) decrease in heart rate up to 70 per minute

2) a decrease in heart rate to 40-59 per minute

3) the occurrence of the Samoilov-Wenckebach periods

4) daily fluctuations in heart rate from 50 to 120

2. THE MOST CHARACTERISTIC SIGN OF Flickering ARIT-MIA IS

1) the frequency of ventricular complexes is more than 120 per minute

2) the absence of P waves

3) the presence of premature QRS complexes

4) shortening of PQ intervals

3. THE DIAGNOSIS “BRADICARDIA” IS INSTALLED ON THE BASIS

1) anamnestic data

2) ECG data – studies

3) the results of x-ray examination

4) auscultation and pulse counting

4. ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCKADE OF 1 DEGREE NOTICE

1) lengthening the PQ interval

2) prolongation of the QRS interval

3) lengthening of both intervals

4) shortening the QT interval

5. A COMPLETE TRANSVERSE BLOCKAGE IS OBSERVED AT

1) atrioventricular block II degree

2) atrioventricular block I degree

3) atrioventricular block III

4) all the listed types of blockades

6. SINUS TACHYCARDIA IS

1) decrease in heart rate less than 60 beats per min. while maintaining the correct sinus rhythm

2) an increase in heart rate of more than 90 per min. while maintaining the correct sinus rhythm

3) delayed impulse from the atria to the ventricles

4) frequent, chaotic excitation and contraction of certain groups of muscle fibers of the atria

2) the vertical axis of the heart

3) the horizontal axis of the heart

4) acute myocardial infarction

14. DURATION OF THE QRS COMPLEX IN THE NORM OF COS-MAKES

15. PAROXISMAL TACHYCARDIA IS

1) suddenly started and suddenly ended an attack of increased heart rate to 140-150 per minute

4) bouts of fear of death with pain behind the sternum

17. ECG – AS A SIGN OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA, A DISPLACEMENT OF ST MORE SEGMENT IS CONSIDERED (MM)

The heart muscle is the main mechanism of the human body. EOS horizontal position – what is it? To confirm heart disease, various indicators of the work of the heart are considered. The horizontal position and other axis offsets indicate heart disease, vascular problems.

An incorrect position of the electrical axis of the heart may indicate the development of cardiac pathology; the electrical axis of the heart is a number that describes the state of electrical processes in the heart. The concept is used by cardiologists in a diagnostic study of the condition and functioning of the heart muscle. The axis reflects the electrodynamic capabilities of the heart.

The conduction system of the vessels of the heart consists of atypical fibers, determines the operation of the EOS. The system is a source supplying electrical discharges. Electrical changes occur in it, causing the heart to contract. If the conductive system is not working properly, the electrical axis changes direction. The heart rate is considered sinus.

At the location of the sinus nodule, an impulse is born, and the myocardium contracts. Then the impulse moves along the atrioventricular canal and enters the mass of muscle fibers – the bundle of His. Consists of several directions and branches. When the heart contracts, they get a nerve impulse. In people with good health, the left heart ventricle weighs a little more than the right.

They explain that he does a great job of ejecting plasma and blood into the arteries. Therefore, the muscles and vessels of the left ventricle are stronger and more powerful. Hence the impulses in it are stronger, which explains the location of the heart on the left. EOS is described using the line of a vector formed from the sum of two vectors. The angle of the axis is formed from 0 to 90 degrees, sometimes it varies slightly.

The numbers show the normal functioning of the cardiac and vascular systems. For the correct diagnosis of the direction of the axis, doctors take into account the addition of the patient’s body, which affects its proper placement. From normal position, it changes to horizontal and vertical. The vertical is inherent in thin people with asthenic physique.

  • Normal – depends on the structure of the body. The axis is marked in the range from zero to 90 degrees. Usually the correct axis is located between 30 and 70 degrees and is directed downward, with a deviation to the left.
  • Intermediate – the axis is located in the range from 15 to 60 degrees. The location is also explained by the addition of the patient. In addition to the full, dense, thin, there are other types of structure of the human figure. Therefore, the intermediate location is individual.
  • Horizontal – characteristic of well-fed, squat patients, with unfolded breasts and overweight. The axis is between 13 and -35 degrees.
  • Vertical – seen in tall, underweight patients with a hollow and underdeveloped chest. The axis runs in the range of 70 to 90 degrees.

    A shift of the EOS to the left can indicate the development of left-sided myocardial infarction. Deviation of the axis to the left is considered to be its location in the range from 0 to -90 degrees. Diseases were identified, accompanied by an inclination of the axis to the left:

    • Left ventricular hypertrophy
    • Disruption of conductivity in the bundle of His
    • Left-sided myocardial infarction
    • Heart disease, inhibiting the conductive system
    • Cardiomyopathy interfering with heart contraction
    • Myocarditis
    • Cardiosclerosis
    • Hypertension
    • Hypotension
    • Myocardial dystrophy
    • Accumulation of calcium in heart tissue, which prevents muscle contraction

    These diseases increase the weight and size of the left ventricle. The vector pulse lasts longer on the left side, the axis moves to the left. The axis goes to the right side and is located in the range of 90 – 180 degrees for diseases:

    • Right-sided myocardial infarction
    • His bundle failed
    • Narrowing of the arteries of the lungs
    • Chronic lung disease
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Destrocardia
    • Impaired blood flow, pulmonary thrombi
    • Mitral valve disease
    • Emphysema, diaphragm displacement

    To determine the causes of axis displacement, a diagnosis is prescribed and the accompanying inflammatory processes are studied.

    The electrical axis of the heart is a concept that represents the electrical processes in this organ. The direction of EOS shows all the bioelectric changes in total that occur during the work of the heart muscle. During the removal of the electrocardiogram, each electrode fixes the bioelectric reaction in the strictly designated part of the myocardium.

    Since the weight of the left ventricle of the heart muscle in fully healthy adults is greater than the right, all electrical processes occur more strongly there. Therefore, the axis of the heart is facing him.

  • Normal position. If you project the location of the heart on the proposed coordinate system, then the direction of the left ventricle from 30 to 70 degrees will be considered normal. But it depends on the characteristics of each person, so the range from 0 to 90 degrees is considered the norm of this indicator in different people.
  • Horizontal position (from 0 to 30 degrees). It is displayed on a cardiogram in stunted people with a wide sternum.
  • Vertical position. EOS is in the range from 70 to 90 degrees. It is observed in tall people with a narrow chest.
  • Deviation to the left. If the axis deviates to the left, this may indicate an increase (hypertrophy) of the left ventricle, which indicates its overload. This condition is often caused by arterial hypertension, which occurs for a long time, when the blood hardly passes through the vessels. As a result, the left ventricle is working hard. Deviation to the left occurs with various blockages, lesions of the valve apparatus. With progressive heart failure, when the organ cannot fully perform its functions, the electrocardiogram also fixes the displacement of the axis to the left. All these diseases make the left ventricle work for wear, so its walls become thicker, the impulse along the myocardium goes much worse, the axis deviates to the left.
  • Offset to the right. Deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the right most often occurs with an increase in the right ventricle, for example, if a person has heart disease. This may be cardiomyopathy, coronary disease, abnormalities in the structure of the heart muscle. The right deviation is also caused by problems with the respiratory system, such as lung obstruction, bronchial asthma.

    The electrical axis of the heart are those words that are first encountered in decoding an electrocardiogram. When they write that her position is normal, the patient is satisfied and happy. However, in the conclusions they often write about the horizontal, vertical axis, its deviations. In order not to feel in vain anxiety, it is worth having a concept about EOS: what it is and what threatens its position, which is different from normal.

    Determine the position of the EOS

    • the speed and quality of the passage of the electrical signal through the structural units of the conducting system of the heart
    • myocardial contraction ability,
    • changes in internal organs that can affect the work of the heart, and in particular, on the conducting system.

    In a person who does not have serious health problems, the electric axis can occupy a normal, intermediate, vertical or horizontal position.

    It is considered normal when the EOS is in the range from 0 to 90 degrees, depending on the constitutional features. Most often, a normal EOS is between 30 and 70 degrees. Anatomically, it is directed down and to the left. The intermediate position is between 15 and 60 degrees. On the ECG, the positive teeth are higher in the second, aVL, aVF leads.

    The deviation of the EOS to the left is its location in the range from 0 to -90 degrees. Up to – 30 degrees can still be considered a variant of the norm, but a more significant deviation indicates a serious pathology or a significant change in the location of the heart. for example, during pregnancy. It is also observed with the deepest exhalation. Pathological conditions, accompanied by a deviation of the EOS to the left:

    • hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart – a companion and the consequence of prolonged arterial hypertension;
    • violation, conduction block on the left leg and fibers of the bundle of His;
    • left ventricular myocardial infarction;
    • heart defects and their consequences, changing the conduction system of the heart;
    • cardiomyopathy, which violates the contractility of the heart muscle;
    • myocarditis – inflammation also violates the contractility of muscle structures and conduction of nerve fibers;
    • cardiosclerosis;
    • myocardial dystrophy;
    • deposition of calcium in the heart muscle, preventing it from contracting normally and disrupting innervation.
    • So, the vertical position will be considered EOS in the range from 70 to 90 degrees. This position of the axis of the heart is found in tall, thin people – asthenics.
    • The horizontal position of the EOS is more common in short, stocky people with a wide chest – hypersthenics, and its value is from 0 to 30 degrees.

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    The horizontal position of the EOS – what kind of pathology is this, what threatens a person

    The state of the norm corresponds to the predominance of the mass of the left over the right ventricle. Due to this, the processes of the electrical nature of the first in total are stronger, and the EOS will be directed specifically at it.

    When projecting the location of the heart organ on the coordinate system, it becomes noticeable that the left ventricle will be in the range from 30 to 70 °. This situation is considered to be the norm.

    Nevertheless, on an individual basis, due to the anatomical features of the body structure, the location can vary and range from 0 to 90 °.

    The location of the cardiac electrical axis is divided into 2 main types:

    1. Vertical – a span of 30 to 70 ° – This is typical for people of large stature, lean physique.
    2. Horizontal – range from 0 to 30 °. It is observed in a person with a small stature, a dense complexion of the body with a wide chest.

    Since physique and growth are indicators of an individual plan, the most common are intermediate subspecies of EOS location: semi-vertical and semi-horizontal.

    All five variants of position (normal, horizontal, semi-horizontal, vertical and semi-vertical) are found in healthy people and are not pathological.

    So, in the conclusion of the ECG in an absolutely healthy person it can be said: “EOS is vertical, sinus rhythm, heart rate is 78 per minute”, which is a variant of the norm.

    Turns of the heart around the longitudinal axis help determine the position of the organ in space and, in some cases, are an additional parameter in the diagnosis of diseases.

    The definition of “rotation of the electrical axis of the heart around the axis” may well occur in the descriptions of electrocardiograms and is not something dangerous.

    The horizontal position of the EOS is between 15 and -30 degrees. It is characteristic for healthy people with a hypersthenic physique – a wide chest, short stature, and increased weight. The heart of such people “lies” on the diaphragm. On the ECG, the highest positive teeth are recorded in aVL, and the deepest negative ones in aVF.

    The structural features for each person are very individual, practically no pure asthenics or hypersthenics are found, more often these are intermediate body types, therefore the electric axis can have an intermediate value (semi-horizontal and semi-vertical). All five options for position (normal, horizontal, semi-horizontal, vertical and semi-vertical ) are found in healthy people and are not a pathology.

    So, in the conclusion of the ECG in an absolutely healthy person it can be said: “EOS is vertical, sinus rhythm, heart rate is 78 per minute”, which is a variant of the norm. Heart turns around the longitudinal axis help determine the position of the organ in space and, in some cases, are an additional parameter in the diagnosis of diseases. The definition of “rotation of the electrical axis of the heart around the axis” may well occur in the descriptions of electrocardiograms and is not something dangerous.

    What to do if an EOS bias is found on the cardiogram?

    If the electric axis is shifted to the left, the left ventricle with myocardium (LVH) is hypertrophied. This specificity of the violation is the most frequent. This pathology has the value of additional symptoms, not independent, speaks of overload of the ventricle, a change in its working process.

    These disorders occur with protracted arterial hypertension. Pathology is accompanied by a strong load on the vessels that deliver blood to the organ, therefore, ventricular contractions occur very strongly, its muscles increase in size and hypertrophy. The same process is noted with cardiomyopathy, ischemia, etc.

    Left localization of the electric axis, LVH are also diagnosed with defects in the valve system, the sinus rhythm of contractions is violated. Pathology is based on the following processes:

    • weak aortic valve, while part of the blood returns back to the ventricle, overloading it;
    • aortic stenosis, in which the exit of blood from the ventricle is difficult.

    The listed violations are congenital or acquired. Often the cause of the latter is rheumatism suffered by the patient. Change in ventricular volume is noted in people who are professionally involved in sports. Such patients are strongly advised to consult a specialist in order to establish whether physical activity is harmful to health.

    Deviation of the vertical position of the EOS and sinus rhythm is also detected with conduction defects in the ventricle, with blockade heart disorders.

    EOS is shifted, which is determined on the cardiogram. Additional research and medical advice is required when the deviation leaves the normal limits set in the range 0 . 90˚.

    Factors and processes that affect the displacement of the heart axis are accompanied by clinically severe symptoms, and require additional additional examinations. Particular attention should be paid to factors when, with previously existing stable values ​​of axial deviation, an ECG change or a sinus rhythm defect suddenly appears. Such a symptom is one of the signs of blockade.

    Deviation of the axis itself does not need therapy, it refers to cardiological parameters that require first of all the establishment of the cause of the appearance. Only a cardiologist will determine if treatment is needed in each individual situation.

    Sinus arrhythmia is characterized by a change in the duration of the intervals between contractions of the heart, which occurs due to a disorder in the conduct or generation of electrical impulses in the myocardium. Heart rate can be within normal limits (60–90 beats per minute), as well as be disturbed. Arrhythmias have a different nature, causes and severity.

    With this problem, people turn to a therapist, but the treatment of the disease may be the responsibility of a cardiologist, neurologist, or even a psychotherapist.

    • hypertrophy (enlargement, proliferation) of the left ventricle (LVH);
    • – violation of the impulse in the front of the left ventricle.
    LVHBlockade of the anterior branch of the left bundle branch
    Chronically elevated blood pressureMyocardial infarction localized in the left ventricle
    Stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic orificeLeft ventricular hypertrophy
    Insufficiency (incomplete closure) of the mitral or aortic valvesCalcification (accumulation of calcium salts) in the conduction system of the heart
    Cardiac ischemia (atherosclerosis or coronary artery thrombosis)Myocarditis (an inflammatory process in the heart muscle)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (pathological enlargement of the heart)Dystrophy (inferiority, underdevelopment) of the myocardium

    In a state of health, the electrical axis shifts to the left under the following conditions:

    • at the time of deep exhalation;
    • when the body position changes to horizontal – the internal organs exert pressure on the diaphragm;
    • with a high diaphragm – observed in hypersthenics (short, strong people).

    The shift of the indicator to the right in the absence of pathology is observed in such situations:

    • at the end of a deep breath;
    • when the body position is changed to vertical;
    • in asthenics (tall thin people), the vertical position of the EOS is the norm.

    In itself, the displacement of the electrical axis of the heart does not need treatment, refers to electrocardiological signs and requires, first of all, finding out the cause of the occurrence. Only a cardiologist can determine the need for treatment.

    The deviation of the cardiac axis to the left with an increase in the left ventricle is understandable, because physiologically this chamber of the heart is already the most powerful in mass. And this means that the heart vector will “take” the left ventricle onto itself. And the more it grows in size and grows, the more it will “go left” EOS.

    This pathology occurs at high pressure or arterial hypertension, when the heart chambers, unable to withstand the increased pressure and load, begin to gain compensatory mass – to hypertrophy. Hypertrophy as one of the symptoms occurs in heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular changes, angina pectoris, cardiac asthma, cardiomyopathies.

    Blockade of the left leg

    Violations in the conductive system will lead to a change in the cardiac vector and a deviation of the cardiac axis. This is most often observed with the blockade of the left leg of the bundle of His, or with the blockade of its anteroposterior branching. There are other ECG signs, due to which this type of arrhythmia can be diagnosed. Holter ECG monitoring will also assist in the diagnosis.

    Some forms of ventricular tachycardia can also be the reason that the EOS values ​​are far from normal.

    7 Heart defects

    Heart defects, the ECG symptom of which can be left to the left axis of the heart, by their nature, can be either congenital or acquired. Defects of any etiology, accompanied by overload of the left heart, will be characterized by this ECG symptomatology.

    Based on the above reasons for the deviation of the EOS, it can be concluded that the left shift of the cardiac axis is not such a harmless ECG sign. It may indicate the presence of quite serious problems in the patient’s body. But at the same time, do not panic! If the patient feels well, has a stable ECG for several years, in the absence of supporting data on pathological changes in the heart and blood vessels after a thorough examination, a slight deviation of the cardiac axis to the left may be a normal option!

    And yet, the main cause of EOS bias is myocardial hypertrophy. The diagnosis of hypertrophy of one or another part of the heart can be made by ultrasound. Any disease that leads to a displacement of the axis of the heart is accompanied by a number of clinical signs and requires additional examination. The situation should be alarming when, in the pre-existing position of the EOS, a sharp deviation on the ECG occurs.

    In this case, the deviation most likely indicates the occurrence of blockade. By itself, the displacement of the electrical axis of the heart does not need treatment, refers to electrocardiological signs and requires, first of all, finding out the cause of the occurrence. Only a cardiologist can determine the need for treatment.

    Symptoms

    By itself, the displacement of the EOS has no characteristic symptoms.

    The diseases with which it is accompanied can also be asymptomatic. That is why it is important to undergo an ECG for preventive purposes – if the disease is not accompanied by unpleasant signs, you can learn about it and start treatment only after decoding the cardiogram.

    However, sometimes these diseases nevertheless make themselves felt.

    But we repeat again – the symptoms do not always appear, they usually develop in the late stages of the disease.

    Diseases in which EOS is tilted to the left are accompanied by chest pain

    EOS displacement does not have independent symptoms. In addition, there is the likelihood of asymptomatic axis deviation. To prevent diseases of the heart and blood vessels, diagnose them at the initial stage, and regular removal of the electrocardiogram is carried out.

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    Symptoms of diseases associated with left-sided deviation of EOS:

    • Chest pain
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Arrhythmia and
    • Blood pressure dystonia
    • Headache
    • Violation
    • Dizziness
    • Fainting state
    • – slow heartbeat rate
    • face and limbs

    Diagnosis of sinus tachycardia

    Diagnosis of sinus tachycardia requires the use of various analytical techniques. The study of the patient’s medical history, clarification of information regarding the types of medications used in the past become mandatory. Such moments make it possible to identify the presence of factors and circumstances that caused the appearance of the disease.

    1. Physical examination of the patient, including the study of the condition of the skin, an assessment of the degree of oxygen saturation.
    2. Listening to breathing and heart rate (in some cases, with little physical exertion).
    3. General and biochemical analysis of blood, which allows to determine the level of leukocytes, cholesterol, potassium, glucose, urea.
    4. A urine test necessary to exclude diseases of the genitourinary system from among the alleged causes of the development of pathology.

    The state of the thyroid gland allows you to find out the degree of its influence on the heart rate. As additional diagnostic methods, vagal tests, daily monitoring are carried out.

    The most important method for the diagnosis of sinus tachycardia remains a cardiogram based on the registration of electrical vibrations that occur during the work of the heart.

  • Physical examination of the patient, including the study of the condition of the skin, an assessment of the degree of oxygen saturation.
  • Listening to breathing and heart rate (in some cases, with little physical exertion).
  • General and biochemical analysis of blood, which allows to determine the level of leukocytes, cholesterol, potassium, glucose, urea.
  • A urine test necessary to exclude diseases of the genitourinary system from among the alleged causes of the development of pathology.

    The state of the thyroid gland allows you to find out the degree of its influence on the heart rate. As additional diagnostic methods, vagal tests, daily monitoring are carried out. The most important method for the diagnosis of sinus tachycardia is a cardiogram based on the recording of electrical vibrations that occur during the work of the heart.

    After a detailed examination, appropriate therapy is prescribed.

    Typically, the position of the EOS is determined using an ECG

    An electrocardiogram is the most affordable, simple and painless way to determine the source of pulses for the heart, as well as their frequency and rhythm. An ECG is characterized as the most informative method of obtaining data on the functioning of the heart muscle.

    The examined person assumes a lying position on a couch parallel to the floor, after first exposing the torso, wrists and ankles.

    To these areas of the body with the help of suction cups, through which data on electrical impulses will enter the computer. A specialized program reads these signals during normal breathing and when it is held.

    The condition for the procedure is complete relaxation of the body. An ECG is performed with various loads, but this happens with an in-depth study of the work of the heart to establish a diagnosis, as well as when checking the progress of therapeutic measures. After collecting the data, the printer displays a graph of a cardiogram on heat-sensitive paper. This listing, in turn, is decrypted by a medical professional who has undergone special courses.

    A cardiogram is a consolidated graph of arched and acute-angled lines, each of which reflects a specific process during heart contraction. First of all, the line denoting sinus rhythm is decoded.

    Echocardiography is used for additional diagnostics when tilting EOS

    To determine the causes of the deviation of the EOS, a number of additional studies are carried out:

    1. Echocardiogram, abbreviated. This procedure consists in the study using special sound waves of contractile and other abilities and the work of the main organ, determines the presence of probable heart defects.
    2. Stress echocardiogram, Stress Echocardiography. It is expressed in the study by ultrasonic waves of the functioning of the heart with an additional load, most often squats. Diagnoses ischemic disease.
    3. coronary vessels. This test reveals blood clots and atherosclerotic plaques in arteries and veins.
    4. Holter mount, abbreviated. This procedure collects electrocardiogram data during the day. This method of research became possible after the creation of a portable apparatus for ECG, characterized by low weight and size. However, with this method of verification, there are a number of restrictions: restraint in movement, a ban on water procedures and the distance from pets. At the same time, the day of wearing halter should be mundane, without unusual situations.

    If there is only a pathological angle alpha, and there are no other manifestations on the ECG, the patient does not experience difficulty breathing, pulse and pressure are normal, then this condition does not require any further action. This is due to the anatomical feature.

    A more unfavorable sign is a rightogram for lung diseases, as well as a levogram, combined with hypertension.
    In these cases, the degree of progression of the underlying pathology can be judged by the displacement of the axis of the heart. If the diagnosis is unknown, and there is a significant deviation of the axis with cardiac symptoms, then the patient should be fully examined to identify the cause of this phenomenon.

    The displacement of the electric axis can be left and right, depending on the activity of which of the ventricles of the heart prevails.
    Such changes on the ECG are an indirect sign of myocardial hypertrophy and are considered in combination with other indicators. If there are complaints of heart function, an additional examination is required. In young children, a pravogram is a physiological condition that does not require intervention.

    An electrocardiogram is the main tool for determining EOS. To identify changes in the location of the axis, use two equivalent methods. The first method is more often used by diagnostic doctors, the second method is more common among cardiologists and therapists.

    The angle alpha directly indicates the displacement of the EOS in one direction or another. To calculate this angle, find the algebraic sum of the teeth Q, R and S in the first and third standard leads. To do this, measure the height of the teeth in millimeters, and when adding, take into account the positive or negative value of a particular tooth.

    The value of the sum of the teeth from the first lead is found on the horizontal axis, and from the third on the vertical. The intersection of the resulting lines determines the angle alpha.

    A simpler and clearer way to determine the EOS is to compare the R and S teeth in the first and third standard leads. If the absolute value of the R wave within one lead is greater than the value of the S wave, then we speak of an R-type ventricular complex. If on the contrary, then the ventricular complex is classified as S-type.

    When the EOS deviates to the left, the RI – SIII pattern is observed, which means the R-type of the ventricular complex in the first lead and the S-type in the third. If the EOS is rejected to the right, then SI – RIII is determined on the electrocardiogram.

    Detection on the cardiogram of a deviation of the EOS to the left side is not in itself the basis for the final conclusion of the doctor. In order to determine what specific changes occur in the heart muscle, additional instrumental studies are required.

    • Bicycle ergometry (electrocardiogram while walking on a treadmill or on an exercise bike). Test for detecting ischemia of the heart muscle.
    • Ultrasound Using ultrasound to assess the degree of ventricular hypertrophy and impaired contractile function.
    • Daily Holter ECG Monitoring. The cardiogram is removed during the day. Assign in cases of rhythm disturbance, which is accompanied by a deviation of EOS.
    • X-ray examination of the chest. With significant hypertrophy of myocardial tissue, an increase in heart shadow in the picture is observed.
    • Coronary Artery Angiography (CAG). Allows you to determine the degree of damage to the coronary arteries in the diagnosed coronary artery disease.
    • Echocardioscopy. Allows you to purposefully determine the condition of the ventricles and atria of the patient.

    Vertical EOS in a child

    In babies, the position of the EOS changes with growth and development In babies up to 12 months, the direction of the axis to the right is noted on the electrocardiogram. In a year, the EOS changes in children, it becomes vertically located. This is explained by growth processes: the right heart exceeds the left in strength, activity and mass.

    Changes in the location of the heart muscle are noticeable. By 2-3 years of age, the axis in 60% of children is vertical, in the rest it changes to normal. This is due to growth, enlargement of the left ventricle and a heart turn. In preschool children and older children, the normal position of the EOS dominates. Correct is the location of the axis in children:

    • Babies up to 12 months – EOS is from 90 – 170 degrees
    • Children 1-3 years old – vertical direction
    • Schoolchildren and adolescents – in 60% of children note normal EOS

    In infants and newborns, a marked right deviation of the axis on the ECG is noted, by the year in almost all children the EOS becomes vertical. This is explained physiologically: in the heart, the right departments to some extent prevail over the left both in electrical activity and in mass, the position of the heart, that is, rotations around the axes, can also change. In many children, by the age of two years, the axis is still vertical, in 30% it becomes normal.

    In preschool and school age, the normal axis prevails, more often the vertical axis can occur, and the horizontal axis is less common.

    We examined what vertical EOS means.

    Treatment

    In uncomplicated cases of sinus tachycardia, it is enough to change the diet and lifestyle of the patient. It will be necessary to minimize the presence on the menu of spicy and excessively salty dishes, to refuse strong tea and coffee, alcohol, and chocolate. Useful walks in the fresh air without intense physical exertion.

    If there is a need for therapeutic treatment, medicines are selected based on their reasons for the development of pathology. Various specialists are involved in the preparation of the treatment regimen – a cardiologist, endocrinologist, phlebologist, and vascular surgeon.

    Traditionally, therapy is carried out with the appointment of:

    • beta-blockers (Bisoprolol, Metoprolol);
    • non-dihydropyr >

    In the case of diagnosing highly symptomatic sinus tachycardia, it becomes advisable to use surgical methods of treatment – radiofrequency catheter ablation of the sinus node with the setting of a constant pacemaker.

    By itself, deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the left does not require specific treatment, since this is only a symptom of another disease.

    All measures are aimed at eliminating the underlying disease, which is manifested by a shift in the EOS.

    LVH treatment – depends on what caused myocardial proliferation

    Treatment of blockade of the anterior branch of the left leg of the bundle of His -. If it arose as a result of a heart attack, surgical restoration of blood circulation in the coronary vessels.

    The electrical axis of the heart returns to normal only if the size of the left ventricle is returned to normal or the impulse is restored to the left ventricle.

    The verified performance of the heart is the guarantor of a long human life. And the decrypted sinus rhythm to the left is an indicator of the state of the heart muscle. Thanks to the electric axis, it is possible to diagnose and cure it at an early stage, extending the normal state of the body and the life span of a sick person.

    By deflecting EOS, you can determine the diagnosis of heart disease

    EOS – the electrical axis of the heart – a cardiological concept meaning the electrodynamic strength of an organ, the level of its electrical activity. According to her position, the specialist deciphers the state of processes occurring in the main body every minute.

    This parameter represents the total number of bioelectric muscle changes. With the help of which the electrodes fix certain excitation points, it is possible to mathematically calculate the location of the electric axis relative to the heart.

    Changing the slope of the EOS does not require independent treatment. To restore the position of the axis, it is necessary to eradicate the main source of inclination – cardiovascular or pulmonary disease.

    Medical procedures, medications and other measures are prescribed by the attending physician after a diagnosis is made. The main points of the treatment process depend on the type of disease:

    • – antihypertensive drugs are prescribed that normalize blood pressure. Representatives of medication are substances that help prevent vasoconstriction and increase blood pressure: calcium channel antagonists, beta-blockers.
    • Stenosis of the aortic orifice – surgical intervention in the form of.
    • – surgical installation of a prosthetic valve.
    • Ischemia – drugs – ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers.
    • – Surgery to thin the myocardium.
    • Blockade of the anterior branch of the left leg of the bundle of His – installation.
    • A similar blockade that occurred during the restoration of the blood circulation of the coronary vessels through surgical intervention.

    Deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the left from its normal position is not a disease in itself. This is a sign determined by instrumental research, which allows you to identify abnormalities in the work of the heart muscle.

    Ischemia, heart failure, and some cardiopathies are treated with medications. Additional diet and a healthy lifestyle leads to a normalization of the patient’s condition.

    In severe cases, surgical intervention is required, for example, with congenital or acquired heart defects. In severe violation of the conductive system, transplantation of a pacemaker may be necessary, which will send signals directly to the myocardium and cause its contraction.

    The detection of a displacement of the electrical axis of the heart is not a cause for concern. But if this symptom is identified, you should immediately consult a doctor for further examination and to identify the causes of this condition. The annual scheduled electrocardiography can detect abnormalities in the heart and promptly begin therapy.

    Deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the left – what does it mean

    The position of the EOS can be changed with cardiac blockade. In the absence of signs of disease, deviations of the axis in different directions are not considered pathology. If cardiovascular problems appear, then the incorrect placement of the ECO indicates violations and diseases:

    • The development of ventricular hypertrophy on the left – increased heart section. Explained by a large amount of blood flow. It occurs with severe, chronic hypertension. In addition, hypertrophy causes ischemic heart disease.
    • Damage to the heart valve – displacement of the ECO occurs due to obstruction of blood vessels, which interferes with blood flow. The violation is considered a congenital pathology.
    • Cardiac blockade – an incorrect position of the axis is caused by a violation of the heart rhythm due to the increased interval between the receipt of nerve impulses. The axis shifts also with asystole: a big pause, when the departments of the heart do not contract, blood is not ejected.
    • Hypertension of the lungs – EOS is directed to the right. The reason is bronchial disease and asthma. Causes pulmonary hypertrophy. Leads to a heart shift.
    • Malfunctions of the hormonal background – diagnose an increase in the chambers of the heart. Nerve patency is impaired, blood flow is reduced.

    In addition to these reasons, changes in the direction of the ECO show diseases of the heart muscle and atrial fibrillation. Deviations of the axis are often noted in athletes and people performing heavy physical work.

    • violation of the conduct of electrical excitation along the fibers of the bundle of His, its right branch;
    • myocardial infarction in the right ventricle;
    • overload of the right ventricle due to narrowing of the pulmonary artery;
    • chronic pulmonary pathology, the result of which is a “pulmonary heart”, characterized by intense work of the right ventricle;
    • a combination of IHD with hypertension – depletes the heart muscle, leads to heart failure;
    • TELA – blocking blood flow in the branches of the pulmonary artery, of thrombotic origin, as a result, the blood supply to the lungs is impoverished, their vessels are spasmodic, which leads to a load on the right heart;
    • mitral heart disease valve stenosis, causing congestion in the lungs, which causes pulmonary hypertension and increased work of the right ventricle;
    • dextrocardia;
    • pulmonary emphysema – shifts the diaphragm down.

    On the ECG, in the first lead, a deep S wave is noted, while in the second, third it is small or absent. It should be understood that a change in the position of the axis of the heart is not a diagnosis, but only signs of conditions and diseases, and only an experienced specialist should understand the reasons.

  • Normal position – the pivot zone is located in lead V3, the R and S teeth are identical in height. In V6, the QRS complex acquires the configuration qR or qRs.
  • Clockwise rotation is a turning zone in the area of ​​leads V4-V5, and in V6 the complex has the form RS. Often combined with the vertical position of the EOS and its deviation to the right.
  • Rotation counterclockwise – the pivot zone is offset by V2. In leads V5-V6, a deepening of Q is observed (not to be confused with coronary), and the QRS complex takes the form of qR. It is combined with the horizontal position of the EOS and its deviation to the left.
  • The apex anteriorly – the QRS complex in I-III leads takes the form qRI, qRII, qRIII.
  • Apex posteriorly – the QRS complex takes the form of RSI, RSII, RSIII.

    The situation itself cannot serve as a basis for making a specific diagnosis, only indicating the presence of electrical disturbances. No cardiologist will convince you of the presence of pathology only by EOS. To establish the fact of the disease, it is necessary to support the conclusion of the examination with the correct clinical survey and additional diagnostic measures. A number of factors influence the position of the EOS

    • congenital heart defects;
    • secondary changes in the anatomical relationships between the right and left parts of the heart;
    • abnormal location of organs in the chest cavity (dextrocardia, vicar emphysema after lobectomy);
    • chest deformity (kyphosis, scoliosis, keeled or funnel-shaped curvature);
    • disruptions in the conduction system of the organ (especially in the bundles of Giss), which cause disturbances in the heartbeat;
    • cardiomyopathies of various origins;
    • long history of hypertensive and coronary heart disease (CHD);
    • chronic heart failure;
    • respiratory diseases with obstructive component (COPD, bronchial asthma, emphysema);
    • decompensated liver failure (ascites, flatulence).
  • Hypertrophy of the left half of the heart. Angle? directly proportional to the degree of LV mass growth. Pathology develops with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, arterial hypertension, excessive stress (“sports heart”), coronary heart disease, cardiosclerosis.
  • Myocardial infarction (with necrosis on the back wall).
  • Pathology of intracardiac conduction. Most often this is a blockade of the left leg or anteroposterior branch of the bundle of Giss.
  • Ventricular tachycardia.
  • Valvular heart defects.
  • Myocarditis.
  • Failures in the conduction of a nerve impulse along the fibers of the bundle of His.
  • Pulmonary stenosis (when pressure in the right ventricle rises).
  • Right myocardial infarction.
  • Cardiorespiratory diseases that formed a “pulmonary heart” (in this case, the LV functions poorly and overload of the right ventricle occurs).
  • Thromboembolism of the branches of the pulmonary artery (due to blockage, gas exchange in the lungs is disturbed, blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation are narrowed and pancreatic overload occurs).
  • Mitral valve stenosis (after rheumatic fever). The fusion of the valves between themselves prevents the full expulsion of blood from the left atrium, which causes pulmonary hypertension and overloads the pancreas.

    A sharp deviation of the EOS to the right is observed when the angle? = 120 0. It is worth remembering that not one of the above diseases can be diagnosed based solely on the provisions of the EOS. This parameter is only an auxiliary criterion in identifying any pathological process.

    Deviation of the axis is often not a sign of an acute condition. But if a sharp violation of the EOS with a value of more than 90 0 is registered, then this may indicate a sudden disorder of conduction in the myocardium and threaten cardiac arrest. Such patients require immediate specialized medical care in order to find the cause of such a sharp change in current direction. The following sources of information were used to prepare the material.

    Angle norm alpha EOS

    The location of the anatomical and electrical axes to a certain extent depends on the physique. In asthenics (thin people with high stature and long limbs), the heart (and, accordingly, its axis) is located more vertically, and in hypersthenics (short people with a stocky build) – more horizontally.

    A significant shift of the electrical axis to the left or right side is a sign of pathologies of the cardiac conduction system or other diseases.

    A deviation to the left is indicated by the minus angle alpha: from -90 to 0 degrees. On deviating it to the right – values ​​from 90 to 180 degrees.

    However, it is not necessary to know these figures at all, because in case of violations in the decoding of the ECG, you can find the phrase “EOS is rejected to the left (or to the right)”.

    By observing a number of simple rules, it is possible to avoid impaired vascular and cardiac muscle dysfunction and prevent the deviation of the EOS from the normal position.

    Prevention measures will be:

    • Balanced healthy diet
    • Clear and uniform daily routine
    • No stress
    • Replenishment of the level of vitamins in the body

    The body can get the required amount in two ways: taking a vitamin complex of drug origin and eating certain foods. Products – sources of antioxidants and trace elements:

    • Citrus fruit
    • Dried grapes
    • Blueberries
    • Onions and green onions
    • Cabbage leaves
    • Spinach
    • Parsley and dill
    • Chicken eggs
    • Red sea fish
    • Dairy produce

    The last method of prevention, but one of the most important in importance, will be moderate and regular physical activity. Sports, the plan of which is made taking into account the characteristics of the human body and its standard of living, will strengthen the heart muscle and allow it to function smoothly.

    The conduction system of the heart and why is it important for determining EOS?

    The part of muscle tissue formed from atypical fibers that regulate the synchronization of organ contractions is called the cardiac conduction system.

    The contractile property of the myocardium consists of a sequence of stages:

    1. Organization of an impulse of electricity in a sinus node
    2. The signal enters the ventricular atrial node.
    3. From there it is distributed along the bundle of His, located in the interventricular septum and divided into 2 branches
    4. An activated bundle drives the left and right ventricles
    5. With normalized signal wiring, both ventricles contract simultaneously

    With a dysfunction of the wiring system, the electrical axis changes its location. This moment is easily determined.

    The conduction system of the heart is a part of the heart muscle, consisting of the so-called atypical muscle fibers. These fibers are well innervated and provide synchronous organ contraction.

    Myocardial contraction begins with the appearance of an electrical impulse in the sinus node (which is why the correct rhythm of a healthy heart is called sinus). From the sinus node, the impulse of electrical excitation passes to the atrioventricular node and further along the bundle of His. This bundle passes in the interventricular septum, where it is divided into the right, going to the right ventricle, and the left legs.

    The left leg of the bundle of His is divided into two branches, anterior and posterior. The anterior branch is located in the anterior interventricular septum, in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. The posterior branch of the left leg of the bundle of His is located in the middle and lower third of the interventricular septum, the posterolateral and lower wall of the left ventricle. We can say that the posterior branch is somewhat to the left of the anterior one.

    The myocardial conductive system is a powerful source of electrical impulses, which means that in it, most of all, in the heart there are electrical changes that precede cardiac contraction. In case of violations in this system, the electrical axis of the heart can significantly change its position, which will be discussed later.

    The conduction system of the heart muscle is atypical muscle fibers that connect various parts of the organ and help it contract simultaneously. Its beginning is considered to be a sinus node located between the mouths of the vena cava, so healthy people have a sinus heart rhythm. When an impulse occurs in the sinus node, the myocardium contracts.

    Myocardial contraction begins with the appearance of an electrical impulse in the sinus node (which is why the correct rhythm of a healthy heart is called sinus). From the sinus node, the impulse of electrical excitation passes to the atrioventricular node and further along the bundle of His. This bundle passes in the interventricular septum, where it is divided into the right, going to the right ventricle, and the left legs.

    The left leg of the bundle of His is divided into two branches, anterior and posterior. The anterior branch is located in the anterior interventricular septum, in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. The posterior branch of the left leg of the bundle of His is located in the middle and lower third of the interventricular septum, the posterolateral and lower wall of the left ventricle.

    We can say that the posterior branch is somewhat to the left of the anterior one. The myocardial conduction system is a powerful source of electrical impulses, which means that it primarily affects the heart in an electrical state that precedes cardiac contraction. In case of violations in this system, the electrical axis of the heart can significantly change its position, which will be discussed later.

    What is sinus rhythm on an ECG

    For many years unsuccessfully fighting hypertension? Head of the Institute: “You will be amazed how easy it is to cure hypertension by taking it every day. The human heart is a kind of trigger for the productive work of the whole organism. Thanks to the pulses of this organ, which are issued in a regular mode, the blood has the ability to circulate throughout the body, saturating the body with vital substances.

    If the heart is normal, then the whole body works as productively as possible, but sometimes you still have to face certain health problems. If a person comes to the doctor for an examination and the specialist has suspicions that his heart is not all right, he sends the patient on an ECG. The sinus rhythm on the ECG is a very important indicator and clearly gives data on the real state of the human heart muscle.

    In the concept of medical staff, the sinus rhythm of a cardiogram is the norm for the human body. If there are identical gaps between the teeth shown on the cardiogram, the height of these columns is also the same, then there are no deviations in the functioning of the main organ. Therefore, the sinus rhythm on the cardiogram is as follows:

    • graphic image of a person’s heartbeat;
    • a set of teeth of different lengths, between which different intervals, showing a specific rhythm of heart pulses;
    • a schematic representation of the work of the heart muscle;
    • an indicator of the presence or absence of deviations in the work of the heart and its individual valves.

    Normal sinus rhythm is present only when the heart rate is not less than 60 and not more than 80 beats per minute. It is such a rhythm that is considered normal for the human body. and on the cardiogram, it is displayed with teeth of the same size, located at the same distance from each other.

    It is clearly worth remembering that the results of a cardiogram can be one hundred percent accurate only if the person is completely calm. Stressful situations and nervous tension contribute to the fact that the heart muscle begins to emit pulses faster, which means that it will not be possible to get a reliable result about a person’s health status.

    Decoding of the results of the cardiogram is performed by doctors according to a special scheme. Medical professionals have a clear understanding of which marks on the cardiogram are normal and which are deviations. The ECG conclusion will be set only after calculating the results, which were displayed in a schematic form. When a doctor examines a patient’s cardiogram in order to correctly and accurately decipher it, he will pay special attention to a number of such indicators:

    • the height of the columns displaying the rhythm of heart pulses;
    • the distance between the teeth on the cardiogram;
    • how sharply the performance of the schematic image fluctuates;
    • what exactly is the distance between the columns representing the pulses.

    A doctor who knows what each of these schematic marks means, carefully examines them and can clearly navigate what kind of diagnosis should be made. Cardiograms of children and adults are deciphered according to the same principle, but normal indicators for people of different age categories cannot be the same.

    Electrocardiogram readings can indicate clear signs of problems in the functioning of the heart muscles. Using this study, you can see if there is a weakness in the sinus node, and what kind of health problems it causes. Considering the indicators of the cardiogram of a particular patient, a medical specialist can decipher the presence of problems of the following nature:

    • ECG sinus tachycardia, which indicates an excess in the rhythm of contractions, which is considered normal;
    • ECG sinus arrhythmia, indicating that the interval between contractions of the heart muscles is too long;
    • ECG sinus bradycardia, meaning that the heart contracts less than 60 times in one minute;
    • the presence of a too small interval between the teeth of the cardiogram, which means a malfunction in the sinus node.

    Sinus bradycardia is a frequent abnormality, especially when it comes to the health of the child. This diagnosis can be explained by many factors, among which physiological malformations or simply the factor of chronic fatigue may be hidden. Deviation of the EOS to the left also indicates that the work of the vital organ is not properly established.

    Having determined such deviations, the doctor will send the patient for an additional examination and ask him to take a number of necessary tests. If the vertical position of the EOS is observed, this means that the heart is in a normal position and is in place, there are no serious physiological deviations.

    This situation is an indicator of the norm, which is also indicated in the conclusion of the doctor who decoded the cardiogram. If there is a horizontal position of the EOS, then this cannot immediately be considered a pathological condition. Such axis indicators are observed in people who have short stature, but rather wide shoulders.

    If the axis deviates to the left or right, and this is very noticeable, then such indicators can talk about the pathological condition of the organ, an increase in the left or right ventricles. A displacement of the axis may indicate that damage to certain valves is present. If the axis shifts to the left, then the person most likely has heart failure. If a person suffers from ischemia, then the displacement of the axis occurs to the right. Such a deviation can also tell about abnormalities in the development of the heart muscle.

    On the ECG, the sinus rhythm is always and without fail compared with certain norm indicators. Only knowing these indicators completely, the doctor will be able to figure out the patient’s cardiogram and give the right conclusion. Normal factors for children and adults are completely different factors. If we consider the norm issues for different age categories, then they will be approximately as follows:

    • in children from birth to the first year of life, the axis is vertical, the heart beats with a heart rate of 60 to 150 beats in one minute;
    • children from one year to six years old have a mainly vertical orientation of the axis, but it can also be horizontal, without indicating deviations from the norm. Heart rate from 95 to 128;
    • children from seven years of age and representatives of adolescence on a cardiogram should have a normal or vertical axis position, the heart should be reduced from 65 to 90 beats in one minute;
    • adults should have a normal axis orientation on the cardiogram, the heart contracts with a frequency of 60 to 90 times per minute.

    The above indicators fall into the category of the established norm, but if they are slightly different, then this does not always become a sign of the presence of any serious pathologies in the body.

    If the result of the electrocardiogram does not always correspond to the norm, then this means that such a state of the body could be triggered by the following factors:

    • people regularly drink alcohol;
    • the patient smokes cigarettes for a fairly long time on a regular basis;
    • a person is regularly exposed to various kinds of stressful situations;
    • the patient often uses antiarrhythmic drugs;
    • a person has problems with the thyroid gland.

    Of course, an accelerated heart rate or too slow can speak of problems of a more serious nature. If the results of the cardiogram are not normal, then this may indicate acute heart failure, valve displacement, congenital heart defects. If the sinus rhythm is within the established norm, then the person should not worry, and the doctor will be able to make sure that his patient is healthy.

    The sine node regularly emits pulses that cause the heart muscles to contract properly and distribute the necessary signals throughout the body. If these impulses are given irregularly, which can be clearly detected by a cardiogram, then the doctor will have every reason to assume that the person has health problems. After studying the heart rate, the doctor will determine the exact cause of all the deviations and will be able to offer the patient competent treatment.

    The sinus rhythm, which is displayed on the ECG, clearly indicates whether there are abnormalities in the work of the heart and in which directions the problem is observed. Regularly undergoing such a study is necessary not only for adults, but also for children. The results of the performed cardiogram will help the person to receive the following information:

    • whether he has pathologies and diseases of an innate nature;
    • what pathologies in the body cause heart problems;
    • can a person’s way of life become a cause of disturbances in the functioning of the main organ;
    • whether the heart is in the correct position and whether its valves are working properly.

    The normal sinus rhythm on the ECG is displayed in the form of teeth of the same size and shape, while the distance between them is also the same. If any deviations from this norm are observed, then a person will have to be examined additionally. The sinus rhythm on the cardiogram should coincide with the framework of the established norm, and only in this case can a person be considered healthy.

    If the impulses from the heart to other systems diverge too quickly or slowly, then this does not bode well. So, doctors will have to further clarify the cause of the problem and deal with its complex treatment. If an uneven rhythm is observed on the cardiogram of a teenager, then this cannot be considered a pathological deviation, because such a condition can be associated with hormonal changes and physiological aging of the body.

    If the sinus rhythm is within normal limits, then you will not have to take additional tests and undergo repeated studies. Normal heart function, as well as pathological abnormalities, are always recorded by a cardiogram. The sinus rhythm on the ECG should be smooth and clear, without any broken lines, too long or short intervals.

    If the presented indicators are normal, then we can safely say that the person is completely healthy. Deviations in the cardiogram are the reason for doctors to perform additional studies and prescribe tests. Only after additional examinations can you understand the exact cause of the deviations and begin treatment.

    What to do if an EOS bias is found on the cardiogram?

    Having deciphered the cardiogram, a specialist can make a diagnosis

    The ECG graph consists of denticles, gaps and segmental segments. For these indicators, a range is clearly defined, going beyond which signals a violation of the heart.

    Mathematical calculations of cardiogram lines determine the following indicators:

    • Heart muscle rhythm
    • The frequency of contractile processes of the body
    • Pacemaker
    • Wiring quality
    • Heart electric axis
  • Halter
  • Ultrasound and radiography of the heart
  • ECG when performing heavy loads
  • Coronaroangiography
  • Electrophysiological analysis

    In severe cases for health, a surgical operation is recommended to eliminate the disease that provokes axis displacement. Timely detected deviation of EOS can be corrected if the underlying disease is eliminated.

    When the position of the EOS can talk about heart disease?

    EOS may be deflected to the left with cardiac ischemia

    The inclination of the heart axis is not a symptom of the disease, however, its deviation from the standard gives a signal about the organ dysfunction. A non-standard slope of the EOS may indicate the presence of the following diseases:

    • Heart disease
    • Of various origin
    • Chronic course of the heart
    • Congenital pathologies and irregular heart structure

    The side to which the axis is tilted also helps determine the diagnosis.

    Left EOS tilt is most often seen with left ventricular hypertrophy. This increases the load on the functioning of the left side of the body. The reason for the increase may be:

    • Long, indicating high blood pressure
    • Heart failure
    • Dysfunction and abnormal structure of the valvular apparatus in the left heart ventricle
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Dysfunction inside the ventricular conduction system
    • heart muscle

    The inclination of the EOS to the right occurs with the hypertrophic state of the right ventricular part of the heart. The reason for this is:

    • Bronchitis
    • Asthma
    • Chronic obstructive respiratory disease
    • pulmonary artery
    • Abnormal structure of the heart organ from the moment of birth
    • Inadequate performance of the tricusp >

    The position of EOS itself is not a diagnosis. However, there are a number of diseases in which a shift in the axis of the heart is observed. Significant changes in the provisions of the EOS are:

    1. Coronary heart disease.
    2. Cardiomyopathies of various origins (especially dilated cardiomyopathy).
    3. Chronic heart failure.
    4. Congenital malformations of the heart.

    So, a deviation of the electrical axis of the heart to the left may indicate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), i.e. its increase in size, which is also not an independent disease, but may indicate overload of the left ventricle. This condition often occurs with long-term arterial hypertension and is associated with significant vascular resistance to blood flow, as a result of which the left ventricle must contract with greater force, the muscle mass of the ventricle increases, which leads to its hypertrophy. Coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, cardiomyopathies also cause left ventricular hypertrophy.

    In addition, LVH develops with damage to the valve apparatus of the left ventricle. This condition leads to stenosis of the aortic orifice, in which the ejection of blood from the left ventricle is difficult, aortic valve insufficiency, when part of the blood returns to the left ventricle, overloading it with volume.

    These defects can be both congenital and acquired. The most frequently acquired heart defects are the result of rheumatic fever. Left ventricular hypertrophy is found in professional athletes. In this case, it is necessary to consult a highly qualified sports doctor to resolve the issue of the possibility of continuing to exercise.

    Also, EOS can be deflected to the left with violations of intraventricular conduction and various heart block. Email Rejection the axis of the heart to the left, along with a number of other ECG signs, is one of the indicators of blockade of the anterior branch of the left leg of the bundle of His.

    A shift in the electrical axis of the heart to the right may indicate hypertrophy of the right ventricle (PCG). Blood from the right ventricle enters the lungs, where it is enriched with oxygen. Chronic respiratory diseases accompanied by pulmonary hypertension, such as bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with prolonged course cause hypertrophy.

    Hypertrophy of the right ventricle leads to pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid valve insufficiency. As with the left ventricle, PCa is caused by coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, and cardiomyopathy. The deviation of the EOS to the right occurs with complete blockade of the posterior branch of the left leg of the bundle of His.

    Establishing diagnosis

    What does this mean if the electric axis of the heart is deflected to the left? EOS bias is not an independent disease. This is a sign of changes in the heart muscle or its conducting system, which lead to the development of the disease. A deviation of the electric axis to the left indicates such violations:

    • an increase in the size of the left ventricle – hypertrophy (LVH);
    • malfunctions of the valves of the left ventricle, due to which there is an overload of the ventricle with a volume of blood;
    • cardiological blockades, for example, blockade of the left leg of the His bundle (on the ECG this looks appropriate, which you can learn about from another article);
    • conduction disturbances inside the left ventricle.
    1. Repeated ECG. It is imperative to take a repeated cardiogram, especially if the displacement of the EOS was detected for the first time and previous ECGs were normal. It is not excluded the error of the application of electrodes, which can show a distorted result, or a malfunction of the cardiograph. It is also always necessary, whenever possible, to compare the “fresh” ECG with the previous cardiogram, in order to assess the dynamics of the patient’s condition, and to monitor changes in the work of the heart.
    2. Ultrasound of the heart. The most informative talk about the condition of the heart, its chambers, the fraction of cardiac output, the flow of blood through the cardiac cavities, can be done by ultrasound or echocardiography. This examination method can be supplemented with dopplerography if necessary.
    3. Holter ECG. If the doctor suspects a patient of conduction or rhythm disturbance, Holter ECG monitoring will become a reliable assistant in the diagnosis. A daily recording of a cardiogram will allow the doctor to “catch” the arrhythmia, to see which in which part of the heart the conductivity is changed. In order for the data of the halter not to be distorted, the patient should be given detailed instructions on how to behave during the study.

    XNUMX-hour blood pressure monitoring

    It should be understood that the deviation to the left of the EOS is not a diagnosis, but an ECG sign, which can be either a variant of the norm or a symptom of numerous diseases. The conclusion about what information this symptom carries can only be made by a doctor after a set of diagnostic procedures.

    The diagnosis of “sinus tachycardia with a vertical position of the EOS” is often found in children and adolescents. It implies an acceleration of the rhythm in which the sinus node operates. An electrical impulse emanates from this area, initiating a contraction of the heart and determining the speed of its work.

    Sinus tachycardia at this age refers to the normal options. Heart rate can exceed 90 beats per minute. In the absence of serious complaints, normal test results, this condition is not regarded as a manifestation of pathology.

    A more serious consideration of tachycardia requires when:

    • various forms of shortness of breath;
    • feelings of compression in the chest;
    • soreness in the chest;
    • dizziness, fainting, low blood pressure (in cases where orthostatic tachycardia develops);
    • panic attacks;
    • fatigue and loss of performance.

    Syndrome of postural orthostatic tachycardia leads to an increase in heart rate with a change in body position (abrupt rising). This is often observed in people whose professional activity is associated with increased physical exertion (among laborers, movers, storekeepers).

    The help of traditional medicine

    The following are the safest folk recipes for tachycardia.

    The process of preparing a “medicine” from nuts (Brazilian) and dried fruits will require the combination of 2 tbsp. l main components, dried apricots, figs, raisins, hazelnuts. The ingredients are carefully crushed with a blender and 300 ml of natural honey are poured. The composition is taken in 1 tsp. three times a day in a 3-week course. In case of obesity and problems with the thyroid gland, it is better to refuse the product.

    The lemon-garlic mixture contains 10 peeled heads of garlic, 10 diced and freed from the citrus peel. The components are mixed in a blender, liquid honey is introduced. After thorough mixing, store in a dark place for at least 1 week. Then take 4 times a day for 1 dessert spoon. The course lasts 1 month.

    Flask of Hawthorn

    A tablespoon of dried flowers of hawthorn is poured with an incomplete glass of boiling water, kept for at least half an hour. Drink the infusion three times a day, 100 ml each time, independent of the meal. The recommended duration of treatment is 1-3 months.

    Sinus tachycardia often requires an integrated treatment approach. To obtain positive results of therapy, the patient will need to follow all medical appointments and recommendations, abandon bad habits, control his motor activity. While maintaining a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, consuming high-calorie foods, alcohol, the effectiveness of even the most professional treatment, as well as the best alternative methods, will significantly decrease.

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  • Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

    Detonic