Decoding the results of a blood test for sugar and cholesterol in adults

When taking an analysis for sugar and cholesterol, the results are given by a table from a set of indicators. The interpretation of the results differs depending on the age, gender, health status of a particular person. For example, for adults and children, with one numerical value of the level of HDL (one of the types of lipoprotein complexes in the form of which it is transported) in the blood, the decoding will be ambiguous. However, there are norms for different age and gender categories, deviations from which may indicate the risk of developing diseases associated with metabolic disorders. In the case of cholesterol and sugar, this will be a violation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

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Indications for taking tests for sugar and cholesterol

A cholesterol blood test is usually done to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with an imbalance between blood lipids. Such disorders are important, although not the only, factors in the development of atherosclerosis, coupled with various variants of its complications, in which cholesterol plaques are deposited in the lumens of blood vessels due to dyslipidemia, interfering with the blood supply to vital organs: the heart, brain, limbs, which increases the risk of stroke, heart attack.

Situations are possible when a lipid spectrum analysis is prescribed. This is a more complete analysis of blood lipids, including the determination of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high, low and very low density lipoproteins, and sometimes apoproteins A1 and B.

Glucose measurement is the main way to diagnose hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and related diseases. For example, diabetes. Sugar and cholesterol are indicators for detecting diseases of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and other disorders of the endocrine functions of the glands.

Preparation for delivery

If you are preparing to donate blood for sugar and cholesterol, then you should:

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  • Refrain from food. A certain amount of fats and carbohydrates enters the body with food, therefore, the analysis is usually carried out on an empty stomach, you should not eat anything for 8-14 hours before delivery. There is no point in giving up food longer, it will only weaken the body.
  • Limit fluid intake. You can drink, but only non-carbonated water without additives.
  • Don’t drink alcohol. The day before the analysis, for sure, but the longer the better.
  • If possible, avoid physical activity and stressful situations. The level of glucose is significantly affected by an increase in temperature, caused by stress (emotional or physical), provoking catabolism and the release of ATP energy. If taking blood from a vein or finger itself is stressful for you, try to relax before donating blood.
  • Stop smoking half an hour before the study.

The preparation for the test ends here, but if you are taking any medications, then you need to check with your doctor if they will affect the test results.

Changing your diet specifically for the test is not always approved by your doctor. It will be more logical and much more useful to find out the results that are relevant for yourself and after that draw conclusions and adjust your lifestyle. The exception is people who are obese, who are advised to limit themselves to fatty foods during preparation.

Sugar and cholesterol norms

To know if your blood sugar and cholesterol levels are high, you need to compare your table of results with the norm for your age and gender category. Then it is possible to interpret the results and assess the risk of diabetes, ischemia, etc. on the basis of the study.

For glucose levels, these are the following indicators:

NameNormal valueResults in the presence of ailment
HemoglobinOver 110 g/lFalling 2-3 times
Erythrocytes4/000 mm000Rapid decline
leukocytes9/000 lExceeding several times
ESR in men/women10 ml/hour/15ml/hourExceeding the norm by 1,5 times or more

For cholesterol levels, sex differences are much more pronounced (all values ​​in the table are in mmol/l).

NameNorm in 1 lResults in the presence of disease
ALT (alanine aminotransferase)Excess by 4 or more times
AST (aspartate aminotransferase)41 units.Significant excess of the norm
AlbumenOver 40 gSignificant decrease in albumin levels
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)140MESignificant excess of the norm
GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) for men61MESignificant excess of the norm
GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) for women30MESignificant excess of the norm
Bilirubin (connected)Excess by 2 or more times
Bilirubin (free)Excess by 2 or more times
Bilirubin (total)8,5-20,5 mmolExcess by 2 or more times

As for the level of VLDL, the average values ​​range from 0,26 to 1,04 mmol/L.

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For women

With age, blood cholesterol levels for women increase. Thus, its presence in the blood of women 50-60 years old is slightly higher than at an earlier age. Triglyceride levels increase with age, and sugar levels also increase

For men

For men, a different picture is characteristic. During childhood, their total blood cholesterol level may be higher than that of women, and this will not be considered abnormal. These indicators will decrease by old age. Triglycerides increase up to 60 years, then their number decreases slightly.

Decryption of analyzes

The analysis results have a system of conventions:

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  • total cholesterol: cholesterol for short or Chol, Cholesterol total,
  • high density lipoproteins: HDL or LDL-cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol,
  • low density lipoproteins: LDL or LDL-cholesterol, Cholesterol LDL,
  • very low density lipoproteins: LDL, SNP cholesterol fraction or VLDL Cholesterol,
  • triglycerides or TG, TG, Triglycerides,
  • apolipoprotein A1: Apolipoprotein A-1, Apo A1,
  • apolipoprotein B: Apolipoprotein B,
  • lipoprotein (a): Lipoprotein (a), Lp (a).

If the indicator of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins is increased, and high-density lipoproteins are low, then the risk of developing atherosclerosis is considered high. However, excess blood cholesterol is not the only factor in atherosclerosis. Sometimes the disease manifests itself when its concentrations are normal, in particular, if a person abuses smoking, is a hypertensive or diabetic.

The state of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) is of several degrees of severity:

  • 6,7 – 8,2 mmol/l – light,
  • 8,3 – 11 mmol/l – average,
  • 11,1 mmol – heavy
  • chronic hyperglycemia – characteristic of diabetes mellitus,
  • hypoglycemia – glucose concentration below 3,5 mmol/l.

What to do with high sugar and cholesterol

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It is known that cholesterol in the blood can settle on the walls of blood vessels and disrupt their elasticity, form atherosclerotic plaques. When they rupture, the blood coagulates, and a blood clot forms in this place. A thrombus can collapse, pieces that have fallen off from it easily clog small vessels. This is a low or very low density fraction, not cholesterol as a lipid. For the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, ischemia, angina pectoris caused by atherosclerosis, first of all, you need to change your lifestyle. These changes consist in adherence to a certain diet, principles of healthy eating and weight loss.

The diet consists in cleaning the diet from excess carbohydrates and saturated fats, giving preference to fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts, vegetable oils, fish, in other words, food with a sufficient content of unsaturated fatty acids: Omega-3, Omega-6. Foods that lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels. You should also pay attention to legumes, peas, beans, lentils and include them in your weekly diet. Not daily. Healthy eating is all about variety, so don’t eat the same thing every day. There is no need to abuse fast food products, semi-finished products, dinners in fast foods. It should be eaten often: 5-6 times a day in small portions. This will increase the ability to reduce weight faster and improve the state of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

If a change in lifestyle and diet has not yielded significant results, then, on the recommendation of a therapist, you need to turn to drug treatment. Lipid-lowering drugs are prescribed to lower the concentration of certain fractions of cholesterol. Other drugs prescribed for treatment include: polyconazole – a mixture of fatty acids, nicotinic acid – vitamin PP, ezetimibe – inhibits the absorption of cholesterol, fibrates, lipid lowering and adsorbents, resins.

A diet for hyperglycemia involves avoiding fast carbohydrates. You should refuse food with a high glycemic index, give preference to foods with a lower one. As with a diet, to normalize the ratio of lipid fractions, it is recommended to divide the entire diet into 5-6 meals and forget about fast food chains, semi-finished products. If possible, sugar is excluded, substitutes can be used. Sweet fruits are also consumed in moderation. Patients with diabetes mellitus should adhere to a particularly strict diet.

The appointment of drug treatment is carried out by a doctor. There are several types of effects of active substances on glycemia: a decrease in the absorption of carbohydrates into the blood, stimulating the synthesis of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels, and drugs that increase insulin sensitivity. Only a specialist can determine the type and dose of the drug.

VIDEO

How to decode your blood test? There is an answer!

Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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