Determination of platelet count in the blood

Adhesion is the process of combining platelets into blood clots, due to which a kind of barrier forms that does not allow pathogenic microflora to enter the damaged vessel.

This ability of nuclear-free cells allows a person not to worry about the consequences of a cut or injury to soft tissues, since blood clots are tightly attached to the inner wall of a damaged vessel. This allows you to normalize blood flow, as well as to avoid blood loss.

Platelets are synthesized by the bone marrow, and their lifespan is short – 5-7 days. They are formed from large cellular structures – megakaryocytes, which are located in the bone marrow. Megakaryocyte plasma contains from 5000 to 7000 platelets, which can fully function in the body every 7-9 days.

Platelets can have various sizes, according to which their maturity is determined: the most mature cells, which have already completed their function and are ready for disposal, have a small size and diameter in relation to other cells. Young cells have a more rounded shape, as well as sizes several times the size of old mature cells.

With an imbalance in their production, adhesion can cause the development of pathologies and dangerous diseases. With thrombocytopenia (insufficient production of platelets), the adhesion process is minimal, since there is nothing to stick together. But with thrombocytosis (elevated platelet count), adhesion can cause thrombosis and embolism in various parts of the body and internal organs, which are most densely dotted with the vascular network.

The adhesion process involves the formation of a blood clot, which with heavy bleeding can save a person’s life. However, with an increased number of platelets, blood clots can increase in size, breaking away from the place of attachment to the vessel wall, ply through the circulatory system. This is an extremely dangerous phenomenon, since a blood clot in the heart causes myocardial infarction, and in most cases death.

So that the natural adhesive properties of platelets do not cost a person life, it is important to undergo a medical examination at least once a year, for which a general blood test is mandatory. It is blood from a finger, the collection of which is familiar to every child, that allows to determine the number of platelets, comparing it with generally accepted norms.

Types of aggregation

The main classification divides aggregation into species depending on the diseases or conditions that trigger it. Each type has its own characteristics and risks. So, the following types of aggregation are distinguished:

  1. Induced. It is observed during the study of blood fluid for some pathologies. Inductors are introduced into the plasma for diagnosis. Platelet aggregation with adrenaline, collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is carried out here.
  2. Spontaneous. This type is determined without an inductor. To detect aggregation activity, blood is transfused into a test tube, which is then placed in a device that heats the biological fluid to 37 degrees.
  3. Moderate. It is noted during pregnancy, develops as a result of placental circulation.
  4. Low It is associated with disorders of the circulatory system. Due to the low platelet count, bleeding develops. This type of aggregation is observed in women during menstruation.
  5. Elevated. Causes blood clots. They are characterized by numbness and swelling.

Doctors distinguish several types of aggregation:

  • spontaneous – is determined without an inducer substance. To determine the aggregation activity of platelets, blood collected from a vein is placed in a test tube, which is placed in a special device, where it is heated to a temperature of 37 ° C;
  • induced – the study is carried out with the addition of plasma inducers. As a rule, four substances are used: ADP, collagen, adrenaline and ristomycin. The method is used to determine a number of blood diseases;
  • moderate – observed during pregnancy. It is caused by placental circulation;
  • low – found in pathologies of the circulatory system. A decrease in platelet count can lead to various bleeding. It is observed in women during menstruation;
  • increased – leads to increased thrombosis. This manifests itself in the form of edema, numbness.
  • spontaneous – is determined without an inducer substance. To determine the aggregation activity of platelets, blood collected from a vein is placed in a test tube, which is placed in a special device, where it is heated to a temperature of 37 ° C;
  • induced – the study is carried out with the addition of plasma inducers. As a rule, four substances are used: ADP, collagen, adrenaline and ristomycin. The method is used to determine a number of blood diseases;
  • moderate – observed during pregnancy. It is caused by placental circulation;
  • low – found in pathologies of the circulatory system. A decrease in platelet count can lead to various bleeding. It is observed in women during menstruation;
  • increased – leads to increased thrombosis. This manifests itself in the form of edema, numbness.

In medical practice, there is a certain classification of aggregation by type. These include:

  1. Moderate aggregation. It is diagnosed mainly during the bearing of a child. Placental circulation can provoke the condition.
  2. Spontaneous aggregation. An inductor is not required for determination. To detect aggregation activity, blood is poured into a test tube, which is placed in a special device, where it is heated to 37 degrees.
  3. Induced aggregation. Inductors are added to the plasma to conduct the study. In this case, aggregation is carried out with ADP, with collagen, ristomycin and adrenaline. This method is used in cases where it is necessary to diagnose some pathologies of the blood fluid.
  4. Increased aggregation contributes to the formation of blood clots. The characteristic symptoms of such a pathological condition are numbness and swelling.
  5. Reduced aggregation is most often detected in disorders of the circulatory system. A decrease in platelet counts provokes various bleeding. It occurs in women during the menstrual cycle.

For human health, both an increase and a decrease in aggregation are dangerous. Therefore, the platelet level in the blood should be monitored regularly.

Adhesion Treatment

Patients with an increased tendency to thrombosis are prescribed blood thinners. The consequence of their administration is reduced platelet aggregation and adhesion.

Similar properties have:

  • Acetylsallicylic acid;
  • Clopidogrel;
  • Prostacyclin;
  • Dipyridamole;
  • Abciximab;
  • Ticlopedin;
  • Sulfinpyrazone;
  • Ibustrin.

Acetylsallicylic acid affects the production of cyclooxygenase, as a result of which the synthesis of thromboxane is inhibited. This drug is prescribed for the prevention of embolism, the treatment of heart attack and thrombosis.

It is very important that the patient adheres to the dose of medication recommended by the doctor. The medicine is well tolerated, intestinal upsets, exacerbation of gastritis and stomach ulcers are possible due to adverse reactions.

The action of clopidogrel is aimed at blocking platelet ADP receptors. The effect of the use of the drug lasts 4 days. The drug is well tolerated and rarely causes adverse reactions. Possible changes in the blood formula.

Prostacyclin acts on prostacyclin platelet receptors. The drug causes vasodilation, reduces the calcium content in the blood. The only drawback of the medication is its rapid elimination from the body, it is considered not persistent.

Dipyridamole inhibits the activity of phosphodiesterase activity, thereby reducing the production of ADP. The medication interferes with platelet aggregation.

It is usually used in combination with acetylsallicylic acid in the treatment of heart attacks and thrombosis. It is noted that the drug improves the prognosis of patients with glomerulonephritis and DIC.

Abciximab affects glycoprotein receptors. The medication is prescribed if it is planned to expand the arteries due to percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty or atherectomy. It is also effective in preventing complications associated with such an intervention.

Ticlopedin affects the platelet membrane, preventing the formation of fibrinogen bridges. It inhibits adhesion more than other drugs. The medication is effective for circulatory disorders, it is prescribed to patients on hemodialysis.

It is not combined with other antiplatelet drugs, as the risk of excessive bleeding increases. Of the side effects, in addition to digestive problems, there is a deterioration in liver activity, which manifests itself in jaundice.

The effect of sulfinpyrazone is similar to acetylsallicylic acid. It practically affects the production of prostacyclin in the vessels.

Sulfinpyrazone shows the best effect in the treatment of heart attack patients, especially when they underwent shunting. However, in cases of cerebrovascular accident, it is inferior to Acetylsallicylic acid. Adverse reactions are disorders of the intestines.

Ibustrin is similar in action to Acetylsallicylic acid, but there will be fewer side effects from its use. Digestive problems, gum bleeding, and allergies are possible.

Adhesion mechanism

Adhesion allows a person not to die from blood loss in case of mechanical damage. If the vessel is damaged, blood cells form a kind of shield that prevents bleeding.

They themselves are produced by bone marrow, updated every 5-7 days. They have various sizes, which is an indicator of their age. The youngest are the largest, and by the end of their lives they are decreasing. Young cells can also be distinguished in shape (they have rounded shapes).

Adhesion can become dangerous to human health and life if the production of the necessary cells occurs with some deviations:

  1. If platelets are not produced in sufficient quantities, this can lead to significant blood loss, which will become critical for human life.
  2. With increased content, the formation of blood clots is observed, which often become the cause of death.

With heavy bleeding, a blood clot forms, which blocks the affected vessel and stops the bleeding. This is the basis of adhesion.

To avoid an increase or decrease in platelets in the blood, it is necessary to be checked once a year. Changing the number of blood cells can lead to irreversible consequences and even death.

In case of vascular damage, a nerve impulse is transmitted to the receptors about the need for the formation of a blood clot. This leads to platelet activation. It may be reversible or irreversible.

With reversible activation, platelets interact with fibrinogen, with irreversible activation, with thrombospondin.

The activators in the blood of a healthy person are Epinephrine, Serotonin, Thrombin, Vasopressin, ADP, Plasmin, TXA2, RAF, PHN2, von Willebrand factor. In the damaged vessel, collagen, von Willebrand factor, microfibrils around elastin act as activators.

Due to activation, platelets change their shape, which leads to an increase in their area. On the cell membrane, the ratio of phospholipids changes; on the outside, acid phospholipids predominate. Platelets stick together, and then attach to the subendothelium.

This is facilitated by such factors:

  • increase in blood viscosity;
  • decreased blood flow;
  • erythrocyte aggregation;
  • the presence in the blood plasma of highly dispersed proteins and lipids.

Platelet aggregation is promoted by the protein thrombostenin, due to which these blood cells change their shape, as close as possible to each other. Such clots are very dense. They are strengthened by fibrin filaments that form when the walls of the vessels are damaged.

If a weak stimulus acts on platelets, reversible aggregation occurs. Its feature is that after some time the platelet returns to its normal state.

If necessary, it can be activated again. Long-term stimulation causes irreversible aggregation when the thrombus is tightly fixed to other cells and structures. Having entered into the bloodstream in this state, the platelet is excreted from the body.

However, aggregation is not enough to keep the clots in the bloodstream, because the blood flow rate is very high. The thrombus is kept thanks to the von Willebrand factor. It connects receptors with collagen in the walls of blood vessels.

The final phase of thrombus formation is thrombus retraction. At this stage, it is densified and fixed in the vessel.

If the retraction is impaired, the clot quickly collapses, after which it enters various parts of the body, where it disrupts blood circulation. The consequence of this is embolism.

In the veins, thrombosis is faster, since the blood flow here is much lower than in the arteries.

Features of aggregation in pregnant women

During pregnancy, deviations from the norm are allowed, which during this period are from 30 to 60 percent.

Disaggregation can be observed with a lack of platelets, as well as if there is a change in their qualitative composition, which is manifested by bleeding and bruising.

”Alt =” ”>

An increase in aggregation occurs with toxicosis, when the patient has a large loss of fluid as a result of vomiting or diarrhea. An increase in blood concentration provokes an increased formation of blood clots. This threatens to have a miscarriage early.

Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.

Detonic for pressure normalization

The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.

Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page www.detonicnd.com.

Perhaps you want to know about the new medication - Cardiol, which perfectly normalizes blood pressure. Cardiol capsules are an excellent tool for the prevention of many heart diseases, because they contain unique components. This drug is superior in its therapeutic properties to such drugs: Cardiline, Recardio, Detonic. If you want to know detailed information about Cardiol, go to the manufacturer’s website.There you will find answers to questions related to the use of this drug, customer reviews and doctors. You can also find out the Cardiol capsules in your country and the delivery conditions. Some people manage to get a 50% discount on the purchase of this drug (how to do this and buy pills for the treatment of hypertension for 39 euros is written on the official website of the manufacturer.)Cardiol capsules for heart
Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

Detonic